As India gasps for breath under the stifling heat of both the summer and fiery politics, it is perhaps an appropriate time to dive into the refreshing reality of Kṣemendra’s Darpa Dalana. The Darpa Dalana, or The Ending of Arrogance, takes no prisoners as its author, a controversial and provocative satirist from 11th century Kashmir, exposes and demolishes all types of human failings. This edition, Rasāla’s latest book, includes the original Sanskrit text alongside a fluent part-prose, part-verse translation by the well known career diplomat turned translator, A.N.D. Haksar.
More details about the Darpa Dalana can be found on here.
As with Translating The Divine Woman, we are using a print-on-demand model. This does make things a bit more expensive so for you our faithful followers we would like to once again offer a discounted pre-order price of Rs 270 or £8. The list price thereafter will be Rs 350 or £10. If you would like to pre-order one of these books at the lower price, please send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org by 10th May with the postal address to which you would like it sent.
Today we will look at the form वाय्वग्नी mNd from महाभारतम् 5.61.18.
अश्विनावथ वाय्वग्नी मरुद्भिः सह वृत्रहा । धर्मश्चैव मया द्विष्टान्नोत्सहन्तेऽभिरक्षितुम् ।। ५-६१-१८ ।।
यदि ह्येते समर्थाः स्युर्मद्द्विषस्त्रातुमञ्जसा । न स्म त्रयोदश समाः पार्था दुःखमवाप्नुयुः ।। ५-६१-१९ ।।
नैव देवा न गन्धर्वा नासुरा न च राक्षसाः । शक्तास्त्रातुं मया द्विष्टं सत्यमेतद्ब्रवीमि ते ।। ५-६१-२० ।।
Translation – The two Aświns (celestial physicians), Vāyu (the wind-god), Agni (the fire-god), Indra (the slayer of Vṛtra) with the Maruts and Dharma himself would not dare protect them whom I dislike (18). Indeed if they (mentioned above) had been truly capable of protecting my enemies then the sons of Pṛthā (Kuntī) would not have suffered for thirteen years (19). I speak the truth when I tell you that neither the gods nor the Gandharvas nor the Asuras nor the Rākṣasas are capable of protecting my enemy (20).
(1) अग्निश्च वायुश्च = वाय्वग्नी or अग्निवायू – (the deities) Vāyu and Agni.
(2) वायु सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।
(3) वायु सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । Note: ‘वायु’ and ‘अग्नि’ both have two syllables. Both have the घि-सञ्ज्ञा। Hence as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम् as well as 2-2-32 द्वंद्वे घि either term could be placed in the prior position. In the present example ‘वायु सुँ’ is placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘वायु सुँ + अग्नि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
(4) वायु + अग्नि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Now as per the सूत्रम् 6-3-26 देवताद्वंद्वे च, (the ending letter of) ‘वायु’ should have taken the substitution ‘आनँङ्’ because here ‘वायु’ is the penultimate member of a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote names of deities. But this substitution is blocked by the following वार्तिकम् – वायुशब्दप्रयोगे प्रतिषेध: – The substitution ‘आनँङ्’ (prescribed by 6-3-26) is prohibited if the द्वन्द्व: compound contains ‘वायु’ as the final or prior member.
(5) वाय्वग्नि । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि।
As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वाय्वग्नि’ is masculine since the final member ‘अग्नि’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.
The विवक्षा is प्रथमा ।
(6) वाय्वग्नि + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
(7) वाय्वग्नी । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)
1. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देव’ (used in the form देवा: (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) in the verses)?
2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verses?
3. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?
4. Can you spot the affix ‘क्विँप्’ in the verses?
5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form त्रातुम् used in the verses?
6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“May the fire-god and the wind-god always protect all of us.”
1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः been used in the verses?
2. Can you spot the augment ‘ईट्’ in the verses?