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विशालाक्षी fNs

AVG-Sanskrit - Thu, 12/17/2015 - 20:30

Today we will look at the form विशालाक्षी  fNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.34.15.

एका कथंचिन्मुक्ताहं परिभूय महात्मना | स्त्रीवधं शङ्कमानेन रामेण विदितात्मना ।। ३-३४-१२ ।।
भ्राता चास्य महातेजा गुणतस्तुल्यविक्रमः | अनुरक्तश्च भक्तश्च लक्ष्मणो नाम वीर्यवान् ।। ३-३४-१३ ।।
अमर्षी दुर्जयो जेता विक्रान्तो बुद्धिमान्बली | रामस्य दक्षिणो बाहुर्नित्यं प्राणो बहिष्चरः ।। ३-३४-१४ ।।
रामस्य तु विशालाक्षी पूर्णेन्दुसदृशानना | धर्मपत्नी प्रिया नित्यं भर्तुः प्रियहिते रता ।। ३-३४-१५ ।।

Gita Press translation – I alone was spared somehow, after disgracing me (in the form of mutilation), by the high-souled Rāma, who has realized the self, afraid as he was of (the sin of) killing a woman (12). Nay, his mighty brother, Lakṣmaṇa by name, who is possessed of exceptional glory and equally valorous, is attached and devoted too to him because of his (rare) virtues (13). Intolerant, hard to conquer, victorious (in battle), heroic, talented and strong, he is always the right hand of Rāma, (nay) his (very) life exteriorized (14). Rāma’s beloved wife, wedded according to religious rites, has large eyes and a countenance resembling the full moon. She is ever intent on doing what is pleasing and beneficial to her lord (15).

(1) विशाले अक्षिणी यस्या: सा = विशालाक्षी (सीता) – She (Sītā) who has large eyes.

(2) विशाल औ + अक्षि औ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘विशाल औ’ as well as ‘अक्षि औ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘विशाल औ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘विशाल औ + अक्षि औ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) विशाल + अक्षि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) विशालाक्षि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः ।

(6) विशालाक्षि + षच् । By 5-4-113 बहुव्रीहौ सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः स्वाङ्गात्‌ षच् – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound ending in either i) ‘सक्थि’ (when denoting a limb of one’s body) or ii) ‘अक्षि’ (when denoting a limb of one’s body) the तद्धित: affix षच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: In this सूत्रम् the seventh case affix used in बहुव्रीहौ actually stands for a fifth case affix. Hence बहुव्रीहौ should be interpreted as बहुव्रीहेः।
Note: In this सूत्रम् the sixth/seventh case affix used in सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः actually stands for a fifth case affix. Hence सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः should be interpreted as सक्थ्यक्षिभ्याम्। And since it is qualifying बहुव्रीहेः, as per 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य we get सक्‍थ्‍यक्ष्यन्‍ताद् बहुव्रीहेः।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of बहुव्रीहौ runs from this सूत्रम् down to 5-4-160 निष्प्रवाणिश्च which is the last सूत्रम् in the Fifth Chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी।

(7) विशालाक्षि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-6 षः प्रत्ययस्य and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘विशालाक्षि’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(8) विशालाक्ष् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= विशालाक्ष ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example सीता is being qualified. Hence we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विशालाक्षी’as follows –

(9) विशालाक्ष + ङीष् । By 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च – In the feminine gender the affix ‘ङीष्’ is prescribed following a प्रातिपदिकम् which either (i) contains the letter ‘ष्’ as a ‘इत्’ or (ii) belongs to the class of words beginning with ‘गौर’।

(10) विशालाक्ष + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘विशालाक्ष’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(11) विशालाक्ष् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= विशालाक्षी । Declines like नदी-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(12) विशालाक्षी + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।

(13) विशालाक्षी + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(14) विशालाक्षी । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 5-4-113 बहुव्रीहौ सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः स्वाङ्गात्‌ षच् (used in step 6) been used in the first five verses of Chapter Eleven of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-113 बहुव्रीहौ सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः स्वाङ्गात्‌ षच् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – स्‍वाङ्गात्‍किम्? दीर्घसक्थि शकटम्। स्‍थूलाक्षा वेणुयष्‍टिः। ‘अक्ष्णोऽदर्शनात्‌’ इत्यच्। Please explain.

3. Commenting on (the affix षच् prescribed by) the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – षो ङीषार्थ:। Please explain.

4. In which word in the verses has the affix खल् been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the form महात्मना (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महात्मन्’, पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In Laṅkā Śrī Hanumān saw many demons with deformed eyes.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘those who have deformed eyes’ = ‘विरूपाणि (विकृतरूपाणि) अक्षीणि येषां ते’।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अनङ्’ in the form भ्राता (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भ्रातृ’, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-111 ऋत उत्‌ been used in the verses?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

gītā sahasrāvartana : Chanting gita a thousand times

Sathya Samhitha - Thu, 12/17/2015 - 19:11
The sun is now in front of dhanu: rāśi. We say that ravi is in dhanus. We call this month dhanurārkam. Some call it dhanurmāsam. arka, the sun, is now lined up with the first pāda of moola nakşatra. moola is always lined up with the centre of the milky way known as vişņu nābhi, … Continue reading gītā sahasrāvartana : Chanting gita a thousand times →
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संस्कृताध्ययनम् - Lesson No. 125

samskrita Google Group - Thu, 12/17/2015 - 07:47
नमांसि ! सहर्षं निवेद्यते दृश्यताम् प्रस्तुतिः - संस्कृताध्ययनम् - Lesson No. 125 New Post added. A couple of interesting questions at the end. सस्नेहम् अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः । "श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।"
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Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 125

संस्कृताध्ययनम - Wed, 12/16/2015 - 20:26

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 125

संस्कृताध्ययनस्य पञ्चविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२५) पाठः

In a question, श्रीमती रेणुका काशिभटला asks how the word धीवरः gets one of its meanings as ‘a fisherman’. Detailing this word धीवर, Apte’s online dictionary also quotes the following सुभाषितम् from भर्तृहरेः शृङ्गारशतकम् So, question from श्रीमती रेणुका काशिभटला becomes a good prompt to study this सुभाषितम् –

मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् ।

लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ Bh.2.61

पदच्छेदैः –

मृग-मीन-सज्जनानां तृण-जल-संतोष-विहितवृत्तीनाम् ।

लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः निष्कारणवैरिणः जगति ॥

!. What are mentioned in this सुभाषितम्, are three species of living beings, what they are content with and who their ill-wishers are, though there is no good cause for the ill-wishers to be ill-wishers !

I think, tabulation will make the thought better illustrated.

Species मृग Deer मीन Fish सज्जन Gentleman what they are content with तृण Grass जल Water संतोष Contentedness who their ill-wishers are लुब्धक Hunter धीवर Fisherman पिशुन The wicked
  1. There are just five words in the entire सुभाषितम्  But four of them are compound words. Counting the component words, contained in the compound words, the total number of words would be 14. That should make deciphering the compound words interesting.
  2. मृगमीनसज्जनानाम् –
  • (3-1) मृगः च मीनः च सज्जनः च एतेषां इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वेन मृगमीनसज्जनाः → तेषाम्  
  • (3-2) मृगः [मृग्-क] 1 (a) A quadruped, an animal in general; नाभिषेको न संस्कारः सिंहस्य क्रियते मृगैः । विक्रमार्जित- राज्यस्य स्वयमेव मृगेन्द्रता; see मृगाधिप below. (b) A wild beast. -2 A deer, an antelope; विश्वासोपगमादभिन्नगतयः शब्दं सहन्ते मृगाः Ś.1.14; R.1.4,5; आश्रममृगो$यं न हन्तव्यः Ś.1. -3 Game in general. -4 The spots on the moon represented as an antelope. -5 Musk. -6 Seeking, search. -7 Pursuit, chase, hunting. -8 Inquiry, investigation. -9 Asking, soliciting. -10 A kind of elephant; N. of the third caste of elephants; Mātaṅga L.1.26.29; ‘भद्रा मन्द्रा मृगाश्चेति विज्ञेयास्त्रिविधा गजाः । क्रमेण हिमवद्विन्ध्यसह्यजाः ।’ com. on Rām.1.6.25. -11 N. of a particular class of men; मृगे तुष्टा च चित्रिणी; वदति मधुरवाणीं दीर्घनेत्रा$तिभीरुश्चपलमतिसुदेहः शीघ्रवेगो मृगो$यम् Śabdak. -12 The lunar mansion called मृगशिरस्. -13 The lunar month called मार्गशीर्ष. -14 The sign Capricornus of the zodiac. -15 N. of a district in Śākadvīpa.  
    • (3-2-1) Etymology of मृगः is from धातुः मृग् – 4 P., 1 Ā. (मृग्यति, मृगयते, मृगित) 1 To seek, search for, seek after; न रत्नमन्विष्यति मृग्यते हि तत् Ku.5. 45; गता दूता दूरं क्वचिदपि परेतान् मृगयितुम् G. L.25. -2 To hunt, chase, pursue. -3 To aim at, strive after. -4 To examine, investigate; अविचलितमनोभिः साधकैर्मृग्यमाणः Māl.5.1; अन्तर्यश्च मुमुक्षुभिर्नियमितप्राणादिभिर्मृग्यते V.1.1 ‘inwardly sought or investigated’. -5 To ask for, beg of one; एतावदेव मृगये प्रतिपक्षहेतोः M.5.2. -6 To visit, frequent.
  • (3-3) मीनः [मी-नक्] 1 A fish; सुप्तमीन इव ह्रदः R.1.73; मीनो नु हन्त कतमां गतिमभ्युपैतु Bv.1.17. -2 The twelfth sign of the zodiac (Pisces). -3 The first incarnation of Viṣṇu; see मत्स्यावतार.
    • Etymology of मीनः is from धातुः मी I. 9 U. (मीनाति मीनीते; seldom used in classical literature) 1 To kill, destroy, hurt, injure. -2 To lessen, diminish. -3 To change, alter. -4 To transgress, violate. -5 To disappear, be lost. -6To stray, go astray. -II. 1. P., 1 U. (मयति, माययति-ते) 1 To go, move. -2 To know, understand (गीतमत्योः). -III. 4. Ā. (मीयते) To die, perish; see प्रमी; जन्तोः प्रमीयमाणस्य जीवो नैवोपलभ्यते Mb.12.186.3.
    • The suffix नक् brings negative or opposite meaning.Meaning of  धातुः मी has violence in it. मीनः is what is nonviolent.
    • Meaning of मीनः should then be taken not as synonym of मत्स्यः – [मद्-स्यन्; Uṇ.4.2] 1 A fish; शूले मत्स्यानिवा- पक्ष्यन् दुर्बलान् बलवत्तराः Ms.7.2. -2 A particular variety of fish. -3 A king of the Matsyas. -त्स्यौ (dual) The sign Pisces of the zodiac. -त्स्याः(pl.) N. of a country and its inhabitants, the country of Virāṭa q. v.; Ms. 2.19.
      • The word मत्स्यः is from धातुः मद् I. 4 P. (माद्यति, मत्त) 1 To be drunk or intoxicated; वीक्ष्य मद्यमितरा तु ममाद Śi.1.27. -2 To be mad. -3 To revel or delight in. -4 To be glad or rejoiced. -5 Ved. To satisfy, delight, gladden.-6 To enjoy supreme felicity. -Caus. (मादयति) 1 To intoxicate; inebriate, madden. -2 (मदयति) To exhilarate, gladden, delight; मायूरी मदयति मार्जना मनांसि M.1.21; प्रकृतिमधुराः सन्त्येवान्ये मनो मदयन्ति ये Māl.1.36; Śi.13.38; Ki.5.26. -3 To inflame with passion; मदयति हृदयम् Māl.3.6. -4 (Ātm.) To be glad, rejoice, be pleased. -II. 1 Ā. (मादयते) To please, gratify. -III. 1 P. (मदति) 1 To be proud. -2 To be poor.
      • It seems मत्स्य-s are more energetic than मीन-s.
  • (3-4) सज्जन – सत् जनः इति सज्जनः (कर्मधारयः)
    • सत् a. (-ती f.) 1 Being, existing, existent; सन्तः स्वतः प्रकाशन्ते गुणा न परतो नृणाम् Bv.1.12; सत्कल्पवृक्षे वने Ś.7.12. -2 Real, essential, true; Bṛi. Up.2.3.1. -3 Good, virtuous, chaste; सती सती योगविसृष्टदेहा Ku.1. 21; Ś.5.17. -4 Noble, worthy, high; as in सत्कुलम्. -5 Right, proper. -6 Best, excellent. -7 Venerable, respectable. -8 Wise, learned. -9 Handsome, beautiful. -1 Firm, steady. -m. A good or virtuous man, a sage; आदानं हि विसर्गाय सतां वारिमुचामिव R.4.86; अविरतं परकार्यकृतां सतां मधुरिमातिशयेन वचो$मृतम् Bv.1.113; Bh.2. 78; R.1.1. -n. 1 That which really exists, entity, existence, essence. -2 The really existent truth, reality. -3 Good; as in सदसत् q. v. -4 Brahman or the Supre- me Spirit. -5 Ved. Water. -6 The primary cause (कारण); य ईक्षिता$हं रहितो$प्यसत्सतोः Bhāg.1.38.11. -7 (In gram.) The termination of the present parti- ciple. (सत्कृ means 1 to respect, treat with respect, receive hospitably. -2 to honour, worship, adore. -3 to adorn.)
    • जनः [जन्-अच्] 1 A creature, living being, man. -2 An individual or person (whether male or female); क्व वयं क्व परोक्षमन्मथो मृगशावैः सममेधितो जनः Ś.2.18; तत्तस्य किमपि द्रव्यं यो हि यस्य प्रियो जनः U.2.19; so सखीजनः a female friend; दासजनः a slave, अबलाजनः &c. (In this sense जनः or अयं जनः is often used by the speaker- whether male or female, in the sing. or pl. –instead of the first personal pronoun to speak of himself in the third person); अयं जनः प्रष्टुमनास्तपोधने Ku.5.4 (male); भगवन् परवानयं जनः प्रतिकूलाचरितं क्षमख मे R.8.81 (female); पश्यानङ्गशरातुरं जनमिमं त्रातापि नो रक्षसि Nag.1.1. (female and pl.). -3 Men collectively, the people, the world (in sing. or pl.); एवं जनो गृह्णाति M.1; सतीमपि ज्ञातिकुलैक- संश्रयां जनो$न्यथा भर्तृमतीं विशङ्कते Ś.5.17. -4 Race, nation, tribe. -5 The world beyond Maharloka, the heaven of deified mortals. -6 A low man, the mob; L. D. B.
  • (3-5) मृगमीनसज्जनानाम् = Of deer, of fish and of gentlemen

(4) तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम्

  • (4-1) (अनुक्रमेण) तृणेन जलेन संतोषेण वा विहिता वृत्तिः येषांस्ते तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तिनः → तेषाम्
    • (4-1-1) तृणम् – [तृह्-नक् हलोपश्च Uṇ.5.8] 1 Grass in general; किं जीर्णं तृणमत्ति मानमहतामग्रेसरः केसरी Bh.2.29. -2 A blade of grass, reed, straw. -3 Anything made of straw (as a mat for sitting); often used as a symbol of worthlessness or uselessness; तृणमिव लघुलक्ष्मीर्नैव तानसंरुणद्धि Bh.2.17; .
      • Etymology of तृणम् is from धातुः तृह् – 7. P., 1 U., 6 P. (तृणेढि, तर्हयति-ते, तृहति, तृढ; desid. तितृक्षति, तितर्हिषति, तितृंहिषति) To injure, hurt, kill, strike; न तृणेह्मीति लोको$यं मां विन्ते निष्पराक्रमम् Bk.6.39; (तानि) तृणेढु रामः सह लक्ष्मणेन 1.19.
      • The suffix नक् brings negative or opposite meaning. तृह् means To injure, hurt, kill, strike; तृणम् is what does not at all hurt.
  • (4-2) जलम् – जल a. [जल् अच् डस्य लो वा] 1 Dull, cold, frigid = जड q. v. -2 Stupid, idiotic. -लम् 1 Water; तातस्य कूपो$-यमिति ब्रुवाणाः क्षारं जलं कापुरुषाः पिबन्ति । Pt.1.322. -2 A kind of fragrant medicinal plant or perfume (ह्रीवेर). -3 The embryo or uterus of a cow. -5 The constellation called पूर्वाषाढा.
    • Etymology of जल is from धातुः जल् – I. 1 P. (जलति) 1 To be rich or wealthy. -2 To cover, hide, screen. -3 To cover (as with a net), encircle, entangle. -4 To be sharp. -5 To be cold, stiff, dull, or dumb. -II. 10 P. (जालयति) To cover, screen &c.
  • (4-3) संतोषः 1 Satisfaction, contentment; संतोषमूलं हि सुखम् Ms.4.12; संतोष एव पुरुषस्य परं निधानम् Subhāṣ. -2 Pleasure, delight, joy. -3 The thumb and fore-finger.
    • Etymology of संतोषः is from धातुः संतुष् 4 P. 1 To be pleased, satisfied or contented; संतुष्टो भार्यया भर्ता भर्त्रा भार्या तथैव च Ms.3.6; तृष्णे जृम्भसि पापकर्मनिरते नाद्यापि संतुष्यसि Bh.3.5; Bg.3.17. -2 To have great pleasure in. -Caus. 1 To satisfy; please, gratify. -2 To present with (anything).
    • Actually धातुः संतुष् is सं + तुष् where तुष् 4 P. (तुष्यति, तुष्ट) 1 To be pleased or satisfied, be contented or delighted with anything (usually with instr.); रत्नैर्महार्हैस्तुतुषुर्न देवाः Bh.2.8; Ms.3.27; Bg.2.55; Bk.2.13;15.8; R.3.62. -2 To become calm or quiet. -3 To satisfy, please (with acc.). -Caus. (तोषयति-ते) To please, gratify, satisfy.
    • As can be noted, meaning such as “To be pleased” has passive voice inherent. In case of verbs, which have passive voice inherent, the sense of active voice such as “To please” is obtained by its causative, such as Caus. (तोषयति-ते) To please, gratify, satisfy.
      • Another such धातु is जन् 4 Ā. (जायते, जज्ञे, अजनि-अजनिष्ट, जनितुम्, जात; pass. जन्यते or जायते) 1 To be born or produced (with abl. of source of birth); अजनि ते वै पुत्रः Ait. Br.; Ms.1.9; 3.39,41; प्राणाद्वायुरजायत Rv.1.9.12; Ms.1.8; 3.76;1.75. -2 To rise, spring up, grow (as a plant &c.) -3 To be, become, happen, take place, occur; अनिष्टादिष्टलाभे$पि न गतिर्जायते शुभा H.1.6; रक्तनेत्रो$जनि क्षणात Bk.6.32; Y.3.226; Ms.1.99. -4 To be possible, applicable &c. -5 To be born or destined for anything. -Caus. (जनयति) 1 To give birth, beget, cause, produce. -2 To cause, occasion.
  • (4-4) विहित – अत्र धातुः वि+धा  
    • धा – 3 U. (दधाति, धत्ते, दधौ-दधे, अधात्-अधित धास्यति-ते, धातुम्, हित; -pass. धीयते; -caus. धापयति-ते; -desid. धित्सति-ते) 1 To put, place, set, lay, put in, lay on or upon; विज्ञातदोषेषु दधाति दण्डम् Mb.; निःशङ्कं धीयते (v. l. for दीयते) लोकैः पश्य भस्मचये पदम् H.2.132. -2 To fix upon, direct (the mind or thoughts &c.) towards (with dat. or loc.); धत्ते चक्षुर्मुकुलिनि रणत्कोकिले बालचूते Māl.3.12; दधुः कुमारानुगमे मनांसि Bk.3.11;2.7; Ms.12.23. -3 To bestow anything upon one, grant, give, confer, present (with dat., gen., or loc.); धुर्यां लक्ष्मीमथ मयि भृशं धेहि देव प्रसीद Māl.1.3; यद्यस्य सो$दधात्सर्गे तत्तस्य स्वयमाविशत् Ms.1.29. -4 To hold, contain; तानपि दधासि मातः Bv.1.68; Ś.4.4. -5 To seize, take hold of (as in the hand); धनुररिभिरसह्यं मृष्टिपीडं दधाने Bk.1.26;4.26; -6 To wear, put on, bear; गुरूणि वासांसि विहाय तूर्णं तनूनि…… धत्ते जनः काममदालसाङ्गः Rs.6.13,16; धत्ते भरं कुसुमपत्रफलावलीनाम् Bv.1.94; दधतो मङ्गलक्षौमे R.12.8;9.4; Bk.17.54. -7 To assume, take, have, show, exhibit, possess; (usually Ātm.); काचः काञ्चनसंसर्गाद्धत्ते मारकतीं द्युतिम् H. Pr.35; शिरसि मसीपटलं दधाति दीपः Bv.1.74; R.2.7; Amaru. 27.7; Me.38; Bh.3.46; R.3.1; Bk.2.1;4.16,18; Śi.9.3;1.86; Ki.5.5. -8To hold up, sustain, bear up; गामधास्यत्कथं नागो मृणालमृदुभिः फणैः Ku.6.68. -9 To support, maintain संपद्विनिमयेनोभौ दधतुर्भुवनद्वयम् R.1.26. -1 To cause, create, produce, generate, make; मुग्धा कुड्मलिताननेन दधती वायुं स्थिता तत्र सा Amaru.72. -11 To suffer, undergo, incur; दधती रतेन भृशमुत्सुकताम् Śi.9.2, 32,66. -12 To perform, do. -13 Ved. To bring, convey. -14 To appoint, fix. [The meanings of this root, like those of दा, are variously modified according to the word with which it is connected; e. g. मनः, मतिम्, धियम्, &c. धा to fix the mind or thoughts upon, resolve upon; पदं धा to set foot on, to enter; कर्णे करं धा to place the hand on the ear &c.] -With अपि (the अ being sometimes dropped). 1 (a) to close, shut; ध्वनति मधुपसमूहे श्रवणमपिदधाति Gīt.5; so कर्णौ-नयने-पिदधाति (b) to cover, hide, conceal; प्रायो मूर्खः परिभवविधौ नाभिमानं पिधत्ते Ś. Til.17. (v.l.); प्रभावपिहिता V.4.2; Śi.9.76; Bk.7. 69. -2 to hinder, obstruct, bar; भुजंगपिहितद्वारं पातालमधि- तिष्ठति R.1.8. (The following verse illustrates the use of धा with some prepositions:– अधित कापि मुखे सलिलं सखी प्यधित कापि सरोजदलैः स्तनौ । व्यधित कापि हृदि व्यजनानिलं न्यधित कापि हिमं सुतनोस्तनौ N.4.111; or, better still, the following verse of Jagannātha:– निधानं धर्माणां किमपि च विधानं नवमुदां प्रधानं तीर्थानाममलपरिधानं त्रिजगतः । समाधानं बुद्धेरथ खलु तिरोधानमधियां श्रियामाधानं नः परिहरतु तापं तव वपुः ॥ G. L.18).
    • बिहित = p. p. 1 Done, performed, made, acted. -2 Arranged, fixed, settled, appointed, determined. -3 Ordered, prescribed, decreed; विहिता व्यङ्गिता तेषाम् Pt. 1.21. -4 Framed, constructed. -5 Placed, deposited. -6 Furnished with, possessed of. -7 Fit to be done. -8 Distributed, apportioned. (See धा with वि)
  • (4-5) वृत्तिः – अत्र धातुः वृत्
    • वृत् – I. 4 Ā. (वृत्यते) 1 To choose, like; cf. वावृत्. -2 To distribute, divide. -II. 1 U. (वर्तयति-ते) To shine. III. 1 Ā. (वर्तते but Paras. also in the Aorist, Second Future and Conditional; also in the Desiderative; ववृते, अवृतत्-अवर्तिष्ट, वर्तिष्यते-वर्त्स्यति, वर्तितुम्, वृत्त) 1 To be, exist, abide, remain, subsist, stay; इदं मे मनसि वर्तते Ś.1; अत्र विषये$स्माकं महत् कुतूहलं वर्तते Pt.1; मरालकुलनायकः कथय रे कथं वर्तताम् Bv.1.3; often used merely as a copula; अतीत्य हरितो हरींश्च वर्तन्ते वाजिनः Ś.1. -2 To be in any particular condition or circumstances; पश्चिमे वयसि वर्तमानस्य K.; so दुःखे, हर्षे, विषादे &c. वर्तते. -3 To happen, take place, occur, come to pass; सीतादेव्याः किं वृत्तमित्यस्ति काचित् प्रवृत्तिः U.2; सायं संप्रति वर्तते पथिक रे स्थानान्तरं गम्यताम् Śubhas. ‘now it is evening’ &c.; Ś. Til.6; अभितो ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं वर्तते विदिता- त्मनाम् Bg.5.26. -4 To move on, proceed in regular course; सर्वथा वर्तते यज्ञः Ms.2.15; निर्व्याजमज्या ववृते Bk. 2.37; R.12.56. -5 To be maintained or supported by, live on, subsist by (fig. also); कस्त्वं किं वर्तसे ब्रह्मन् ज्ञातु- मिच्छामहे वयम् Rām.1.1.12; फलमूलवारिभिर्वर्तमाना K.172; Ms.3.77. -6 To turn, roll on, revolve; यावदियं लोकयात्रा वर्तते Ve.3. -7 To occupy or engage oneself, be occupied or engaged in, set about (with loc.); भगवान् काश्यपः शाश्वते ब्रह्मणि वर्तते Ś.1; इतरो दहने स्वकर्मणां ववृते ज्ञानमयेन वह्निना R.8.2; Ms.8.346; नानवाप्तमवाप्तव्यं वर्त एव च कर्मणि Bg. 3.22. -8 To act, behave, conduct or demean oneself towards, do, perform, practise (usually with loc. or by itself); आर्यो$स्मिन् विनयेन वर्तताम् U.6; कविर्निसर्गसौहृदेन भरतेषु वर्तमानः Māl.1; औदासीन्येन वर्तितुम् R.1.25; मित्रवन् मय्यवर्तिष्ट Dk.; Ms.7.14;8.173;11.3. -9 To act a part, enter upon a course of conduct; साध्वीं वृत्तिं वर्तते ‘he acts an honest part’. -1 To act up to, abide by, follow; तदशक्यारम्भादुपरम्य मातुर्मते वर्तस्व Dk. -11 To have the sense of, signify, be used in the sense of; पुष्यसमीपस्थे चन्द्रमसि पुष्यशब्दो वर्तते Mbh. on P.IV.2.3 (often used in lexicons in this sense). -12 To tend or conduce to (with dat.); पुत्रेण किं फलं यो वै पितृदुःखाय वर्तते. -18 To rest or depend upon.
    • वृत्तिः – f. [वृत्-क्तिन्] 1 Being, existence. -2 Abiding, remaining, attitude, being in a particular state; as in विरुद्धवृत्ति, विपक्षवृत्ति &c. -3 State, condition; त्रयीं तिस्रो वृत्तीस्त्रिभुवनमथो त्रीनपि सुरान् Śiva-mahimna 27. -4 Action, movement, function, operation; शतैस्तमक्ष्णामनिमेषवृत्तिभिः R.3.43; Ku.3.73; उत्पक्ष्मणोर्नयनयोरुपरुद्धवृत्तिम् (बाष्पम्) Ś.4. 15. -5 Course, method; विनयवारितवृत्तिः Ś.2.12. -6 Conduct, behaviour, course of conduct, mode of action; कुरु प्रियसखीवृत्तं सपत्नीजने Ś.4.18; Me.8; वैतसी वृत्तिः, बकवृत्तिः &c. -7 Profession, occupation, business, employment, mode of leading life (often at the end of comp.); आश्रमांश्च यथासंख्यमसृजत् सहवृत्तिभिः Bhāg.3.12.41; वार्धके मुनिवृत्तीनाम् R.1.8; Ś.5.6; Pt.3.126. -3 Livelihood, maintenance, means of subsistence or livelihood; often in com.; सिंहत्वमङ्कागतसत्त्ववृत्तिः R.2.38; Ś.7.12; स्वयं- विशीर्णद्रुमपर्णवृत्तिता Ku.5.28; (for the several means of subsistence, see Ms.4.4-6.) -9 Wages, hire. -1 Cause of activity. -11Respectful treatment; ब्रह्मचारिणः… आचार्ये प्राणान्तिकी च वृत्तिः Kau. A.1.3; त्रिष्वप्रमाद्यन्नेतेषु त्रील्लँोकांश्च विजेष्यसि । पितृवृत्या त्विमं लोकं मातृवृत्त्या तथा परम् ॥ Mb.12.18.8. -12 Gloss, commentary, exposition; सद्वृत्तिः सन्निबन्धना Śi.2.112; काशिकावृत्तिः &c. -13 Revolving, turning round. -14 The circumference of a wheel or circle. -15 (In gram.) A complex formation requiring resolution or explanation. -16 The power or force of a word by which it expresses, indicates, or suggests a meaning; (these are three अभिधा, लक्षणा and व्यञ्जना); general character or force of a word; भ्रमयत भारती त उरुवृत्तिभिरुक्थजडान् Bhāg.1.87.36. -17 A style in composition (these are four; कौ(कै)शिकी, भारती, सात्वती and आरभटी q. q. v. v.); शृङ्गारे कैशिकी वीरे सात्वत्यारभटी पुनः । रसे रौद्रे च बीभत्से वृत्तिः सर्वत्र भारती । चतस्रो वृत्तयो ह्येताः सर्वनाठ्यस्य मातृकाः ॥ S. D. -18Customary allowance. -19 Manner of thinking.
  • (4-6) तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् = of those who are content with grass, water and contentedness

(5) लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः – लुब्धकः च धीवरः च पिशुनः च एतेषां इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः | अतः बहुवचनम् |

  • (5-1) लुब्धक – अत्र धातुः लुभ्
    • लुभ् – I. 6 P. To bewilder, confound, perplex. -II. 4 P. (लुभ्यति, लुब्ध) 1 To covet, long for, desire eagerly (with dat. or loc.); तथापि रामो लुलुभे मृगाय. -2 To allure, entice. -3 To be bewildered or perplexed, go astray. -Caus. (लोभयति-ते) 1 To make greedy, cause to long for, produce or excite desire for; पुप्लुवे बहु लोभयन् Bk. 5.48. -2 To excite lust. -3 To entice, seduce, allure, attract; लोभ्यमाननयनः श्लथांशुकैर्मेखलागुणपदैर्नितम्बिभिः R.19.26. -4 To derange, disorder, disturb.
    • लुब्धकः 1 A hunter, fowler; मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजल- संतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् । लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ Bh.2.61. -2 A covetous or greedy man. -3 A libertine. -4 The star Sirius. -5The hinder part; वैशसं नाम विषयं लुब्धकेन समन्वितः Bhāg.4.25.53.
  • (5-2) धीवरः – धिया वरः इति धीवरः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः)
    • (5-2-1) धिया – धीः इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
      • धीः – [ध्यै भावे क्विप् संप्रसारणं च] 1 (a) Intellect, understanding; धियः समग्रैः स गुणैरुदारधीः R.3.3; cf. कुधी, सुधी &c. धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् Gāyatrimantra; तत्राज्ञानं धिया नश्येदाभासात्तु घटः स्फुरेत् Vedāntasāra. (b) Mind; दुष्टधी wicked-minded; स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत Bg.2.54; R.3.3. -2 Idea, imagination, fancy, conception; न धियां पथि वर्तसे Ku.6.22; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.136. -3 A thought, intention, purpose, propensity; इमामहं वेद न तावकीं धियम् Ki.1.37. -4 Devotion, prayer. -5 A sacrifice. -6 Knowledge, science. -7 (in Horoscope) The fifth house from the लग्न.
      • अत्र धातुः ध्यै  –  1 P. (ध्यायति, ध्यात; desid. दिध्यासति; pass. ध्यायते) To think of, meditate upon, ponder over, contemplate, reflect upon, imagine, call to mind; ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते Bg.2.62; न ध्यातं पदमीश्वरस्य Bh.3.11; पितॄन् ध्यायन् Ms.3.224; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.1.136; Me.3; Ms.5.47;9.21.
    • (5-2-2) वर a. [वृ-कर्मणि अप्] 1 Best, excellent, most beautiful or precious, choicest, finest, royal, princely; with gen. or loc. or usually at the end of comp.; वदतां वरः R.1.59; वेदविदां वरेण 5.23;11.54; Ku.6.18; नृवरः, तरुवराः, सरिद्वरा &c. -2 Better than, preferable to; ग्रन्थिभ्यो धारिणो वराः Ms.12.13; Y.1.352. -रः 1 The act of choosing, selecting. -2 Choice, selection. -3 A boon, blessing, favour (तपोभिरिष्यते यस्तु देवेभ्यः स वरो मतः); वरं वृ or याच् ‘to ask a boon’; प्रीतास्मि ते पुत्र वरं वृणीष्व R.2.63; भवल्लब्धवरोदीर्णः Ku.2.32; (for the distinction between वर and आशिस् see आशिस्). -4 A gift, present, reward, recompense. -5 A wish, desire in general. -6 Solicitation, entreaty. -7 Charity, alms. -8 Surrounding, enclosing. -9 Obstructing, checking. -1 A bridegroom, husband; वरं वरयते कन्या; see under वधू (1) also. -11 A suitor, wooer. -12 A dowry. -13 A son-in-law; ‘वरो जामातरि श्रेष्ठे’ इति विश्वः; रथाङ्गभर्त्रे$भिनवं वराय Śi.3.36. -14 A dissolute man, libertine. -15 A sparrow. -16 Bdellium. -रम् Saffron; (for वरम् see separately).  
      • वरम् ind. Rather or better than, preferably to, it is better that &c. It is sometimes used with the ablative; समुन्नयन् भूतिमनार्यसंगमाद्वरं विरोधो$पि समं महात्मभिः Ki.1.8. But it is generally used absolutely, वरम् being used with the clause containing the thing preferred, and न च, न तु or न पुनः with the clause containing the thing to which the first is preferred, (both being put in the nominative case); वरं मौनं कार्यं न च वचनमुक्तं यदनृतं … वरं भिक्षाशित्वं न च परधनास्वादनसुखम् H.1.116; वरं प्राणत्यागो न पुनरधमानामुपगमः ibid; वरं गर्भस्रावो वरमृतुषु नैवाभिगमनम्, वरं जातप्रेतो वरमपि च कन्यैव जनिता । वरं वन्ध्या भार्या वरमपि च गर्भेषु वसतिर्न चाविद्वान् रूपद्रविणगुणयुक्तो$पि तनयः ॥ Pt.; sometimes न is used without च, तु or पुनः; याच्ञा मोघा वरमधिगुणे नाधमे लब्धकामा Me.6.
    • (5-2-3) धीवरः A fisherman; मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् । लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ Bh.2.61; 1.85. -रम् Iron. -री 1 A fisherman’s wife. A kind of harpoon for catching fish. -3 A fish-basket.
      • In my response to श्रीमती रेणुका काशिभटला I had said, “.. I would agree with you that for the word धीवर to have one meaning as fisherman, there must have been some story or logic.
      • Actually instead of the meaning ‘fisherman’ I would think that the meaning of धीवर should be ‘boatman’.
      • Then the logic can be that a boatman who takes you safely to the other bank is no less than God, who also can take you safely to the other bank. So a boatman is धीवर !
      • Recently during a trip to Kerala we saw Chinese fishing nets. Those were huge nets installed on a river bank and were mainly mechanisms to lower and lift the nets. That was fishermanship, not boatmanship.
      • I think धीवर is boatman. Most blessed among boatmen is निषादराज, who in श्रीरामायणम् ferried प्रभु श्रीरामचन्द्र to the other bank. It could be that story from which the word धीवर got its meaning, ‘a boatman’.
    • Nevertheless, in the context of मीन in this श्लोक, meaning of धीवर as fisherman seems appropriate.
  • (5-3) पिशुनाः – पिशुन a. [पिश्-उनच् किच्च; Uṇ.3.55] 1 (a) Indicating, manifesting, evincing, displaying, indicative of; शत्रूनामनिशं विनाशपिशुनः Śi.1.75; तुल्यानुरागपिशुनम् V.2.14; R.1.53; Amaru.97. (b) Memorable for, commemorating; क्षेत्रं क्षत्रप्रधनपिशुनं कौरवं तद् भजेथाः Me.48. -2 Slan- derous, back-biting, calumniating; पिशुनजनं खलु बिभ्रति क्षितीन्द्राः Bv.1.74. -3 Betraying, treacherous. -4 Harsh, cruel, unkind. -5 Wicked, malicious; malignant. -6 Low, vile, contemptible; of a wicked person; पिशुनं भोजनं भुङ्क्ते ब्रह्महत्यासमं विदुः Mb.13.136.16. -7 Foolish, stupid. -नः 1 A slanderer, back-biter, tale-bearer, base informer, traitor, calumniator; वरं प्राणत्यागो न च पिशुनवाक्येष्वभिरुचिः; H.1.116; Pt.1.34; Ms.3.161; पिशुनता यद्यस्ति किं पातकैः Bh.1.55. -2 Cotton. -3 An epithet of Nārada. -4 A crow. -5 N. of a goblin (said to be dangerous to pregnant women). -6 N. of a writer on अर्थशास्त्र mentioned by Kauṭilya in connection with राज- पुत्ररक्षण; Kau. A.1.17.
    • अत्र पिश् धातुः – पिश् 6 U. (पिंशति-ते) To shape, fashion, form; त्वष्टा रूपाणि पिंशतु Rv.1.184.1. -2 To be organised. -3 To light, irradiate. -4 To be reduced to one’s constituent parts. -5 Ved. To adorn, decorate.-6 To make ready, prepare.
  • (5-4) लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः = hunters, fishermen and wicked persons, (respectively)

(6) निष्कारणवैरिणः –

    • (6-1) निषिद्धं कारणं यस्य तत् निष्कारणम् |
      • निष्कारणं वैरमिति निष्कारणवैरम् |
      • निष्कारणवैरमस्यास्तीति निष्कारणवैरिन् |
      • तस्मात् निष्कारणवैरिणः-इति प्रथमाविभक्त्या बहुवचनेन च |
    • (6-2) निष्कारणम् 1 Removing, taking away. -2 Killing; cf. निकारण.
      • The prefix निष् has many shades of meaning. In explaining निष्कारणम् as निषिद्धं कारणं यस्य तत्, I am considering निष् to mean निषिद्धम्.
      • निष्कारणम् = without plausible reason
    • (6-3) वैरिणः – वैरिन् इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
      • वैरिन् – a. [वैरमस्त्यस्य इनि] Hostile, inimical. -m. 1 An enemy; शौर्ये वैरिणि वज्रमाशु निपतत्वर्थो$स्तु नः केवलम् Bh. 2.39; महाशनो महापाप्मा विद्ध्येनमिह वैरिणम् Bg.3.37; R. 12.14. -2 A hero, brave person.
      • वैरम् [वीरस्य भावः अण्] 1 Hostility, enmity, animosity, spite, grudge, opposition, quarrel; दानेन वैराण्यपि यान्ति नाशम् Subhāṣ.; अज्ञातहृदयेष्वेवं वैरीभवति सौहृदम् Ś.5. 24 ‘turns into enmity’; विधाय वैरं सामर्षे नरो$रौ य उदासते । प्रक्षिप्योदर्चिषं कक्षे शेरते ते$भिमारुतम् Śi.2.42. -2 Hatred, revenge. -3 Heroism, prowess. -4 A hostile host; यदा हि पूर्वं निकृतो निकृन्तेद्वैरं सपुष्पं सफलं विदित्वा Mb.3.34.2

 

  • (6-4) निष्कारणवैरिणः = enemies without plausible reason.

 

(7) जगति – “जगत्” इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(8) Putting together meanings of different phrases as derived in (3-5), (4-6), (5-4), (6-4) and (7), the overall meaning is

  • जगति = In the world
  • मृगमीनसज्जनानाम् = Of deer, of fish and of gentlemen
  • तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् = of those who are content with grass, water and contentedness
  • लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः = hunters, fishermen and wicked persons, (respectively)
  • निष्कारणवैरिणः = (are) enemies without plausible reason.

(9) To check the meter,

मृगमीनसज्जनानां

1-1-2-1-2-1-2-2 = 12 मात्राः

तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् ।

1-1-1-1-2-2-1-1-1-1-2-2-2 = 18 मात्राः

लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना

2-1-1-2-1-1-1-1-2 = 12 मात्राः

निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥

2-2-1-1-2-1-2 1-1-(2) = 15 मात्राः

This conforms to यस्याः पादे प्रथमे | द्वादश मात्रास्तथा तृतीयेऽपि | अष्टादश द्वितीये | चतुर्थके पञ्चदश  साऽर्या ||

(10) भर्तृहरि could have as well thought it good to make the observation as a question, say, “ Why in the world, are hunters, fishermen and wicked persons, enemies of deer, of fish and of gentlemen, (respectively), even though these are (themselves) content (merely) with grass, water and contentedness ?”

  • भर्तृहरि made it into a statement instead of a question, including therein his answer as निष्कारणम् (= without plausible reason)

(11) Do we accept भर्तृहरि’s answer or can we think of a different answer ?

(12) Thinking of deer and hunters brings to mind a story in महाभारतम्. During their 12-years long exile into forests, one night when in द्वैतवन, a flock of deer appeared in Yudhishthira’s dream and begged, “Sir, only a few of us are left. Can you oblige us by thinking of us ?” The next day, Yudhishthira narrated his dream. All agreed and the Pandavas moved on to काम्युकवन. (अध्याय 258 of वनपर्व). There is a moral, right ?

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 


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