Sanskrit Grammar

How much of अष्टाध्यायी should one know ? Part 1

I came to deliberate on the subject “How much of अष्टाध्यायी should one know ?” when I was studying together the following words –

  1. श्रुतिः, भूतिः, विभूतिः, आप्तिः प्राप्तिः नीतिः धृतिः स्तुतिः कृतिः सम्पत्तिः विपत्तिः वृत्तिः निवृत्तिः प्रीतिः (15)
  2. गतिः, प्रगतिः मतिः, अनुमतिः विनतिः (5)
  3. कीर्तिः स्थितिः (2)
  4. बुद्धिः ऋद्धिः सिद्धिः वृद्धिः (4)
  5. पुष्टिः वृष्टिः सृष्टिः इष्टिः (4)
  6. कीर्णिः संकीर्णिः विकीर्णिः (3)

There are some common things in all the above words.

  1. They are all feminine nouns.
  2. They are all derived from धातु-s.
  3. They seem to have been derived by affixing some common suffix प्रत्ययः, ति (?)

Whereas there are the common features as above, one can also notice in their grouping, some differentiations.

  1. In the first group, by taking away the suffix ति, we can know the धातु-s. The धातु-s are श्रु, भू, विभू, आप् प्राप् नी धृ स्तु कृ सम्पत् विपत् वृत् निवृत् प्री
  2. In the second group what we have after taking away the suffix ति, is part of the धातु. This means that in the process of affixing the suffix, some part of the धातु is lost, some part suffers लोपः. The धातु-s are – गम् प्रगम् मन् अनुमन् विनम्  
  3. In the third group the धातु undergoes a change आदेशः before affixation of the suffix ति. The धातु-s are – कॄ स्था
  4. In the fourth group, the suffix does not remain ति. It suffers a change आदेशः. But the आदेश has some sound-related relationship with the ending consonant of the धातु. The धातु-s are बुध् ऋध् सिध् वृध्
  5. In the fifth and sixth group the suffix does not remain ति. It suffers a change आदेशः. Also the आदेश does not have any direct relationship with the ending consonant of the धातु. The धातु-s are पुष् वृष् सृज् यज्

Certainly the प्रक्रिया-s of forming feminine nouns from धातु-s are of different types. The प्रक्रिया-s can be understood only by study of अष्टाध्यायी.

As such, meanings of the listed (or similar) words seem to be so straightforward, that one may ask oneself, whether study of concerned प्रक्रिया-s and study of related सूत्र-s of अष्टाध्यायी is a must.

Although as many as 33 words are listed, one cannot get such feminine nouns from all 2200-odd धातु-s. Even among the 33 above, some words are from धातु-s having prefixes i.e. उपसर्ग-s.

By the way, just for curiosity, it may be interesting to note the प्रक्रिया for deriving at least one of those 33 words, say, इष्टिः from यज्.

  1. One should start with the grammatical name of the धातु. Grammatical name of यज् is यजँ. Here the वर्ण-s are य + ज् + अँ (Note the ending अँ is nasal अनुनासिक). The ending अँ becomes इत् by उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् (1’3’2). The अँ would get dropped by तस्य लोपः (1’3’9) That is how we have यज् from यजँ.
  2. On the other side we have the प्रत्ययः क्तिन् (सूत्रम् – स्त्रियां क्तिन् 3’3’94). क्तिन् is also grammatical name of the प्रत्यय. Here the वर्ण-s are क् ति न्. Of these क् is इत् (it is कित्) by लशक्वतद्धिते (1’3’8) and न् is also इत् (it is नित्) by हलन्त्यम् (1’3’3) Both कित् and नित् would get dropped by तस्य लोपः (1’3’9) That is how we have ति from क्तिन्.
    1. This प्रत्यय क्तिन् cannot be used for all धातु-s, because it is not सार्वधातुक प्रत्यय, it is आर्धधातुक by सूत्रम् आर्धधातुकं शेषः (3’4’114)
    2. Interpretation of सूत्रम् – स्त्रियां क्तिन् (3’3’94) requires taking cognizance अनुवृत्ति from previous सूत्र-s – अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् (3’3’19) and भावे (3’3’18). This means that, the प्रत्यय क्तिन् helps to get स्त्रियां feminine संज्ञायाम् nouns, where the sense is of अकर्तरि non-active voice, inclusive of भावे non-active voice of intransitive verbs and having the sense of “action” कारके.
  3. Now सूत्रम् वचिस्वपियजादिनां किति (6’1’15) contains specific mention of धातु यज् that,  when affixing a suffix like क्तिन्, which suffers कित्, the य at the beginning आदि of the धातु, will undergo सम्प्रसारणम् (This word सम्प्रसारणम् in सूत्रम् 6’1’13 merits “carry forward” अनुवृत्ति when interpreting सूत्रम् 6’1’15). सम्प्रसारणम् means य in शिवसूत्रम् 5 – ह य व र ट् would change over to इ in शिवसूत्रम् 1 – अ इ उ ण्. We thus come to the stage इज् + तिः
  4. To proceed further from इज् + तिः one should take cognizance of the सूत्रम् – व्रश्चभ्रस्जसृजमृजयजराजभ्राजच्छशां षः ८।२।३६ By this, the ज् in इज् changes to ष्, i.e. इज् becomes इष्. Actually this change from इज् to इष् has also the condition that the ज् should be followed by झल् (brought forward from सूत्रम् – झलो झलि (8’2’26)). Here we do have ज् followed by त्, which is a झल्. That brings us to the stage इष् + तिः
  5. To proceed further the त् in तिः changes to टिः the change being caused by the ष् in इष् in accordance with सूत्रम् – ष्टुना ष्टुः (8’4’41) Interpretation of this सूत्रम् requires अनुवृत्ति i.e. bringing forward स्तोः from the previous सूत्रम् – स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः (8’4’40)
  6. All in all, deriving इष्टिः from यजँ+क्तिन् has been obtained by taking cognizance of as many as 13 सूत्र-s, viz. 1’3’2, 1’3’9, 3’3’94, 1’3’8, 1’3’9, 3’3’19, 3’3’18, 6’1’15, 6’1’13, 8’2’36, 8’2’26, 8’4’41, 8’4’40
    1. The सूत्र-s which prove relevant in this instance are from chapters 1, 3, 6 and 8 (sections 2 and 4 of chapter 8).
    2. Obviously, one would take cognizance of all these सूत्र-s, only after knowing that there are as many सूत्र-s, which are relevant and necessary. That often amounts to knowing almost the whole of अष्टाध्यायी.
  7. One may wonder, “why not just understand the word from the dictionary and be done with it ?”
    1. In Apte’s dictionary इष्टिः is detailed as इष्टिः f. [इष्-क्तिन्] 1 Wish, request, desire. -2 Seeking, striving to get. -3 Any desired object. -4 A desired rule or desideratum; (a term used with reference to Patañjali’s additions to Kātyāyana’s Vārttikas; इष्टयो भाष्यकारस्य, इति भाष्यकारेष्टया &c.; cf. उपसंख्यान). -5 Impulse, hurry. -6 Invitation, order. -7 (यज्-क्तिन्) A sacrifice. Ms.11.2.2. शबर seems to interpret the word especially in the sense of ‘a दर्शपूर्णमास sacrifice’. इष्टिराजसूयचातुर्मास्येषु । &c. MS.II.2.12. -8 An oblation consisting of butter, food &c. -9 Summary in verses (= संग्रहश्लोक). एभिर्यज्ञेभिस्तदभीष्टिमश्याम् Rv.1.166.14
    2. It may be noted that in Apte’s dictionary for the word इष्टिः, there are mentions of two derivations इष्-क्तिन् and also यज्-क्तिन्.

Certainly, there is great degree of self-satisfaction, on knowing every word as deeply as possible.

So, how much of अष्टाध्यायी one should know depends upon, what degree of self-satisfaction, one would be seeking and to what depth one would like to know every word.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

विभक्तयः – Generally and in अष्टाध्यायी

The term विभक्ति is generally understood to be the process of obtaining पदानि after affixing सुप्-प्रत्यय-s to प्रातिपदिक-s. But in अष्टाध्यायी the term विभक्ति has 2 different contexts and connotations.

  1. विभक्ति is the process of affixing both – (a) सुप्-प्रत्यय-s to प्रातिपदिक-s and (b) affixing तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s to धातु-s
  2. सुबन्त-s have some connotation in respect of composing the सूत्र-s, especially regarding अनुवृत्ति.

Maybe, it would be easier to understand this latter connotation by some example. Let us study the  following सूत्र-s

1’3’2 उपदेशेऽजननुनासिक इत् = उपदेशे (7-1) अच् (1-1) अनुनासिकः (1-1) इत् (1-1)

  • Note उपदेशे (7-1) means the word उपदेश is of 7th case and 1-वचनम्.
  • Here, one should also understand the meaning of उपदेश. As has been explained in the article “संज्ञक-s-or-इत्-s-of-पाणिनि” linked here, a धातु, सूत्रम्, गण, उणादि, वाक्य, लिङ्गानुशासनम्, आगम, प्रत्यय and आदेश, all these are उपदेश-s.
  • In all these, अनुनासिकः अच् is to be noted to be इत्.

1’3’3 हलन्त्यम् = हल् (1-1) अन्त्यम् (1-1)

  • Here there is no word in 7th case. Hence we can bring forward उपदेशे from the previous सूत्रम्. This process of bringing forward is called as अनुवृत्ति.
  • In the previous सूत्रम् there are three words having (1-1) as their विभक्ति-वचन analysis.  Of these अच् and अनुनासिकः are inter-related. The word इत् is stand-alone. So, that word can also be brought forward.
  • With those two अनुवृत्ति-s, this सूत्रम् should be now read as उपदेशे हलन्त्यम् इत्.
  • By this the overall meaning becomes, “consonant हल् at the end-position अन्त्यम् of an उपदेश is to be noted to be इत्.”

1’3’4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः = न (0) विभक्तौ (7-1) तुस्माः (1-3)

  • Here, because we have the word विभक्तौ in 7th case, we cannot have अनुवृत्ति of उपदेशे, which also is in the 7th case.
  • But we can have अनुवृत्ति-s of both हलन्त्यम् and इत्, both of them being of 1st case. Actually since तुस्माः are specific हल्-s and the सूत्रम् is speaking about these specific हल्-s, we may not have अनुवृत्ति of हल् as a whole. But having अनुवृत्ति of अन्त्यम् would still be logical. Since the अनुवृत्ति should have matching gender, case and number, we should modify them suitably. The सूत्रम् then should be read as न विभक्तौ अन्त्याः तुस्माः इतः, meaning, “तुस्माः, which are as endings of विभक्ति-s, would NOT be considered as इत्-s.”
  • This also means that in all other उपदेश-s, which are not विभक्ति-s, हलन्त्यम् stays valid as इत्.

From the above, it is clear that in अष्टाध्यायी the term विभक्ति has 2 different contexts, one as an उपदेश and another, as a consideration of अनुवृत्ति.

There is also a consideration about which विभक्ति is used in what sense, when composing सूत्र-s. For example षष्ठी the sixth case is used when composing सूत्र-s as conceptualized in षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा (1’1’49). The word स्थानेयोगा means substitution, replacement.

In सूत्रम् – इको यणचि (६।१।७७) [इकः यण् अचि]

  • इकः (6-1) has षष्ठी of इक्. The इक्-s are “to be substituted” by यण्.
  • अचि (7-1) has सप्तमी of अच्. Here सप्तमी is used to connote “when followed by” (अच्).

The purpose of this write-up is to bring forth that विभक्ति-s of words have their general usages in Sanskrit sentences, such as कर्तृपदस्य प्रथमा, कर्मपदस्य द्वितीया, करणकारका तृतीया, सम्प्रदाने चतुर्थी, अपादाने पञ्चमी, अधिकरणे सप्तमी. But in understanding सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी, they have specific connotations, such षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा (“to be substituted by”), सप्तमी “when followed by”. The विभक्ति-s are significant also to understand अनुवृत्ति-s.

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

 

 

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

Why all धातु-s and प्रत्यय-s have “given” names ?

In Sanskrit grammar, in अष्टाध्यायी in particular, all धातु-s and प्रत्यय-s have “given” names, just as all new-born children are “given” names. The names given to धातु-s and प्रत्यय-s are coined, by using elements, which in अष्टाध्यायी are called as इत्-s. The इत्-s are coded / enlisted in 7 सूत्र-s from (1’3’2) to (1’3’8). One can think that इत्-s are somewhat like dress-codes. Dress-codes help to distinguish one from the other. For example धातु  कृ has forms in 5th class and also in 8th class. For धातु कृ in 5th class, its given name is कृञ्, whereas धातु कृ of 8th class has its given name डुकृञ्.

There is another grammatical concept in अष्टाध्यायी called as प्रक्रिया, the process(es). प्रक्रिया-s are like “make-up” of an actor for his role on the stage. In fact composing a sentence in Sanskrit is as good as conducting a play on the stage. Every word is an actor on the stage. Once the actor is given a proper “make-up”, he can move anywhere on the stage. That being the exact logic of “make-up” of every word, once the make-up is proper, the word can be anywhere in the sentence. Elements of the make-up are many. To make up an actor for the role of रावण, he would have to have ten heads ! Make-up starts with undressing the usual dress of the actor. So forming a verb starts with undressing the इत्-s from the धातु. So from the name डुकृञ् both the इत्-s, डु and ञ् are taken away. So we have कृ ready for the make-up. Now प्रत्यय-s can be considered to be elements of the make-up. Let us say, प्रत्यय-s are like caps. But the caps are also different to suit the role. For a Sikh it would be a turban, for a king it would be a crown, So the caps also have “names”. If the make-up artist has an assistant, he would ask the assistant by the particular name of the make-up element, so that the assistant would get the right cap. But the cap has to fit the particular actor. Also, the crown of the king will be different from that of the prince. So the crown would need preparation. The first step always would be to take away the “naming” elements, the इत्-s. For example there is a प्रत्यय – शतृ. In this name, there is श, which is its इत्. That has to be taken away, dropped. This प्रक्रिया of dropping the इत्-s is summarized in the diktat सूत्रम् – तस्य लोपः (1’3’9). Isn’t this concept charming, that framing a Sanskrit sentence is like composing a one-act play, with proper make-up of every word, so that the word has a distinct identity, by which it can be distinguished, regardless of where it is in the sentence ? This flexibility of syntax has made composing poetry in Sanskrit so much easier, that most of Sanskrit literature is in poetic style. Again, essence of poetic style is the rhythm. That makes it easy to commit them to memory. That is how so much of Sanskrit literature has survived over thousands of years, even after the huge library of Nalanda (or was it Takshashila ? or both ?) burnt down. There has been an impression spread around that learning Sanskrit needs lot of mugging up. But if once the rhythm of it catches your fancy, you would not mind it. Rather, every सूत्रम्, every Mantra well understood and committed to memory will be your personal treasure. Let us all build up that treasure !
Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27

On Tuesday Dec. 19, 2017 Dr. Malhar Kulkarni discussed this सूत्रम् – सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27.

This is a संज्ञासूत्रम् related to सर्वनामानि Pronouns. सर्वनाम is the संज्ञा.

There are pronouns in every language. Since it is a grammatical terminology, there would be a definition, which would explain, what a pronoun is. One definition, I get is, “… a pronoun is defined as a word or phrase that may be substituted for a noun or noun phrase, which once replaced, is known as the pronoun’s antecedent.” I am not convinced that every pronoun has an antecedent. Pronouns of first and second person would not have to have antecedents. Only pronouns of third person would have antecedents.

What is the definition of सर्वनामानि in Sanskrit grammar ?

The word सर्वनामानि is a compound word. Deciphering this compound word would explain the concept behind सर्वनामानि and would in turn be its definition. One pattern of deciphering would be सर्वेभ्यः नामानि इति सर्वनामानि (चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः) Hence सर्वनामानि are such nouns,

  • which can be applicable to all सर्वेभ्यः
  • also, which can be usable by all i.e. सर्वैः प्रयोक्तव्यानि This aspect is mentioned in त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् (1’2’72)

So, whereas this सूत्रम् सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27 introduces the संज्ञा सर्वनाम, more of its ramifications have to be understood from other सूत्र-s, such as शि सर्वनामस्थानम् (1’1’42) त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् (1’2’72).

This pattern of discussion of this सूत्रम् brings newer thoughts and newer dimensions to “How to study अष्टाध्यायीसूत्राणि ?”. Earlier on 3rd January 2016, I had attended a session by Dr. Nilesh Joshi. And I had compiled a note on a sequential procedure to study सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी.

(1) सूत्रम् → (2) पदच्छेदाः → (3) पदानां विभक्तिवचनविश्लेषणम् → (4) सूत्रवृत्तिः → (5) सूत्रार्थः → (6) व्याख्यानामभ्यासः |

In respect of Step (6) व्याख्यानामभ्यासः I had noted that commentaries on सूत्र-s can be read at http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/ashtadhyayi/vyakhya/1/1.1.1.htm

This link is a useful tool to read commentaries on any सूत्रम्. One needs to only edit the सूत्र-number in the file address.

But, for one’s own study of any सूत्र, one can and should make one’s own notes, observations and questions.

I had some review of this Methodology, occasioned by a query in April, 2016 by Mr. Kristan Stratos at samskrita@googlegroups.com. That was a good opportunity for me to review/summarize the methodology for Study of a सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी. I detailed it as follows –

For understanding any सूत्रम्, one should follow a sequence –

  1. Write down the सूत्रम् as given → सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि
  2. Do पदच्छेद – सर्व-आदीनि सर्व-नामानि
  3. Decipher compound words –  
    1. सर्व आदौ येषांस्तानि सर्वादीनि (बहुव्रीहिः)
    2. सर्वेभ्यः नामानि सर्वनामानि (चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः)
  4. Do विभक्ति-वचन case-number analysis of all पद-s – सर्वादीनि (1’3) सर्वनामानि (1’3)
  5. Bring forth any such word(s) or phrase(s) from previous सूत्र (or सूत्र-s), which would be essential for proper interpretation of the given सूत्र. This step called as अनुवृत्ति may be or may not be required or applicable. For this सूत्रम् – सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि no अनुवृत्ति seems necessary.
  6. Paraphrase the सूत्रम् i.e. put it in a proper syntax i.e. write the अन्वय so that the paraphrasing brings forth the meaning. Such paraphrasing is called as वृत्ति. One may do this not necessarily in संस्कृत. Concept of वृत्ति is to bring forth the interpretation. So it can be done in any language.

 Since this सूत्रम् has just two words, both in subject case, paraphrasing of the सूत्रम् is simple – just add the verb and complete the sentence → सर्वादीनि (All those starting with सर्व) are सर्वनामानि (are such type of nouns, which can be used by all, are, what are called as Pronouns in English.)

  1. To reinforce the interpretation, one may compile examples. Actually, for this सूत्रम् सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि, one needs not compile the examples afresh. All सर्वनामानि are already compiled in one place in गणपाठ, which is sort of an Annexure of अष्टाध्यायी. Actually if any सूत्रम् has the word आदि in it, this word आदि is a code-word in अष्टाध्यायी, suggesting that there are many more. All those “many more” are then detailed in गणपाठ. All सर्वनामानि are in सर्वादि-गण in गणपाठ. Note, गण means a collection. सर्वादि-गण means collection of all those, starting with सर्व, i.e. collection of all सर्वनामानि.
  2. Interestingly, in सर्वादि-गण there are as many as 35 सर्वनामानि listed in five sub-groups. Does any other language have so many pronouns ?
    1. सर्व, विश्व, उभ, उभय, डतर, डतम, अन्य, अन्यतर, इतर, त्वत्, त्व, नेम, सम, सिम (sub-group of 14)
    2. पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् This subgroup is a सूत्रम् by itself. A सूत्रम्, which is an integral part of a गण in गणपाठ is called as गणसूत्रम्.
      1. Listed here are पूर्व, पर, अवर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, अपर, अधर (sub-group of 7)
      2. But it is specified here that these words would be pronouns only when व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम्.
    3. स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् – This is also a गणसूत्रम्. Identified here is pronoun स्व. But it is specified here that स्व would be a pronoun only when it is अज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम्
    4. अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः – This is also a गणसूत्रम्. Identified here is pronoun अन्तर. But it is specified here that अन्तर would be a pronoun only when it is बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः
    5. त्यद्-तद्-यद्-एतद्-इदम्-अदस्-एक-द्वि-युष्मद्-अस्मद्-भवत्-किम् (sub-group of 12). Actually this subgroup details the त्यद्-गण suggested by the सूत्रम् – त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् (1’2’72).
  3. The गणसूत्र-s of subgroups #2, 3 and 4 cannot be studied in the same methodology as of studying a सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी, because in गणपाठ we do not have any associated सूत्र(s), required for a comprehensive study. But these 3 सूत्र-s are quoted not only in गणपाठ in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, they are also in अष्टाध्यायी by their specific numbers
    1. पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् 1’1’34
    2. स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् 1’1’35
    3. अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः 1’1’36

The सूत्रम् what we are studying is सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27. So there are 9 more सूत्र-s in-between. So, all 10 सूत्र-s from 1’1’27 to 1’1’36 ought to be interrelated. Let me list them all.

1’1’27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि (सि.कौ. 213)

1’1’28 विभाषा दिक्-समासे बहुव्रीहौ (सि.कौ. 292)

1’1’29 न बहुव्रीहौ (सि.कौ. 222)

1’1’30 तृतीयासमासे (सि.कौ. 223)

1’1’31 द्वन्द्वे च (सि.कौ. 224)

1’1’32 विभाषा जसि (सि.कौ. 225)

1’1’33 प्रथमचरमतयाल्पार्धकतिपयनेमाश्च (सि.कौ. 226)

1’1’34 पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् (सि.कौ. 218)

1’1’35 स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् (सि.कौ. 219)

1’1’36 अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः (सि.कौ. 220)

In the above listing, what are given in parentheses are serial numbers of paras in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, in which the different सूत्र-s are discussed. All the Paras # 213 to 226 are in अजन्तपुँल्लिङ्गप्रकरणम् in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. Para # 292 is in अजन्तस्त्रीलिङ्गप्रकरणम्. Also the serial order of the para numbers in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is different from their numbers in अष्टाध्यायी.

In महाभाष्यम् all these सूत्र-s are discussed in the sixth आह्निकम् and in the sequence as per अष्टाध्यायी.

Common theme or topic of all these 10 सूत्र-s is सर्वनामानि. Having started the study of only one सूत्र, it now transpires that we have to study 10 सूत्र-s. But study of the one सूत्र, with which we started, will become an incomplete study, if we do not study all the ten. This – to study related सूत्र-s together – seems to be one good modification in the method of studying अष्टाध्यायी.

Actually for the study to be as much complete a study as possible, it comes to mind that one should study all other सूत्र-s, which deal with some aspect or the other of all the सर्वनामानि.

On this count Dr. Malhar Kulkarni did discuss that there are three important aspects about सर्वनामानि, which merit a study. These are

  • Word-forms of सर्वनामानि are different in case of चतुर्थी-पञ्चमी-सप्तमी-एकवचनम् and प्रथमा-षष्ठी बहुवचनम्
  • पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् (5’3’7) and सप्तम्यास्त्रल् (5’3’10)
  • अव्ययसर्वनाम्नामकच् प्राक् टेः (5’3’71)

The pronouns युष्मद् and अस्मद् are unique that their word-forms are common in all genders. To be able to locate, compile and study the सूत्र-s related to everyone of the 35-odd pronouns, a Critical Word Index of अष्टाध्यायी would be very good. I posted a query inquiring whether any such Critical Word Index of अष्टाध्यायी has already been compiled. Dr. H. N. Bhat very kindly gave a link to पाणिनीयसूत्रपाठस्य तत्परिशिष्टग्रन्थानां च शब्दकोशाः compiled by पाठक-चित्राव-शास्त्रिणौ way back in 1935. It is mentioned in the preface that they labored on it over 12 years !

There is so much to study ! Let us proceed.

In 1’1’28 and 1’1’32 there is the word विभाषा. In अष्टाध्यायी this word is used in a specific sense, as mentioned in न वेति विभाषा (1’1’44), i.e. “maybe or may not be”. This should help in interpreting these two सूत्र-s.

First of all, we should put in appropriate अनुवृत्ति-s in all these सूत्र-s. This way, we can make some cursory study of all the 10 सूत्र-s.

  1. 1’1’27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि
  2. 1’1’28 विभाषा दिक्-समासे बहुव्रीहौ (सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि) = if (i) a pronoun-word is in a compound word and (ii) the compound word is speaking of a direction and (iii) if the compounding is of बहुव्रीहि-type, then the pronoun word may or may not merit treatment as a pronoun
  3. 1’1’29 न बहुव्रीहौ (सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि) = If any of the सर्वनामानि is part of a compound word, (excepting one speaking of a direction) such compound word would not be a सर्वनाम. A बहुव्रीहि-compound word is eminently adjectival. For example
  4. 1’1’30 तृतीयासमासे (सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि न) =
  5. 1’1’31 द्वन्द्वे च (सर्वनामानि न)
  6. 1’1’32 विभाषा जसि (सर्वनामानि)
  7. 1’1’33 प्रथमचरमतयाल्पार्धकतिपयनेमाश्च (सर्वनामानि) = The pronouns identified here are प्रथम, चरम, तय, अल्प, अर्ध, कतिपय, नेम. It seems that सर्वादिगण has missed out प्रथम, चरम, तय, अल्प, अर्ध, कतिपय.
  8. 1’1’34 पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् (सर्वनामानि) = The pronouns identified here are पूर्व, पर, अवर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, अपर, अधर. But these would be pronouns only when they have the context of व्यवस्था and are not nouns.
  9. 1’1’35 स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् (सर्वनाम) = स्व would be a pronoun only if it has no context of ज्ञाति, धन, आख्या.
  10. 1’1’36 अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः (सर्वनाम) = अन्तर would be a pronoun only if it has a context of बहिर्योग and उपसंव्यान.

Since there are pronouns in every language, it should be interesting to make a comparative study of pronouns in English and in Sanskrit.

In English pronouns are of 10 types –

  1. Personal Pronouns ⇒ Are subjective (he, she, it, I, we, you, they) and objective (him, her, it, me, us, you, them). Note, objective pronouns are only the द्वितीया (/चतुर्थी) विभक्ति of the subjective personal pronouns.
  2. Interrogative Pronouns ⇒ (who, what, which, whom whose) In Sanskrit these are forms of किम्.
  3. Indefinite Pronouns ⇒ (all, anyone, both, each, anything, everybody, many, no one, some, someone, few, etc)
    1. It seems that at least the word बहु from बहुगणवतुडति सङ्ख्या in सूत्रम् 1’1’22 actually qualify to be an indefinite pronoun.
    2. Also suffixes चित् and चन make the indefinite pronouns when affixed to forms of किम् e.g. कश्चित्, किञ्चित्, काचित्, कश्चन, किञ्चन, काचन.
  4. Relative Pronouns ⇒ E.g. “Is this, what I get ?” Here, “this” and “what” are related, “what” being in the subordinate clause. More impressive example is यः पश्यति स पश्यति (गीता 13’27) He, who sees, sees OR One, who sees, sees.
  5. Possessive Pronouns ⇒(His, hers, its, mine, ours, yours, theirs) In Sanskrit these are by षष्ठी विभक्ति of the subjective personal pronouns.
  6. Reflexive Pronouns ⇒ (Himself, herself, itself, myself, yourself, ourselves, themselves). In Sanskrit the function of the suffix “self” is served by adjectival usage of स्व, e.g. I saw it myself मया स्वेन दृष्टम् or one uses स्वयम् adverbially e.g. स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वम् (गीता 10’15) i.e. त्वम् आत्मानम् आत्मना स्वयमेव वेत्थ You त्वम् know वेत्थ thyself आत्मानम् by thyself आत्मना automatically (by virtue of your intrinsic faculty) स्वयमेव.  
  7. Intensive Pronouns ⇒ e.g. “You yourself must come.” Note, “you” is a personal pronoun, “yourself” is a reflexive pronoun. Both together becomes intensive pronoun. Above example of स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वम् is a classic example of very forceful combination of reflexivity and intensity.
  8. Demonstrative Pronouns ⇒ (this, that, these, those, none, neither, such)
  9. Reciprocal Pronouns ⇒ (Each other, each other’s, one another, one another’s)
  10. Distributive Pronouns ⇒ (Each, either, neither)

For this study of pronouns to be comprehensive and complete, one needs to be find which pronoun is detailed in which other सूत्र-s and note the significance of every such detail.

It comes to mind that study up to here may be taken as Part 1 of the study of this subject of सर्वनामानि Pronouns in Sanskrit.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 


Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी

संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी

On Tuesday Dec. 12, 2017, I attended Dr. Malhar Kulkarni’s व्याख्यानम् on सूत्र-s 1’1’20 to 1’1’23.

I indulged in further deliberation of my own, with a focus on सूत्र-s 1’1’20 and 1’1’22 . This post is loud thinking of that deliberation. The two सूत्र-s are दाधा घ्वदाप् (1’1’20) and तरप्-तमपौ घः (1’1’22). Both of these are  संज्ञासूत्र-s, because सूत्रम् – दाधा घ्वदाप् (1’1’20) defines what all is denoted by the संज्ञा घु.  The other सूत्रम् – तरप्-तमपौ घः (1’1’22) defines what all is denoted by the संज्ञा घः 

As is obvious, संज्ञा घु has many elements encompassed by दाधा excepting of course दाप्. The point is “संज्ञा घु has many elements”. That became the clue for my deliberation and I proceeded to check whether most संज्ञा-s have more-than-one elements. And lo ! That appears to be THE fact !

In mathematics, entity having a number of elements is called a “set”. By that token संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी seem to be names given to sets. All प्रत्याहार-s are basically sets and they connote names or संज्ञा-s of respective sets. For example, अच् is the name of the set, which has all vowels as its elements; हल् is the name of the set, which has all consonants as its elements. Even the very first सूत्रम् – वृद्धिरादैच् (1’1’1) defines the संज्ञा “वृद्धिः” which has the elements आत् and ऐच्; Actually ऐच् is a sub-set having elements ऐ and औ; आत् is the other sub-set of वृद्धिः, and has only a single element आत्. So वृद्धिः is a “union” of two subsets आत् and ऐच्. 

Set theory in mathematics recognizes even null sets. I wonder, whether अष्टाध्यायी has any संज्ञा, which is a null set !

In सूत्रम् – दाधा घ्वदाप् (1’1’20), exception of दाप् is like intersection of a set to leave an element out. 

I wonder whether relating concepts of set theory can give a good insight into the structure of अष्टाध्यायी. 

I feel like complimenting myself for the deliberation and observation that संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी are names given to sets. Elements of sets are detailed primarily in two different ways. The सूत्र-s such as वृद्धिरादैच् (1’1’1), दाधा घ्वदाप् (1’1’20), etc. detail their elements in the particular संज्ञासूत्र itself. But elements of some सूत्र-s such as सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि (1’1’27) are better detailed in गणपाठ. In this context it would be interesting to see my post “What is गणपाठ ?“.

The third way of identifying a संज्ञा and detailing its elements is to do that in different सूत्र-s. A good example is the सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14). There are two संज्ञा-s included here सुप् and तिङ्. Elements of सुप् are detailed in स्वौजसमौट्-छष्टाभ्याम्-भिस्-ङे-भ्याम्-भ्यस्-ङसि-भ्याम्-भ्यस्-ङसोसाम्-ङि-ओस्-सुप् (4’1’2). Elements of तिङ् are detailed in तिप्-तस्-झि-सिप्-वस्-थ-मिब्-वस्-मस्-ताताम्-झ-थासाथाम्-ध्व-मिड्-वहि-महिङ् (3’4’78). 

Actually सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14) is interesting, because it also contains and defines a third संज्ञा viz. पदम्. Whatever is सुबन्त or तिङन्त, i.e. whatever has in its ending सुप् or तिङ्, i.e. whatever has either a सुप् or तिङ् suffix, is a पदम्. And as defined by this सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14),  पदम् is a set having two sub-sets सुप् and तिङ्.

  • On a different note, I am a bit concerned of this definition of पदम् as सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्. This is because there are many पद-s, which are neither सुबन्त nor तिङन्त, e. g. क्त्वान्त- or तुमन्त-कृदन्त-s. To my mind, these are also पद-s, because they qualify the सूत्रम् – समर्थः पदविधिः (2’1’1). They are, for sure, समर्थ, meaningful and significant.

Anyway, we can grant that संज्ञा is a terminology of Sanskrit grammar. If so, one wonders what is the terminology in English grammar equivalent to संज्ञा ? In English grammar, among parts of speech, there are nouns and pronouns. Since pronouns are same as सर्वनामानि, one can think that नामानि would correspond with nouns. Since संज्ञा-s are also given names, संज्ञा also seemingly corresponds with ‘noun’. 

Looking at स्वौजसमौट्-छष्टाभ्याम्-भिस्-ङे-भ्याम्-भ्यस्-ङसि-भ्याम्-भ्यस्-ङसोसाम्-ङि-ओस्-सुप् (4’1’2) and तिप्-तस्-झि-सिप्-वस्-थ-मिब्-वस्-मस्-ताताम्-झ-थासाथाम्-ध्व-मिड्-वहि-महिङ् (3’4’78), it can be thought that elements of सुप् and तिङ् enumerated in these सूत्र-s are not संज्ञा-s; they are nouns नामानि of सुप्-प्रत्यय-s and तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s.  I guess, this line of thinking can help distinguish between नामानि and संज्ञा-s. Then we can say that English grammar has nothing equivalent to संज्ञा-s.

That is some loud thinking about संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी. 

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-


Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

Comprehensive study of grammar of Sanskrit

What all must be studied for complete study of grammar of Sanskrit ? One general impression is that one should study and then the job is done. But there is a श्लोक

अनधीते महाभाष्ये व्यर्था सा पदमञ्जरी ।
अधीते तु महाभाष्ये व्यर्था सा पदमञ्जरी ॥

Here, the word पदमञ्जरी usually refers to अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनि.  So, here we have reference to two books – अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनि and महाभाष्य by पतञ्जलि respectively. Original of the two is अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनि, though, in this श्लोक more credence is accorded to study of महाभाष्य by पतञ्जलि.

However in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, भट्टोजी दीक्षित pays his tributes as मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य. This seems to be so, because Sanskrit grammar is itself known as त्रिमुनि-व्याकरणम्. The त्रिमुनि-s are पाणिनि, वररुचि कात्यायन and पतञ्जलि  Contribution of वररुचि कात्यायन is by his वृत्ति-s, which often explain सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी by supplementary सूत्र-s, as if अष्टाध्यायी becomes more complete by the supplementary सूत्र-s in वृत्ति-s of वररुचि कात्यायन. Because of his वृत्ति-s वररुचि कात्यायन is also known as the वार्त्तिक (वृत्तीनां कर्ता).

अष्टाध्यायी is the base both for महाभाष्य by पतञ्जलि and वृत्ति-s of वररुचि कात्यायन. That is why it is said in the above श्लोक, that if one studies महाभाष्य, there is no need to study अष्टाध्यायी separately.

Actually language has two aspects – (1) words and (2) using the words to make a meaningful expression. The second part “using the words to make a meaningful expression” often becomes the exercise of composing a sentence.

From what I have understood, अष्टाध्यायी’s focus is on words, rather on formatting of words. This is so, because in Sanskrit every word to be used in a sentence, rather, for any word to be worthy of use in a sentence, it has to be a formatted word.

Second aspect of Sanskrit is freedom from syntax. In Sanskrit the formatting of words makes the words so much self-same, that they can be placed anywhere, in any sequence or order. Although the word order is most commonly the Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) order, that is not any rigid word order.

Formatting of words is best detailed in अष्टाध्यायी. But study of अष्टाध्यायी should not be understood as study only of the eight chapters, four quarters of each chapter. There are important परिशिष्ट-s, which are part and parcel of अष्टाध्यायी. They are गणपाठः, धातुपाठः, लिङ्गानुशासनम्, उणादिसूत्राणि, फिट्सूत्राणि, पाणिनीया शिक्षा.

Most books on अष्टाध्यायी detail सूत्राणि in the thirty-two quarters in अष्टाध्यायी. But to make the study of Sanskrit grammar complete, one must study also all the परिशिष्ट-s.

One method of study has been as propounded in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी by भट्टोजी दीक्षित. But सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is said to be a composition of 17th century, just about 400 years old. There certainly have been many studies of अष्टाध्यायी, evidenced by many commentaries, called as वृत्ति-s, some well-known among them being काशिका-वृत्तिः, न्यासः, मनोरमा, बाल-मनोरमा, प्रौढ-मनोरमा, तत्त्व-बोधिनी, etc.

Although Sanskrit offers quite some freedom of syntax, there have been some definite concepts of composing sentences. These are possibly best detailed in वाक्पदीयम् of भर्तृहरि, said to be step brother of राजा विक्रमादित्य of 5th AD.

Another aspect of Sanskrit language, which is considered as part of its grammar is adorned speech, adorned by rhythm or by fancy.

  • Adornment of speech by rhythm is covered in study of prosody छन्दःशास्त्रम्, also called as शब्दालङ्कार.
  • Adornment of speech by fancy is covered in अर्थालङ्कार.

As mentioned earlier, every word to be worthy of use in a sentence needs to be formatted. In formatting there is morphology through different steps called as प्रक्रिया. There have been studies focusing only on the morphological aspects of formatting of words and are available in books such as प्रक्रियासर्वस्वम्.

Actually etymological studies व्युत्पत्तिविचार may be considered as the converse of morphological studies. But etymological studies can go deeper than just the converse of morphological studies. I came across a book व्युत्पत्तिवाद published by राष्ट्रिय संस्कृत संस्थानम् http://www.sanskrit.nic.in/DigitalBook/V/Vyutpattivada_2016.pdf

One more aspect of study of words is study of synonyms and antonyms. Sanskrit has a great old tradition of such study. Two such studies which are monumental, are निघण्टु-निरुक्त by यास्काचार्य and अमरकोश (actual name नामलिङ्गानुशासनम्) by अमरसिंह.

I hope this compilation becomes useful to anyone wanting to undertake comprehensive study of grammar of Sanskrit.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 


Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

Are there nouns in Sanskrit ?

The more I think of etymologies of Sanskrit nouns, the more I get to think that there are no nouns in Sanskrit.

But it is the structural requirement of sentences that subject-words, object-words have to be nouns or pronouns.

So what a word is etymologically and what the word is in a sentence are considerations, which have great influence of the context.

The very first sentence, rather the very first श्लोक in गीता would become a good example. Here is its study. 

In the simple looking phrase of just two words धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे the number of permutations of interpretations can be 
  1. considering धर्मक्षेत्रे as adjective of कुरुक्षेत्रे 
  2. considering कुरुक्षेत्रे as adjective of धर्मक्षेत्रे 
  3. considering both धर्मक्षेत्रे and कुरुक्षेत्रे as nouns.
Interesting it then is, that all of these three interpretations will be grammatically valid.  By mathematics of permutations, there can be a fourth permutation of considering both धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे to be adjectives. That permutation will not be valid, keeping structural requirement of a sentence.  By similar considerations in this same श्लोक, there are four words, समवेताः युयुत्सवः मामकाः पाण्डवाः All are in प्रथमा, बहुवचनम्. Hence they are all eligible to be subject-words, subjects of the verb अकुर्वत. We can consider number of sentences possible with as many subject-words =>
  1. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः किमकुर्वत
  2. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे युयुत्सवः किमकुर्वत
  3. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे मामकाः किमकुर्वत
  4. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे पाण्डवाः किमकुर्वत
  5. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः युयुत्सवः किमकुर्वत
  6. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः मामकाः किमकुर्वत
  7. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः पाण्डवाः किमकुर्वत
  8. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे युयुत्सवः मामकाः किमकुर्वत
  9. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे युयुत्सवः पाण्डवाः किमकुर्वत
  10. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः युयुत्सवः मामकाः किमकुर्वत
  11. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः युयुत्सवः पाण्डवाः किमकुर्वत
  12. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः युयुत्सवः मामकाः पाण्डवाः च किमकुर्वत
It may be noticed that all the 12 permutations as above are valid sentences.  But study of the first sentence brings forth that, though समवेताः is etymologically an adjective, it is serving the function of subject-word and hence in the sentence, it should be considered to be a noun. Etymologically समवेताः is क्त-कृदन्तम् of धातुः समवे (सम् + अव + इ) hence definitely an adjective. One can prove that all the four words समवेताः युयुत्सवः मामकाः पाण्डवाः are adjectives by their etymology. For example पाण्डव (पाण्डोः यः सः पाण्डवः) is basically an adjective and qualifies all five पाण्डवाः. To say पाण्डवः युधिष्ठिरः, पाण्डवः भीमः, पाण्डवः अर्जुनः, पाण्डवः नकुलः, पाण्डवः सहदेवः are all valid phrases, where पाण्डवः is an adjective.  So, what a word is etymologically and what the role of the word is in a sentence are two different things. Possibly one should be finding good discussion on the role of a word in a sentence in वाक्यपदीयम् of भर्तृहरिः. That could be the logic of its title having the word वाक्य not वाक्. It comes to mind that by this viewpoint, study of वाक्यपदीयम् of भर्तृहरिः has its own significance. Probably such significance of वाक्यपदीयम् has not been brought out at all. There is so much talk of study of अष्टाध्यायी, कौमुदी etc., that study of वाक्यपदीयम् hardly ever gets any mention.  शुभमस्तु ! -o-O-o-
Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

When would one need सिद्धान्तकौमुदी ?

Ms. Irene Gelstian posted a query, “Please help me understand when should one consult the full version, and when the abridged version is sufficient.” By ‘full version’ she meant सिद्धान्तकौमुदी and by ‘the abridged version’ लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी. Here is my deliberation.

Just a look at the contents of the two books also brings out some major differences. For example second chapter in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is परिभाषाप्रकरणम्. There is no such chapter itself in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी  So, if one wants to understand what परिभाषा is, then one needs to study it only in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी.   As per my understanding, परिभाषाः are premises, which are inherent in the structure of the book.   For example there is  सूत्रम् – विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (पा. 1-4-2). In the instance of dilemma, go by the latter.
  • An example of dilemma is अच्सन्धिः of इ + इ, say इति इच्छा
  • If one should go by इको यणचि (6-1-77) the संधि should be इत्यिच्छा.
  • But by अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101) the संधि would be इतीच्छा.
  • So we have a dilemma – should इति इच्छा be इत्यिच्छा or इतीच्छा ?
  • विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् resolves the dilemma saying “go by the latter.” Between (6-1-77) and (6-1-101) the latter is (6-1-101). Hence, इतीच्छा only.
  • So विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् is the परिभाषा, the premise behind पाणिनि’s sequencing of the सूत्राणि in अष्टाध्यायी.
  • But this premise विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् does not extend all across. It extends only up to (8-1-74). Its application beyond (8-1-74) is stopped by पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् (8-2-2).
    • For example, what should be संधि of ते अज्ञानम् ?
    • By एचोऽयवायावः (6-1-78) तयज्ञानम्
    • By लोपः शाकल्यस्य (8-3-19) तेऽज्ञानम्
    • Going by विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् it should be only तेऽज्ञानम्. However since application of विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् does not extend beyond (8-1-74), तयज्ञानम् as per एचोऽयवायावः (6-1-78) is also valid.
So, a totally different answer to the query “when should one consult the full version” is, “go by अष्टाध्यायी itself.” Even the full version सिद्धान्तकौमुदी may not explain many such nuances, much less, the short or abridged version लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी.   One may get intrigued by the सूत्राणि listed in different chapters, both in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी and सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. For example अच्सन्धिप्रकरणम् in both lists the सूत्रम् – झलां जश्झशि (8-4-53). Prima facie, the वर्ण-s dwelt upon in this सूत्रम् are all हलः. Why then is this सूत्रम् in अच्सन्धिप्रकरणम् at all ?   Having said all this, it seems, first of all, one needs to ask oneself, how deep one wants to go. Looks like, the query seeks clear identification as “लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी will take one as much deep, सिद्धान्तकौमुदी that much deeper and for further depth only अष्टाध्यायी itself.” I don’t think any such identification exists.  Particular study on hand will itself dictate which book to refer. शुभमस्तु ! -o-O-o-  
Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

प्रत्ययाः – नु, नुक्, क्नु

In my study of Sanskrit, it often happens that one search leads to another. I made a guess that the word देहः is from धातुः दिह्. The guess was correct ! Note देहः = दिह्-घञ् So I thought it good, to understand the meaning of देहः by understanding meaning of दिह्. In धातुपाठ, the meaning given is दिहँ उपच॒ये In Apte’s online dictionary, it is “1 To anoint, smear, plaster, spread over.” Wow ! देहः is what anoints; anoints the आत्मा ? Let me leave it at that.

On the page for दिह्, just above, there was the word दिष्णुः. That triggered thought of words ending with नु. Promptly भानुः, धेनुः, विष्णुः came to mind. I searched on these words. I got –

  • भानुः [भा-नु Uṇ.3.32] 1 Light, lustre, brightness.-2 A ray of light
  • धेनुः f. [धयति सुतान्, धीयते वत्सैर्वा, धे-नु इच्च Tv.] 1 A cow, milch-cow
  • विष्णुः [विष् व्यापने नुक् Uṇ.3.39].
  • On the same page as of विष्णुः, I also noticed धृष्णु a. [धृष्-क्नु] 1 Bold, confident, courageous, valiant, powerful (in a good sense).

Even when all these words end in नु/णु, the प्रत्यय-s are different.

  • In भानुः and धेनुः the प्रत्यय is नु Uṇ.3.32
    • In case of धेनुः नु is mentioned to be a प्रत्यय and also इत् (इच्च). I wonder whether that is correct.
  • In विष्णुः it is नुक् Uṇ.3.39
  • In धृष्णु it is क्नु

This is how I landed into this study of प्रत्ययाः – नु, नुक्, क्नु

नु Uṇ.3.32 and नुक् Uṇ.3.39 certainly suggest that these are उणादि suffixes.

  • उणादिसूत्रम् 3’32 (सिद्धान्तकौमुद्यां 319) is दाभाभ्यां नुः || दानुर्दाता | भानुः || In तत्त्वबोधिनी व्याख्या it is further detailed as – डुदाञ् दाने, भा दीप्तौ | ‘दानुर्दातरि विक्रान्तौ’ इति मेदिनी | ‘भानूरश्मिदिवाकरौ’ इत्यमरः |
  • उणादिसूत्रम् 3’34 (सिद्धान्तकौमुद्यां 321) is धेट इच्च || धयति सुतानिति धेनुः || In तत्त्वबोधिनी व्याख्या it is further detailed as – धेट् पाने – अस्मान्नुः स्यादिकारश्चान्तादेशः | ‘धेनुःस्यान्नवसूतिका’ इत्यमरः |
    • It comes to mind that the name of the धातु is धेट्. Here the ending ट् is इत् as per हलन्त्यम् (1-3-3). Hence it has to be dropped off by तस्य लोपः (1-3-9). The phrase इच्च in उणादिसूत्रम् 3’34 means all that.
  • उणादिसूत्रम् 3’39 (सिद्धान्तकौमुद्यां 326) is विषेः किच्च || विष्णुः || In तत्त्वबोधिनी व्याख्या it is further detailed as – विषेः | विपॢँ व्याप्तौ | अस्माण्णुः स्यात्स च किच्चान्नित् | नित्वादाद्युदात्तत्वम् | विष्णुरिद्धा | ‘विष्णुर्नारायणः कृष्णः’ इत्यमरः |
    • विषेः किच्च clarifies that the उणादिप्रत्यय is to be understood as नुक् of which the ending क् is क्-इत्. Being an इत् it gets dropped off by तस्य लोपः (1-3-9). What affixes is नु only.

In Abhyankar’s Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar, क्नु is detailed as कृत्-affix नु added to roots त्रस्, गृध्, धृष्, क्षिप् in the sense of habituated etc., as given in पाणिनिसूत्र-s – तच्छीलतद्धर्मतत्साधुकारिषु ३।२।१३४ त्रसिगृधिधृषिक्षिपेः क्नुः ३।२।१४० Hence त्रस्नुः, गृध्नुः || I can see that –

  • तच्छीलम् तद्धर्मः तत्साधुकारः seem to have been together translated by काशिनाथशास्त्री अभ्यंकर as that habit, which is implicit in the meaning of the धातु. Since गृध् means ‘to hanker for’, गृध्नुः means one who is in the habit of hankering. Since त्रस् means ‘to trouble’ त्रस्नुः means one who is in the habit of making trouble. By the way, if one gets troubled and shows it as much, vitiates the whole atmosphere, spreads his troubles and in turn causes trouble. So त्रस्नुः then would mean one who gets troubled and causes trouble.

It is contended that उणादिसूत्राणि were in vogue before पाणिनि. He acknowledged them in उणादयो बहुलम् (3’1’1). Possibly तच्छीलतद्धर्मतत्साधुकारिषु ३।२।१३४ त्रसिगृधिधृषिक्षिपेः क्नुः ३।२।१४० and such सूत्र-s were added to cover त्रस्नुः, गृध्नुः etc., which were not covered in उणादिसूत्राणि. He seems to have thought it good to give a different name to the suffix as क्नु, where also the beginning क् is an इत् as per लशक्वतद्धिते (1-3-8) and it gets dropped off by तस्य लोपः (1-3-9).

Even in भानुः the sun, भानु is one who has तत् शीलम्, तद्धर्मः, तत् साधुकारः of भा i.e. ‘to emit light’. All this revelation, to understand why one name of sun is भानुः, is sheer ecstasy !

In a way, by his सूत्रम् – तच्छीलतद्धर्मतत्साधुकारिषु ३।२।१३४, पाणिनि has given colorful explanation of not only his own क्नु, but also नु, नुक् etc. in उणादिसूत्राणि.

Look at the brevity of the words त्रस्नुः, गृध्नुः etc., compared with the long-winding phrases, one has to use to explain their meanings in English.

They say, success is its own reward. Study of Sanskrit is also that, ‘its own reward’ !

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 


Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

हंसः mNs

AVG-Sanskrit - Thu, 06/23/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form हंसः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.28.64.

यथा पुरुष आत्मानमेकमादर्शचक्षुषोः । द्विधाभूतमवेक्षेत तथैवान्तरमावयोः ।। ४-२८-६३ ।।
एवं स मानसो हंसो हंसेन प्रतिबोधितः । स्वस्थस्तद्व्यभिचारेण नष्टामाप पुनः स्मृतिम् ।। ४-२८-६४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तर्हि कथमावयोरज्ञत्वसर्वज्ञत्वादिधर्मभेदस्तत्राह – यथेति । आत्मानं देहमादर्शे निर्मलं महान्तं स्थिरं चावेक्षेत । परस्य चक्षुषि च तद्विपरीतम् । विद्याविद्योपाधिकृतो धर्मभेद इत्यर्थः ।। ६३ ।। एवममुना प्रकारेण मानसो हंसः क्षेत्रज्ञो हंसेन परमात्मना बोधितः सन्स्वस्थ आत्मनि स्थितः संश्चिरं ध्यात्वा तद्व्यभिचारेणेश्वरवियोगेन विषयाभिलाषबुद्ध्या नष्टां स्मृतिमहं ब्रह्मास्मीति ज्ञानं पुनः प्राप्तवान् ।। ६४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Just as a man sees himself (his image) differently in a mirror and in the pupil of another’s eye, the difference between us two is of the same type (63). Admonished thus by the fellow-swan, the swan of the Mānasa lake was (once more) established in his own self and regained his self-consciousness, which had been lost due to his having parted company with his friend (64).

हंस: (a swan) may be derived as हन्ति (गच्छति – one who goes/moves) – from the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) as follows –

(1) हन् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix ‘ल्यु’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘नन्दि’; the affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘ग्रहि’; and the affix ‘अच्’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘पच्’।
Note: The पचादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though हंस: may not be specifically listed in the पचादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पचादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.

(2) हन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) हन् सँक् + अ । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
Note: The पृषोदरादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though हंस: may not be specifically listed in the पृषोदरादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पृषोदरादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc addition of the augment ‘सँक्’ at the end (ref. 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ) of the base ‘हन्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘हंस’ which is accepted by the scholars.

(4) हन्स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(5) हंस । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि – The letter ‘न्’ and the letter ‘म्’ which do not occur at the end of a पदम् get अनुस्वारः as replacement when a झल् letter follows.

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) हंस + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।

(7) हंस + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) हंस: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Questions:

1. Can you spot a द्वन्द्व: compound in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-15 यस्य विभाषा been used in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the affix णिच् been elided?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘क’ in the form स्वस्थ: used in the verses? Which one prescribes it in the form क्षेत्रज्ञ: used in the commentary?

5. From which verbal root is the form ध्यात्वा (used in the commentary) derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Look at that beautiful swan, white as snow.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘white as snow’ = ‘तुषार इव गौर:’।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः been used in the verses?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

सिंहः mNs

AVG-Sanskrit - Mon, 06/20/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form सिंहः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.50.31.

जग्राह विरथं रामो जरासन्धं महाबलम् । हतानीकावशिष्टासुं सिंहः सिंहमिवौजसा ।। १०-५०-३१ ।।
बध्यमानं हतारातिं पाशैर्वारुणमानुषैः । वारयामास गोविन्दस्तेन कार्यचिकीर्षया ।। १०-५०-३२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
किंच जग्राहेति । हतान्यनीकानि यस्य, अवशिष्टा असव एव यस्य तं च तं च ।। ३१ ।। हता बहुशोऽरातयो येन तथाभूतमपि जरासन्धं बध्यमानं वारयामासेति ।। ३२ ।।

Gita Press translation – (Even) a lion would seize another with force, Balarāma caught hold of Jarāsandha, who though very powerful, had lost his chariot and was left (alone) with his life, his (entire) force having been wiped out (31). With intent to accomplish His (own) work (of concentrating all undesirable elements) through him Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Protector of cows) prevented his being bound (by Balarāma) with the cords of Varuṇa as well as with human ropes, although he had (himself) killed (numberless redoubtable) foes (in the past) (32).

सिंह: (a lion) may be derived as हिनस्ति (one who hurts/injures) from the verbal root √हिन्स् (हिसिँ हिंसायाम् ७. १९) as follows –

(1) हिन्स् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix ‘ल्यु’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘नन्दि’; the affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘ग्रहि’; and the affix ‘अच्’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘पच्’।
Note: The पचादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though सिंह: may not be specifically listed in the पचादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पचादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.

(2) हिन्स् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) सिन्ह । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
Note: The पृषोदरादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though सिंह: may not be specifically listed in the पृषोदरादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पृषोदरादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc interchange of the letters ‘ह्’ and ‘स्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘सिंह’ which is accepted by the scholars.

(4) सिंह । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि – The letter ‘न्’ and the letter ‘म्’ which do not occur at the end of a पदम् get अनुस्वारः as replacement when a झल् letter follows.

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) सिंह + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।

(6) सिंह + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) सिंह: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सिंह’ been used in the गीता (Chapter One)?

2. What is the विग्रह: of the compound हतानीकावशिष्टासुम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हतानीकावशिष्टासु’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

3. In which compound in the verses does the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः find application?

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘अ’ in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the compound महाबलम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाबल’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All the animals in the forest are afraid of (from) the lion.” Use the masculine noun ‘मृग’ for ‘animal.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ज्’ in the form जग्राह?

2. In which word(s) in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 7-3-109 जसि च been used?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

बलाहकः mNs

AVG-Sanskrit - Thu, 06/16/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form बलाहकः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.55.26.

अन्तःपुरवरं राजन्ललनाशतसङ्‌कुलम् । विवेश पत्न्या गगनाद्विद्‌युतेव बलाहकः ।। १०-५५-२६ ।।
तं दृष्ट्वा जलदश्यामं पीतकौशेयवाससम् । प्रलम्बबाहुं ताम्राक्षं सुस्मितं रुचिराननम् ।। १०-५५-२७ ।।
स्वलङ्‌कृतमुखाम्भोजं नीलवक्रालकालिभिः । कृष्णं मत्वा स्त्रियो ह्रीता निलिल्युस्तत्र तत्र ह ।। १०-५५-२८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
विद्‌युता सह बलाहको मेघ इव ।। २६ ।। २७ ।। नीलाश्च वक्राश्च येऽलकास्त एवालयस्तैः । ह्रीता लज्जिताः ।। २८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Like a cloud attended with lightning, Pradyumna descended with his spouse from the sky into the magnificent gynaeceum crowded with hundred of ladies (26). Seeing him, sombre as a cloud and clad in yellow silk, with exceptionally long arms and reddish eyes, wearing a winsome smile and a charming countenance, his lotus-like face graced with locks of dark-blue curly hair, and thinking him to be Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the ladies, so the story goes, hid themselves wherever they could (out of bashfulness) (27-28).

(1) वारिणो वाहक: = बलाहक: – a cloud (carrier of water.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) वारि ङस् + वाहक सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘वारि ङस्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case.
And hence as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘वारि ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘वारि ङस् + वाहक सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च । This allows the सूत्रम् 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(3) वारि + वाहक । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) बलाहक । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
The पृषोदरादि-गण: is listed in the गण-पाठ: as follows – ‘पृषोदर’, ‘पृषोत्थान’, ‘बलाहक‘, ‘जीमूत’, ‘श्मशान’, ‘उलूखल’, ‘पिशाच’, ‘बृसी’, ‘मयूर’।
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc substitution of ‘ब’ in place of the entire पूर्वपदम् ‘वारि’ and of the letter ‘ल्’ in place of the initial letter ‘व्’ of the उत्तरपदम् ‘वाहक’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘बलाहक’ listed in the पृषोदरादि-गण:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बलाहक’ is masculine since the latter member ‘वाहक’ (which after the application of 6-3-109 becomes ‘लाहक’) of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) बलाहक + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।

(6) बलाहक + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) बलाहक: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Questions:

1. Which compound in the verses has been composed using the सूत्रम् 2-1-55 उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः?

2. What type of compound is रुचिराननम् as used in the verses?
i. कर्मधारय:
ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. द्वन्द्व:

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound सुस्मितम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुस्मित’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the words पत्न्या and विद्‌युता used in the verses?

5. Can you spot the समासान्त: affix षच् in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Without clouds lightning cannot occur.” Use the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) with the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’ for ‘to occur.’

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the substitution णल् (in place of the affix तिप्) been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य been used in the verses?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

जीमूतम् mAs

AVG-Sanskrit - Mon, 06/13/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form जीमूतम्  mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.4.108.

जातरूपमयैः शृङ्गैर्भ्राजमानैर्महाप्रभैः । आदित्यशतसंकाशः सोऽभवद्गिरिसत्तमः ।। ५-४-१०६ ।।
समुत्थितमसङ्गेन हनूमानग्रतः स्थितम् । मध्ये लवणतोयस्य विघ्नोऽयमिति निश्चितः ।। ५-४-१०७ ।।
स तमुच्छ्रितमत्यर्थं महावेगो महाकपिः । उरसा पातयामास जीमूतमिव मारुतः ।। ५-४-१०८ ।।
स तदाऽऽसादितस्तेन कपिना पर्वतोत्तमः । बुद्ध्वा तस्य हरेर्वेगं जहर्ष च ननाद च ।। ५-४-१०९ ।।

Gita Press translation – With its shining peaks of gold, emitting a dazzling splendor, that jewel among mountains shone brightly like a hundred suns (106). Hanumān positively considered the mountain, which instantly stood very high before him in the midst of the salty sea, to be a stumbling block (in his journey) (107). Hanumān, the mighty monkey who was possessed of great impetuosity, felled with his breast the exceedingly lofty mountain (even) as the wind would strike down a cloud (108). Worsted on that occasion by the aforesaid monkey (Hanumān) and recognizing his impetuosity, Maināka (the foremost of mountains) felt rejoiced and roared too (109).

There are a few different ways of deriving the compound जीमूत:। One of them is as follows –

(1) जीवनस्य (जलस्य) मूत: = जीमूत: – a cloud (a collection of water.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) जीवन ङस् + मूत सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘जीवन ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘जीवन ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘जीवन ङस् + मूत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) जीवन + मूत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) जीमूत । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
The पृषोदरादि-गण: is listed in the गण-पाठ: as follows – ‘पृषोदर’, ‘पृषोत्थान’, ‘बलाहक’, ‘जीमूत‘, ‘श्मशान’, ‘उलूखल’, ‘पिशाच’, ‘बृसी’, ‘मयूर’।
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc elision of the letters ‘वन’ of ‘जीवन’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘जीमूत’ listed in the पृषोदरादि-गण:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the तत्पुरुष: compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जीमूत’ is masculine since the final member ‘मूत’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) जीमूत + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) जीमूतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. What type of compound is यथोपदिष्टम् which occurs in the सूत्रम् 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् (used in step 5)?
i. अव्ययीभाव:
ii. तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. द्वन्द्व:

2. Among the two compounds महावेग: and महाकपिः used in the verses which one is a कर्मधारय: compound and which one is a बहुव्रीहि: compound?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the word विघ्न:?

4. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे prevent the formation of the compound पर्वतोत्तमः?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form उरसा used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Yesterday there were many clouds in the sky. Today there is not even one.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-35 कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form ननाद?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

Another, a Simpler View of अष्टाध्यायी

Another, a Simpler View of अष्टाध्यायी ?

In today’s (5th June 2016) class of Dr. नीलेश जोशी, we started discussion of संहिता-s with the अधिकारसूत्रम् संहितायाम् (6-1-72). I put forth an observation that rules of संहिता are primarily rules of phonetics. I was of course happy that Dr. नीलेश जोशी endorsed my observation. Carrying that thought further, it now comes to mind that instead of thinking that सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी are of six types, अष्टाध्यायी can be viewed in a different perspective, i.e. to check, which important aspects of grammar अष्टाध्यायी dwells on .

  1. One is of course morphology, i.e. पदसिद्धि
  2. Second is phonetics or phonology. उच्चारणम् – Six सूत्र-s come to mind, which detail how each vowel sound can be pronounced in 18 different ways. They are ऊकालोऽझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः (1-2-27) अचश्च (1-2-28) उच्चैरुदात्तः (1-2-29) नीचैरनुदात्तः (1-2-30) समाहारः स्वरितः (1-2-31) मुखनासिकावचनोऽनुनासिकः (1-1-8)
  3. Some rules such as मोऽनुस्वारः (8-3-24) deal with WRITING the nasal sounds by using the अनुस्वार symbol ँ or ँ्.

If this may give an idea that सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी could as well be sorted into these 3 categories, Dr. नीलेश जोशी explained very beautifully how in certain instances, सूत्र-s of morphology and of phonology may have to be taken into consideration together. He explained it by an example sentence, मा छिनत्तु The word मा has two interpretations. मा is द्वितीया-विभक्ति, एकवचनम् of अस्मद्. It is also निषेधात्मकमव्ययम् rather a निपातः having two forms as मा and माङ् as detailed in गणपाठ, both, under स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् (1-1-37) and चादयोऽसत्त्वे (1-4-57).

  • If मा is taken to be द्वितीया-विभक्ति, एकवचनम् of अस्मद्, मा छिनत्तु would mean “cut me”
  • If मा is taken to be निषेधात्मकमव्ययम्, which has the संज्ञा माङ् [the ending ङ् to be dropped by हलन्त्यम् (1-3-3) and तस्य लोपः (1-3-9)], then मा छिनत्तु would mean “Do not cut”.
    • Now, if मा is taken to be निषेधात्मकमव्ययम्,  then by its संज्ञा माङ्, and by the rules of phonology viz, [संहितायाम् (6-1-72) छे च (6-1-73) आङ्माङोश्च (6-1-74)], the sentence मा छिनत्तु should rather be written and should certainly be pronounced as माच्छिनत्तु. Note the extra च्.

Hundreds of obeisances to Dr. नीलेश जोशी for explaining this nuance !!!

For the meaning “Do not cut”, to derive and pronounce not as मा छिनत्तु but as माच्छिनत्तु the considerations are both morphological and phonological.

Now at this point of माच्छिनत्तु as a sentence, I am not sure, whether अष्टाध्यायी deals with composing sentences, including the rules of syntax. For example, when अपि is to be used as an interrogative, it should be at the beginning of the sentence. I need to check up whether any सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी covers such aspects of syntax.

  1. In English grammar, sentences may be simple, compound or complex. As such, clauses in a sentence is an important aspect of grammatical analysis. In Sanskrit सति-सप्तमी and सच्छष्ठी are special constructs. There are also the कृत्-प्रत्यय-s तुमुन्, क्त्वा/ल्यप् which put into sequence two actions by the same subject. This aspect of same subject is very much mentioned in अष्टाध्यायी, as in the सूत्र-s समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् (3-3-158) समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले (3-4-21)
  2. It seems that the grammatical aspect of वाक्यम् is better detailed by भर्तृहरी in वाक्यपदीयम्.

I am of course excited to find that this “Another View” is very much endorsed also at a website, http://www.sepo.net/books/english-grammar/essentials-of-english-grammar/  I landed here, when searching for “essential features of grammar”

There is an interesting mention there –

“.. There are four great divisions of Grammar, viz.:

Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody.

Orthography treats of letters and the mode of combining them into words.

Etymology treats of the various classes of words and the changes they undergo.

Syntax treats of the connection and arrangement of words in sentences.

Prosody treats of the manner of speaking and reading and the different kinds of verse.

The three first mentioned concern us most. ..”.

Relating this to grammar of Sanskrit in general and to अष्टाध्यायी in particular, it comes to mind, that अष्टाध्यायी is concerned only with two and not even three.  अष्टाध्यायी seems to be concerned only with Orthography and Etymology. Since Syntax is fairly flexible in Sanskrit, अष्टाध्यायी may not be dealing with this. Prosody is of course a different aspect, related to verses and their constructs and of course out of the scope of अष्टाध्यायी.

What is mentioned as Orthography here need not be considered much different from Phonetics or Phonology. May I coin for it a Sanskrit term वर्णव्यवस्था.

Also what is mentioned as Etymology here and what I mentioned as Morphology earlier need also not be considered as different. In Sanskrit, I would term it as पदसिद्धिः.

So for “another view”, I would propose that अष्टाध्यायी be studied by these two aspects (by just these two aspects) of वर्णव्यवस्था and पदसिद्धिः. Would that make study of अष्टाध्यायी as much simpler ?

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 


Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

पितरौ mNd

AVG-Sanskrit - Thu, 06/09/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form पितरौ  mNd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.4.12.

तोकानां पितरौ बन्धू दृश: पक्ष्म स्त्रियाः पतिः । पतिः प्रजानां भिक्षूणां गृह्यज्ञानां बुधः सुहृत् ।। ६-४-१२ ।।
अन्तर्देहेषु भूतानामात्माऽऽस्ते हरिरीश्वरः । सर्वं तद्धिष्ण्यमीक्षध्वमेवं वस्तोषितो ह्यसौ ।। ६-४-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रजानां प्रजापतिरेव बन्धुरतस्तज्जीविकानाशो न कर्तव्य इति दृष्टान्तपञ्चकेनाह । तोकानां बालानां मातापितरौ । अज्ञानां ज्ञानदो बुध एव सुहृत् ।। १२ ।। ईश्वराधिष्ठानत्वाच्च भूतद्रोहो न युक्त इत्याह – अन्तर्देहेष्विति । वो युष्माभिः ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – The parents are the (true) friends of children; the eye-lashes, of an eye; the husband, of a (married) woman; the sovereign, of a people (and through them of all living beings including trees); the householder, of mendicants; and a wise man is the friend of the ignorant (12). The almighty Śrī Hari indwells the hearts of (all) living beings as their Inner Controller. (Therefore,) regard the entire creation (both animate and inanimate) as His abode; in this way He will be really propitiated by you (13).

(1) माता च पिता च = मातापितरौ or पितरौ – parents (mother and father).
Please refer to the following post for the derivation of the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘मातापितृ’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/04/21/मातापितरौ-mad/

(2) पितृ । By 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा – When the word पिता (father) is used with the word माता (mother) then (either both the words remain to form a द्वन्द्व: compound or) optionally only the word पिता remains.

Note: य: शिष्यते स लुप्यमानार्थाभिधायी – the one (‘पितृ’) that remains also denotes the meaning of the one (‘मातृ’) that gets elided. Hence a dual case ending is now used following ‘पितृ’।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा।

(3) पितृ + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘औ’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 to apply in the next step.

(4) पितर् + औ । By 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending letter ‘ऋ’ of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

= पितरौ ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा (used in step 2) the काशिका says – अन्यतरस्यामिति वर्तते नैकवदिति। Please explain.

2. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Which सूत्रम् gives the ready-made compound form ‘सुहृद्’?

4. Where has the affix ‘क’ been used in the verses? Where has it been used in the commentary?

5. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I salute the Supreme Lord and (Goddess) Pārvatī – the parents of the world.” Form a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘Supreme Lord’ = परमश्चासावीश्वर:। Use this compound to form a द्वन्द्व: compound with ‘पार्वती’।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the affix शप् taken the लुक् elision?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ been used in the verses?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

असह्यानि nNp

AVG-Sanskrit - Mon, 06/06/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form असह्यानि  nNp from रघुवंशम् verse 13-27.

एतद्गिरेर्माल्यवतः पुरस्तादाविर्भवत्यम्बरलेखि शृङ्गम् ।
नवं पयो यत्र घनैर्मया च त्वद्विप्रयोगाश्रु समं विसृष्टम् ॥ 13-26॥
गन्धश्च धाराहतपल्वलानां कादम्बमर्धोद्गतकेसरं च ।
स्निग्धाश्च केकाः शिखिनां बभूवुर्यस्मिन्नसह्यानि विना त्वया मे ॥ 13-27 ।।

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
माल्यवतो नाम गिरेरम्बरलेख्यभ्रङ्कषं शृङ्गमेतत्पुरस्तादग्र आविर्भवतियत्र शृङ्गे घनैर्मेघैर्नवं पयो मया त्वद्विप्रयोगेण यदश्रु तच्च समं युगपद्विसृष्टम् । मेघदर्शनाद्वर्षतुल्यमश्रु विमुक्तमिति भावः ।। २६ ।। यस्मिञ्छृङ्गे धाराभिर्वर्षधाराभिर्हतानां पल्वलानां गन्धश्चअर्धोद्गतकेसरं कादम्बं नीपकुसुमं स्निग्धा मधुराः शिखिनां बर्हिणाम् । ‘शिखिनौ वह्निबर्हिणौ’ इत्यमरः । केकाश्चत्वया विना मेऽसह्यानि बभूवुः । ‘नपुंसकमनपुंसकेन -‘ इति नपुंसकैकशेषः ।। २७ ।।

Translation – ‘Here comes to view in front, this sky-scraping peak of the Mālyavat mountain, where was let fall the first shower of water by the clouds and tears due to your separation, by me also, simultaneously; and where, the fragrant smell of the puddles struck by the showers (of rain), and the Kādamba flower with the filaments half opened, and the pleasant notes of the peacocks became unbearable to me, without you (26-27).

(1) The masculine form असह्य: (गन्धः) and the neuter form असह्यम् (कादम्बम्) and the feminine form असह्या: (केकाः) have been referred to collectively by the neuter form असह्यानि as per the सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् – Only the neuter form remains and is optionally treated as singular when used with non-neuter forms provided that the difference between the forms is only due to gender.
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः’ comes down from the सूत्रम् 1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः in to this सूत्रम् 1-2-69.

See question 1.

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् ।

(2) असह्य + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(3) असह्य + शि ।By 7-1-20 जश्शसोः शिः – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ get ‘शि’ as the replacement when they follow a neuter अङ्गम्। ‘शि’ gets the सर्वनामस्थानसंज्ञा by 1-1-42 शि सर्वनामस्थानम्। This allows 7-1-72 to apply below.

(4) असह्य + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(5) असह्य नुँम् + इ । By 7-1-72 नपुंसकस्य झलचः – When a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix follows, the neuter bases that end in a झल् letter or an अच् (vowel) get the नुँम् augment. As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the ‘नुँम्’ augment is placed after the last अच् (the letter ‘अ’ after the letter ‘य्’) in ‘असह्य’।

(6) असह्यन् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) असह्यान् + इ । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ – The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in the letter ‘न्’ gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

= असह्यानि ।

Questions:

1. What would be the alternate final form in this example?

2. Where does the सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् (used in step 1) find application in the last five verses of Chapter Three of the गीता?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् (used in step 1) the काशिका says – ‘अनपुंसकेन’ इति किम्? शुक्लं च शुक्लं च शुक्लं च शुक्लानि। एकवच्चेति न भवति। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘णिनिँ’ in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Heaven, earth and the intermediate region (between heaven and earth) – all these/this are/is pervaded by the Lord.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अन्तरिक्ष’ for ‘the intermediate region (between heaven and earth.)’

Advanced question:

1. Derive the उपपद-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘अभ्रङ्कष’ (used in the form अभ्रङ्कषम् (नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the commentary.) You will need to use the following सूत्रम् (which we have not studied so far) – 3-2-42 सर्वकूलाभ्रकरीषेषु कषः – The affix ‘खच्’ may be used after the verbal root √कष् (कषँ हिंसार्थः १.७८१) when in composition with a कर्म-पदम् (a पदम् which denotes the object of the action) which is either ‘सर्व’ or ‘कूल’ or ‘अभ्र‘ or ‘करीष’।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-32 ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment वुक् in the form बभूवु:?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

संज्ञाः संज्ञासूत्राणि च | When

संज्ञाः संज्ञासूत्राणि च |

When one thinks of संज्ञा-s and संज्ञासूत्राणि, it comes to mind that संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी are not just those, which are mentioned in संज्ञासूत्राणि. Rather, in अष्टाध्यायी, one would come across 4/5 distinct types of संज्ञा-s –

Type (1) In अष्टाध्यायी there are many such संज्ञा-s, i.e. words and terms, which were well-prevalent and did not need any explanation or definition. For example पाणिनि uses the term धातु straightaway right in (1-1-4), giving some detailing of it, not really an explanation of it, that too much later in भूवादयो धातवः (1-3-1) and सनाद्यन्ता धातवः (1-3-32). Thanks to Dr. H. N. Bhat for citing these.

Type (2) He uses as many as 43 प्रत्याहार-s and these are used as संज्ञा-s. It comes to mind that use of प्रत्याहार-s as संज्ञा-s was prevalent before पाणिनि. That must be why he does not explain what a प्रत्याहार is. He uses two such प्रत्याहार-संज्ञा-s straightaway, right in the first सूत्रम् – वृद्धिरादैच् (1-1-1). वृद्धिशब्दः संज्ञा; आदेचः संज्ञिनः [so said in महाभाष्यम् on (1-1-1)]. For संज्ञा-s of both types (1) and (2), the logic seems to be प्रख्यातस्य व्याख्यानेन किम् ? Why should there be elaboration of what is already well-known ?

Type (3) He coins his own संज्ञा-s using इत्-s. I discussed this in a special post on this. See https://grammarofsanskrit.wordpress.com/category/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%82%E0%A4%9C%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%9E%E0%A4%95-s-or-%E0%A4%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D-s-of-%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF/

Type (4) पाणिनि does explain certain संज्ञा-s however, e.g. in अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् (1-2-45) he explains what a प्रातिपदिकम् is. I am left wondering, why प्रातिपदिकम् as a संज्ञा needed such explanation or definition. Was it not a प्रख्यातसंज्ञा ? Did he coin it by himself ? Or, was it not possibly defined as clearly as he did by saying अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्.

Type (5) One also comes across संज्ञा-s such as तु in न विभक्तौ तुस्माः (1-3-4) also चुटू (1-3-7). There are actually two संज्ञा-s here, चु and टु. Mr. D. V. N. Sharma, thanks to him, brought to my notice, that there is सूत्रम् – अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः (1-1-69) which explains how these संज्ञा-s connote  sets of consonants of their class, e.g. कु stands for the set of consonants of क्-वर्ग, चु stands for the set of consonants of च्-वर्ग, टु stands for the set of consonants of ट्-वर्ग, तु stands for the set of consonants of त्-वर्ग, पु stands for the set of consonants of प्-वर्ग.  One is left to wonder whether these संज्ञा-s were coined by पाणिनि were prevalent before him. The above सूत्रम्  suggests that the ending उ-कार-s are to be understood as actually being उत्-कार-s where the ending त्-s are actually इत्-s. I am not sure, whether that means that the संज्ञा-s themselves are to be considered to be कुत्, चुत्, टुत्, तुत् and पुत्, the ending त् becoming invisible according to हलन्त्यम् (1-3-3) and तस्य लोपः (1-3-9). One also comes across a problem that some संज्ञा-s seem to be coined with vowel-endings, which have nasal pronunciation, but the nasal pronunciation may often be not written in the written texts. For example in (4-1-2) स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्-ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्॥ the first सुप्-प्रत्ययः is सु. Its application can be explained only by considering that it is actually सुँ not सु. Here सुँ has the nasal vowel ending उँ, which gets dropped according to उपदेशेऽजननुनासिक इत् (1-3-2) and तस्य लोपः (1-3-9). One can of course concede that it is difficult or not possible to write the nasal सुँ here, especially when it has a संधि with औ. One needs to take it however, that in the oral tradition, the pronunciation must have been insisted to be nasal. This underscores the importance of oral tradition and the need, that the oral tradition itself needs to be absolutely perfect !!

संज्ञा-s being of 4/5 types as above, one question of natural curiosity is “How many संज्ञा-s does one find in अष्टाध्यायी ? In response to my post on अधिकारसूत्राणि one Mr. सीताराम informed that there are 170 संज्ञासूत्राणि in अष्टाध्यायी. On 23 September 2011, Venetia-Ansell-महोदया had posted her study of some 80 संज्ञासूत्राणि. But, there are so many other संज्ञा-s, apart from those mentioned in संज्ञासूत्राणि.

In response to that post of Venetia-Ansell-महोदया, I had raised a basic question, “What is a संज्ञा ?”. Is it defined in अष्टाध्यायी ? Its first occurrence in अष्टाध्यायी is in पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् ॥ (1-1-34). Here the word संज्ञा is used by its antonym असंज्ञा. Obviously पाणिनि did not think it necessary to explain or define, what a संज्ञा is or what असंज्ञा is.

Actually the word संज्ञा seems to have different meanings in different contexts.

काशिनाथ-शास्त्री-अभ्यंकर-वर्यः compiled a dictionary of Sanskrit grammar. In that, the word संज्ञा is detailed as below –

“…. संज्ञा a technical term, a short wording to convey ample sense; a term to know general nature of things; convention; see also वृद्धिशब्दः संज्ञा; आदेचः संज्ञिनः (so said in महाभाष्यम् on (1-1-1). There are two main divisions of संज्ञा – कृत्रिमसंज्ञा or an artificial term such as टि, घु, or भ, which is merely conventional and अकृत्रिमसंज्ञा which refers to the literal sense conveyed by the word such as अव्यय, सर्वनाम and the like. Some grammar works like चन्द्र avoid purely conventional terms. These संज्ञा-s are necessary for every scientific treatise. In Panini’s grammar, there are the first two chapters, giving and explaining the technical terms whose number exceeds well-nigh hundred. ..”

In श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता also, this word संज्ञा is used in different senses, as in नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान्ब्रवीमि ते (1-7) Here संज्ञार्थं =  for (your) knowledge or information; भूतभावोद्भवकरो विसर्गः कर्मसंज्ञितः (8-3) Here कर्मसंज्ञितः = is called as Karma; द्वन्द्वैर्विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञैः (15-5) Here सुखदुःखसंज्ञैः = as connoted by सुखदुःख.

By parallelism between grammars of English and Sanskrit, one can also think that what is a ‘noun’ in English grammar is संज्ञा in Sanskrit grammar. But in English grammar we have “pronoun”, for which parallel word in Sanskrit grammar is सर्वनाम. As a corollary, one can say that नाम and संज्ञा are synonyms used in Sanskrit grammar.

In Apte’s dictionary, 12 meanings of the word संज्ञा are detailed, many with examples from Sanskrit texts. Appended thereto is also meaning of the compound word संज्ञासूत्रम् –

“… संज्ञा 1 Consciousness, अकरुण पुनः संज्ञाव्याधिं विधाय किमीहसे Māl.9.42; रतिखेदसमुत्पन्ना निद्रा संज्ञाविपर्ययः Ku.6.44. संज्ञा लभ्, आपद् or प्रतिपद् ‘to regain or recover one’s consciousness, come to one’s senses’. -2 Knowledge, understanding; नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान् व्रवीमि ते Bg.1.7; Mb.12.153.63. -3 Intellect, mind; लोकतन्त्रं हि संज्ञाश्च सर्वमन्ने प्रतिष्ठितम् Mb.13.63.5. -4 A hint, sign, token, gesture; मुखापिंतैकाङ्गुलिसंज्ञयैव मा चापलायेति गणान् व्यनैषीत् Ku.3.41; उपलभ्य ततश्च धर्मसंज्ञाम् Bu. Ch.5.21; Bhāg. 6.7.17. -5 A name, designation, an appellation; often at the end of comp. in this sense; द्वन्द्वैर्विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञैः Bg.15.5. -6 (In grammar) Any name or noun having a special meaning, a proper name. -7 The technical name for an affix. -8 The Gāyatrī Mantra; see गायत्री. -9 A track, footstep. -10 Direction. -11 A technical term. -12 N. of the daughter of Viśvakarman and of wife of the sun, and of mother of Yama, Yamī, and the two Aśvins. संज्ञासूत्रम् – any Sūtra which teaches the meaning of a technical term. ..”

From all this discussion, I would say that संज्ञा-s detailed in संज्ञासूत्राणि is but a small subset of the  set संज्ञा-s, which is much vaster.

By the way, there are as many as 7 सूत्राणि, all reading as संज्ञायाम् at (2-1-44), (3-3-109), (3-4-42), (4-1-72), (4-3-117), (6-2-159) and (8-2-11). There are also 18 more सूत्राणि, which start with the word संज्ञायाम्. All these are not संज्ञासूत्राणि. They rather seem to be विधिसूत्राणि, explaining what to do in the instance of a संज्ञा. संज्ञायाम् simply means “in the instance of a संज्ञा”.

There would be a large multitude of सूत्राणि, where one would come across the word संज्ञा. A novice, excited to learn about संज्ञा, should not get over-excited, whenever in any सूत्रम् he would notice the word संज्ञा.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 


Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

रागिणः mAp

AVG-Sanskrit - Thu, 06/02/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form रागिणः mAp from शिशुपालवधम् verse 10-90.

इति मदमदनाभ्यां रागिणः स्पष्टरागाननवरतरतश्रीसङ्गिनस्तानवेक्ष्य ।
अभजत परिवृत्तिं साथ पर्यस्तहस्ता रजनिरवनतेन्दुर्लज्जयाधोमुखीव ।। १०-९० ।।

टीका
इतीति ।। इतीत्थं मदमदनाभ्यां स्पष्टरागान् सर्वदा रागित्वेऽपि तदा ताभ्यामपि व्यञ्जितरागानित्यर्थः । अनवरतरतश्रीसङ्गिनः अविच्छिन्नसुरतसंपल्लपटांस्तान् रागिणो रागिण्यश्च रागिणश्च तान् रागिणः । ‘पुमान्स्त्रिया’ (१।२।६७) इत्येकशेषः । अवेक्ष्य अथावेक्षणानन्तरं पर्यस्तः परिवृतो हस्तो नक्षत्रविशेषः करश्च यस्याः सा । ‘हस्तो नक्षत्रभेदे स्यात्करेभकरयोरपि’ इत्युभयत्रापि विश्वः । अवनतेन्दुः स्रस्तचन्द्रा अत एव सा रजनिर्लज्जया । ग्राम्यचेष्टादर्शनजनितयेति भावः । अधोमुखी नम्रमुखीवेत्युत्प्रेक्षा । परिवृत्तिं निवृत्त्युन्मुखतामभजत । प्रभातप्रायाऽभूदित्यर्थः । स्त्रियो हि परकीयग्राम्यचेष्टादर्शने त्रपावनतमुख्यो हस्तेन दृष्टिमन्तर्धाय द्रागपसरन्तीति भावः । अत एवानन्तरसर्गे प्रभातवर्णनाय प्रस्तावः । मालिनीवृत्तमेतत् । लक्षणं तूक्तं वक्ष्यते चोत्तरसर्गादौ ।।

Translation – Having thus seen those lovers whose passion was evident due to intoxication and lust and who were attached to the wealth in the form of ceaseless sexual pleasure, that night then waived her hand (in the form of the 13th lunar mansion named ‘Hasta’) and with the moon going down sought to retire with her face as if downcast with shame.
Note: ‘हस्त’ of course means ‘hand’ but it is also the name of the 13th lunar mansion. In the present verse ‘हस्त’ has been used in both meanings. The night is portrayed as a woman whose hand is the 13th lunar mansion and whose face is the moon. Just as a woman, on seeing lovers engaged in sexual pleasure would motion her hand (to cover her vision) and quickly turn away with her face down due to bashfulness, similarly the night, on seeing the impassioned lovers, motioned her hand (in the form of the 13th lunar mansion named ‘Hasta’) and sought to retire with her face (in the form of the moon) turned downward due to bashfulness. (Saying that the night sought to retire implies that the day was about to dawn.)

(1) रागिण्यश्च रागिणश्च – Passionate women and passionate men = रागिणः – Passionate persons.
As per the सूत्रम् 1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया – Only the masculine form remains when used with the feminine form provided that the difference between the two forms is only due to gender.

Note: य: शिष्यते स लुप्यमानार्थाभिधायी – the one (‘रागिणः’) that remains also denotes the meaning of the one (‘रागिण्यः’) that gets elided.

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः’ comes down from the सूत्रम् 1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः in to this सूत्रम् 1-2-67.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् ।

(2) रागिन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।

(3) रागिन् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of शस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(4) रागिणस् । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि – The letter ‘न्’ is replaced by ‘ण्’ when either ‘र्’ or ‘ष्’ precedes, even if intervened by a letter of the अट्-प्रत्याहार: or by a letter of the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्गः or the term ‘आङ्’ or ‘नुँम्’ (अनुस्वारः) either singly or in any combination.

(5) रागिणः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Questions:

1. From which सूत्रम् down to which सूत्रम् does the अधिकार: of ‘एकशेष:’ run in the अष्टाध्यायी?

2. The एकशेष-वृत्ति: is a अपवाद: for which समास:?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया (used in step 1) the काशिका says – तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेष इत्येव – कुक्कुटश्च मयूरी च कुक्कुटमयूर्यौ। Please explain.

4. In which word(s) in verses 12-17 of Chapter 18 of the Geeta may the सूत्रम् 1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया be applied?

5. Can you spot a द्वन्द्व: compound in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When Śrī Rāma went to the forest all the (male and female) residents of Ayodhyā become dispirited.” Use the सूत्रम् 1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया to derive the form for ‘(male and female) residents’ = निवासिनश्च निवासिन्यश्च। Use the verbal root √सद् (षद्ऌँ विशरणगत्यवसादनेषु १. ९९०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ for ‘to be dispirited.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘शप्’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-77 गातिस्थाघुपाभूभ्यः सिचः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the commentary?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

योगवैराग्ययुक्तया fIs

AVG-Sanskrit - Mon, 05/30/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form योगवैराग्ययुक्तया  fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.31.48.

तस्मान्न कार्यः सन्त्रासो न कार्पण्यं न सम्भ्रमः । बुद्ध्वा जीवगतिं धीरो मुक्तसङ्गश्चरेदिह ।। ३-३१-४७ ।।
सम्यग्दर्शनया बुद्ध्या योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । मायाविरचिते लोके चरेन्न्यस्य कलेवरम् ।। ३-३१-४८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यस्मान्न वस्तुतो जीवस्य जन्ममरणादि तस्मान्मरणात्संत्रासो न कार्यो जीवने च कार्पण्यं दैन्यं कार्यम् । संभ्रमश्च जीवनप्रयत्ने ।। ४७ ।। ननु सर्वथा मुक्तसङ्गत्वे कथं जीवितमत आह । सम्यक् पश्यति विचारयतीति सम्यग्दर्शना तया बुद्ध्या मायाविरचिते लोके कलेवरं न्यस्य निक्षिप्य । तस्मिन्नासक्तिं त्यक्त्वा विचरेदित्यर्थः ।। ४८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Therefore, a man should neither view death with horror nor have recourse to stinginess in life nor give way to infatuation. Realizing the true nature of the Jīva, he should move about in this world free from attachment and steadfast of purpose (47). Nay, he should relegate his body to this illusory world through his reason endowed with right vision and strengthened by Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion, and move about (unconcerned) (48).

(1) First we form the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ as follows –
योगश्च वैराग्यं च = योगवैराग्ये – Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

(2) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । ‘योग’ has two syllables while ‘वैराग्य’ has three syllables. Therefore ‘योग’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) योग + वैराग्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्य ।

Now we form the द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ as follows –
(5) योगवैराग्याभ्यां युक्ता = योगवैराग्ययुक्ता (बुद्धि:) – (intellect/reason) – endowed with Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्य’ which denotes the agent of the action.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(6) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(7) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(8) योगवैराग्य + युक्त । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्ययुक्त ।

As per the न्याय: – द्वन्द्वान्ते श्रूयमाणं पदं प्रत्येकमभिसम्बध्यते, in the final compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ the पदम् ‘युक्त’ which (immediately) follows the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ connects individually with the members (‘योग’ and ‘वैराग्य’) of the द्वन्द्व: compound. Hence we get the meaning ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘योगयुक्त’ + ‘वैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘endowed with Yoga’ and ‘endowed with dispassion.’

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘युक्त’ of the compound is an adjective. It is used here in the feminine since it is qualifying the feminine noun ‘बुद्धि’। Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ by adding the feminine affix टाप्।

(9) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम् ।

(12) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् ।

(13) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(14) योगवैराग्ययुक्ते + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ‘आप्’ ending bases get the letter ‘ए’ as the substitute when followed by the affix ‘आङ्’ (‘टा’) or ‘ओस्’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘आ’ of the base ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ is replaced by ‘ए’।

(15) योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।

Questions:

1. Which compound used in the last five verses of Chapter Three of the गीता is a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तत्पुरुष: compound?

2. Can you spot another (besides योगवैराग्ययुक्तया) तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. What type of compound is मुक्तसङ्ग: as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix ण्यत् been used?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should be free of attachment and aversion.” Form a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘free of attachment and aversion’ = रागद्वेषाभ्यां वियुक्त:।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the augment यासुट् been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-78 पाघ्राध्मास्थाम्नादाण्दृश्यर्तिसर्तिशदसदां पिबजिघ्रधमतिष्ठमनयच्छपश्यर्च्छधौशीयसीदाः been used in the commentary?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

त्रयोदश nAp

AVG-Sanskrit - Thu, 05/26/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form त्रयोदश nAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.22.2.

केचित्षड्विंशतिं प्राहुरपरे पञ्चविंशतिं । सप्तैके नव षट्केचिच्चत्वार्येकादशापरे ।। ११-२२-२ ।।
केचित्सप्तदश प्राहुः षोडशैके त्रयोदश । एतावत्त्वं हि सङ्ख्यानामृषयो यद्विवक्षया । गायन्ति पृथगायुष्मन्निदं नो वक्तुमर्हसि ।। ११-२२-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एतावतीनां भाव एतावत्त्वं नानात्वमित्यर्थः । यद्विवक्षया यत्प्रयोजनमभिप्रेत्य च गायन्तिआयुष्मन्नित्यमूर्ते ।। ३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Some (however) speak of twenty-six categories; others, of twenty-five. Some (more) declare seven, nine, six and four respectively; while others mention eleven (2). Some (again) declare seventeen; others, sixteen and (still) others, thirteen. With what intention do the sages severally declare such a (large) variety of numbers? Be pleased O eternal Lord, to tell us this (3).

(1) त्रीणि च दश च = त्रयोदश – (Three + ten =) Thirteen.

(2) त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् । Note: Since ‘त्रि जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘त्रि जस् + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) त्रि + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) त्रयस् + दशन् । By 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः – When followed by the final member of a compound, the (entire) term ‘त्रि’ takes the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘त्रि’ (and not just the ending letter ‘इ’) is replaced by ‘त्रयस्’।

See question 1.

(6) त्रयरुँ + दशन् । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः ।

(7) त्रयउ + दशन् । By 6-1-114 हशि च – When preceded by the letter ‘अ’ and followed by a हश् letter, the letter ‘रुँ’ is substituted by the letter ‘उ’।

(8) त्रयोदशन् । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्रयोदशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number thirteen. Here it is used in the neuter gender because it is qualifying तत्त्वानि (which is not explicitly mentioned in the verses.)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया ।

(9) त्रयोदशन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: ‘त्रयोदशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

(10) त्रयोदशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘त्रयोदशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(11) त्रयोदश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Where else (besides 6-3-48) does the सूत्रम् ‘त्रेस्त्रयः’ appear in the अष्टाध्यायी?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अशीतौ तु त्र्यशीति:। Please explain.

3. How is the substitution ‘आ’ in the form एकादश justified?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form वक्तुम् used in the verses?

5. What type of compound is नित्यमूर्ते (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नित्यमूर्ति’, पुंलिङ्गे सम्बुद्धि:) as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There are only thirteen days left in this month.” Use the verbal root √शिष् (शिषॢँ विशेषणे ७.१४) in the passive with the उपसर्ग: ‘अव’ for ‘to be left.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in the form गायन्ति?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

Pages

Subscribe to Sanskrit Central aggregator - Sanskrit Grammar