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सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27

Wed, 01/03/2018 - 17:52

On Tuesday Dec. 19, 2017 Dr. Malhar Kulkarni discussed this सूत्रम् – सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27.

This is a संज्ञासूत्रम् related to सर्वनामानि Pronouns. सर्वनाम is the संज्ञा.

There are pronouns in every language. Since it is a grammatical terminology, there would be a definition, which would explain, what a pronoun is. One definition, I get is, “… a pronoun is defined as a word or phrase that may be substituted for a noun or noun phrase, which once replaced, is known as the pronoun’s antecedent.” I am not convinced that every pronoun has an antecedent. Pronouns of first and second person would not have to have antecedents. Only pronouns of third person would have antecedents.

What is the definition of सर्वनामानि in Sanskrit grammar ?

The word सर्वनामानि is a compound word. Deciphering this compound word would explain the concept behind सर्वनामानि and would in turn be its definition. One pattern of deciphering would be सर्वेभ्यः नामानि इति सर्वनामानि (चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः) Hence सर्वनामानि are such nouns,

  • which can be applicable to all सर्वेभ्यः
  • also, which can be usable by all i.e. सर्वैः प्रयोक्तव्यानि This aspect is mentioned in त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् (1’2’72)

So, whereas this सूत्रम् सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27 introduces the संज्ञा सर्वनाम, more of its ramifications have to be understood from other सूत्र-s, such as शि सर्वनामस्थानम् (1’1’42) त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् (1’2’72).

This pattern of discussion of this सूत्रम् brings newer thoughts and newer dimensions to “How to study अष्टाध्यायीसूत्राणि ?”. Earlier on 3rd January 2016, I had attended a session by Dr. Nilesh Joshi. And I had compiled a note on a sequential procedure to study सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी.

(1) सूत्रम् → (2) पदच्छेदाः → (3) पदानां विभक्तिवचनविश्लेषणम् → (4) सूत्रवृत्तिः → (5) सूत्रार्थः → (6) व्याख्यानामभ्यासः |

In respect of Step (6) व्याख्यानामभ्यासः I had noted that commentaries on सूत्र-s can be read at http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/ashtadhyayi/vyakhya/1/1.1.1.htm

This link is a useful tool to read commentaries on any सूत्रम्. One needs to only edit the सूत्र-number in the file address.

But, for one’s own study of any सूत्र, one can and should make one’s own notes, observations and questions.

I had some review of this Methodology, occasioned by a query in April, 2016 by Mr. Kristan Stratos at samskrita@googlegroups.com. That was a good opportunity for me to review/summarize the methodology for Study of a सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी. I detailed it as follows –

For understanding any सूत्रम्, one should follow a sequence –

  1. Write down the सूत्रम् as given → सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि
  2. Do पदच्छेद – सर्व-आदीनि सर्व-नामानि
  3. Decipher compound words –  
    1. सर्व आदौ येषांस्तानि सर्वादीनि (बहुव्रीहिः)
    2. सर्वेभ्यः नामानि सर्वनामानि (चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः)
  4. Do विभक्ति-वचन case-number analysis of all पद-s – सर्वादीनि (1’3) सर्वनामानि (1’3)
  5. Bring forth any such word(s) or phrase(s) from previous सूत्र (or सूत्र-s), which would be essential for proper interpretation of the given सूत्र. This step called as अनुवृत्ति may be or may not be required or applicable. For this सूत्रम् – सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि no अनुवृत्ति seems necessary.
  6. Paraphrase the सूत्रम् i.e. put it in a proper syntax i.e. write the अन्वय so that the paraphrasing brings forth the meaning. Such paraphrasing is called as वृत्ति. One may do this not necessarily in संस्कृत. Concept of वृत्ति is to bring forth the interpretation. So it can be done in any language.

 Since this सूत्रम् has just two words, both in subject case, paraphrasing of the सूत्रम् is simple – just add the verb and complete the sentence → सर्वादीनि (All those starting with सर्व) are सर्वनामानि (are such type of nouns, which can be used by all, are, what are called as Pronouns in English.)

  1. To reinforce the interpretation, one may compile examples. Actually, for this सूत्रम् सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि, one needs not compile the examples afresh. All सर्वनामानि are already compiled in one place in गणपाठ, which is sort of an Annexure of अष्टाध्यायी. Actually if any सूत्रम् has the word आदि in it, this word आदि is a code-word in अष्टाध्यायी, suggesting that there are many more. All those “many more” are then detailed in गणपाठ. All सर्वनामानि are in सर्वादि-गण in गणपाठ. Note, गण means a collection. सर्वादि-गण means collection of all those, starting with सर्व, i.e. collection of all सर्वनामानि.
  2. Interestingly, in सर्वादि-गण there are as many as 35 सर्वनामानि listed in five sub-groups. Does any other language have so many pronouns ?
    1. सर्व, विश्व, उभ, उभय, डतर, डतम, अन्य, अन्यतर, इतर, त्वत्, त्व, नेम, सम, सिम (sub-group of 14)
    2. पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् This subgroup is a सूत्रम् by itself. A सूत्रम्, which is an integral part of a गण in गणपाठ is called as गणसूत्रम्.
      1. Listed here are पूर्व, पर, अवर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, अपर, अधर (sub-group of 7)
      2. But it is specified here that these words would be pronouns only when व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम्.
    3. स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् – This is also a गणसूत्रम्. Identified here is pronoun स्व. But it is specified here that स्व would be a pronoun only when it is अज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम्
    4. अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः – This is also a गणसूत्रम्. Identified here is pronoun अन्तर. But it is specified here that अन्तर would be a pronoun only when it is बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः
    5. त्यद्-तद्-यद्-एतद्-इदम्-अदस्-एक-द्वि-युष्मद्-अस्मद्-भवत्-किम् (sub-group of 12). Actually this subgroup details the त्यद्-गण suggested by the सूत्रम् – त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम् (1’2’72).
  3. The गणसूत्र-s of subgroups #2, 3 and 4 cannot be studied in the same methodology as of studying a सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी, because in गणपाठ we do not have any associated सूत्र(s), required for a comprehensive study. But these 3 सूत्र-s are quoted not only in गणपाठ in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, they are also in अष्टाध्यायी by their specific numbers
    1. पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् 1’1’34
    2. स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् 1’1’35
    3. अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः 1’1’36

The सूत्रम् what we are studying is सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि 1’1’27. So there are 9 more सूत्र-s in-between. So, all 10 सूत्र-s from 1’1’27 to 1’1’36 ought to be interrelated. Let me list them all.

1’1’27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि (सि.कौ. 213)

1’1’28 विभाषा दिक्-समासे बहुव्रीहौ (सि.कौ. 292)

1’1’29 न बहुव्रीहौ (सि.कौ. 222)

1’1’30 तृतीयासमासे (सि.कौ. 223)

1’1’31 द्वन्द्वे च (सि.कौ. 224)

1’1’32 विभाषा जसि (सि.कौ. 225)

1’1’33 प्रथमचरमतयाल्पार्धकतिपयनेमाश्च (सि.कौ. 226)

1’1’34 पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् (सि.कौ. 218)

1’1’35 स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् (सि.कौ. 219)

1’1’36 अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः (सि.कौ. 220)

In the above listing, what are given in parentheses are serial numbers of paras in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, in which the different सूत्र-s are discussed. All the Paras # 213 to 226 are in अजन्तपुँल्लिङ्गप्रकरणम् in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. Para # 292 is in अजन्तस्त्रीलिङ्गप्रकरणम्. Also the serial order of the para numbers in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is different from their numbers in अष्टाध्यायी.

In महाभाष्यम् all these सूत्र-s are discussed in the sixth आह्निकम् and in the sequence as per अष्टाध्यायी.

Common theme or topic of all these 10 सूत्र-s is सर्वनामानि. Having started the study of only one सूत्र, it now transpires that we have to study 10 सूत्र-s. But study of the one सूत्र, with which we started, will become an incomplete study, if we do not study all the ten. This – to study related सूत्र-s together – seems to be one good modification in the method of studying अष्टाध्यायी.

Actually for the study to be as much complete a study as possible, it comes to mind that one should study all other सूत्र-s, which deal with some aspect or the other of all the सर्वनामानि.

On this count Dr. Malhar Kulkarni did discuss that there are three important aspects about सर्वनामानि, which merit a study. These are

  • Word-forms of सर्वनामानि are different in case of चतुर्थी-पञ्चमी-सप्तमी-एकवचनम् and प्रथमा-षष्ठी बहुवचनम्
  • पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् (5’3’7) and सप्तम्यास्त्रल् (5’3’10)
  • अव्ययसर्वनाम्नामकच् प्राक् टेः (5’3’71)

The pronouns युष्मद् and अस्मद् are unique that their word-forms are common in all genders. To be able to locate, compile and study the सूत्र-s related to everyone of the 35-odd pronouns, a Critical Word Index of अष्टाध्यायी would be very good. I posted a query inquiring whether any such Critical Word Index of अष्टाध्यायी has already been compiled. Dr. H. N. Bhat very kindly gave a link to पाणिनीयसूत्रपाठस्य तत्परिशिष्टग्रन्थानां च शब्दकोशाः compiled by पाठक-चित्राव-शास्त्रिणौ way back in 1935. It is mentioned in the preface that they labored on it over 12 years !

There is so much to study ! Let us proceed.

In 1’1’28 and 1’1’32 there is the word विभाषा. In अष्टाध्यायी this word is used in a specific sense, as mentioned in न वेति विभाषा (1’1’44), i.e. “maybe or may not be”. This should help in interpreting these two सूत्र-s.

First of all, we should put in appropriate अनुवृत्ति-s in all these सूत्र-s. This way, we can make some cursory study of all the 10 सूत्र-s.

  1. 1’1’27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि
  2. 1’1’28 विभाषा दिक्-समासे बहुव्रीहौ (सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि) = if (i) a pronoun-word is in a compound word and (ii) the compound word is speaking of a direction and (iii) if the compounding is of बहुव्रीहि-type, then the pronoun word may or may not merit treatment as a pronoun
  3. 1’1’29 न बहुव्रीहौ (सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि) = If any of the सर्वनामानि is part of a compound word, (excepting one speaking of a direction) such compound word would not be a सर्वनाम. A बहुव्रीहि-compound word is eminently adjectival. For example
  4. 1’1’30 तृतीयासमासे (सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि न) =
  5. 1’1’31 द्वन्द्वे च (सर्वनामानि न)
  6. 1’1’32 विभाषा जसि (सर्वनामानि)
  7. 1’1’33 प्रथमचरमतयाल्पार्धकतिपयनेमाश्च (सर्वनामानि) = The pronouns identified here are प्रथम, चरम, तय, अल्प, अर्ध, कतिपय, नेम. It seems that सर्वादिगण has missed out प्रथम, चरम, तय, अल्प, अर्ध, कतिपय.
  8. 1’1’34 पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् (सर्वनामानि) = The pronouns identified here are पूर्व, पर, अवर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, अपर, अधर. But these would be pronouns only when they have the context of व्यवस्था and are not nouns.
  9. 1’1’35 स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् (सर्वनाम) = स्व would be a pronoun only if it has no context of ज्ञाति, धन, आख्या.
  10. 1’1’36 अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः (सर्वनाम) = अन्तर would be a pronoun only if it has a context of बहिर्योग and उपसंव्यान.

Since there are pronouns in every language, it should be interesting to make a comparative study of pronouns in English and in Sanskrit.

In English pronouns are of 10 types –

  1. Personal Pronouns ⇒ Are subjective (he, she, it, I, we, you, they) and objective (him, her, it, me, us, you, them). Note, objective pronouns are only the द्वितीया (/चतुर्थी) विभक्ति of the subjective personal pronouns.
  2. Interrogative Pronouns ⇒ (who, what, which, whom whose) In Sanskrit these are forms of किम्.
  3. Indefinite Pronouns ⇒ (all, anyone, both, each, anything, everybody, many, no one, some, someone, few, etc)
    1. It seems that at least the word बहु from बहुगणवतुडति सङ्ख्या in सूत्रम् 1’1’22 actually qualify to be an indefinite pronoun.
    2. Also suffixes चित् and चन make the indefinite pronouns when affixed to forms of किम् e.g. कश्चित्, किञ्चित्, काचित्, कश्चन, किञ्चन, काचन.
  4. Relative Pronouns ⇒ E.g. “Is this, what I get ?” Here, “this” and “what” are related, “what” being in the subordinate clause. More impressive example is यः पश्यति स पश्यति (गीता 13’27) He, who sees, sees OR One, who sees, sees.
  5. Possessive Pronouns ⇒(His, hers, its, mine, ours, yours, theirs) In Sanskrit these are by षष्ठी विभक्ति of the subjective personal pronouns.
  6. Reflexive Pronouns ⇒ (Himself, herself, itself, myself, yourself, ourselves, themselves). In Sanskrit the function of the suffix “self” is served by adjectival usage of स्व, e.g. I saw it myself मया स्वेन दृष्टम् or one uses स्वयम् adverbially e.g. स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वम् (गीता 10’15) i.e. त्वम् आत्मानम् आत्मना स्वयमेव वेत्थ You त्वम् know वेत्थ thyself आत्मानम् by thyself आत्मना automatically (by virtue of your intrinsic faculty) स्वयमेव.  
  7. Intensive Pronouns ⇒ e.g. “You yourself must come.” Note, “you” is a personal pronoun, “yourself” is a reflexive pronoun. Both together becomes intensive pronoun. Above example of स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वम् is a classic example of very forceful combination of reflexivity and intensity.
  8. Demonstrative Pronouns ⇒ (this, that, these, those, none, neither, such)
  9. Reciprocal Pronouns ⇒ (Each other, each other’s, one another, one another’s)
  10. Distributive Pronouns ⇒ (Each, either, neither)

For this study of pronouns to be comprehensive and complete, one needs to be find which pronoun is detailed in which other सूत्र-s and note the significance of every such detail.

It comes to mind that study up to here may be taken as Part 1 of the study of this subject of सर्वनामानि Pronouns in Sanskrit.

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी

Thu, 12/14/2017 - 16:16

संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी

On Tuesday Dec. 12, 2017, I attended Dr. Malhar Kulkarni’s व्याख्यानम् on सूत्र-s 1’1’20 to 1’1’23.

I indulged in further deliberation of my own, with a focus on सूत्र-s 1’1’20 and 1’1’22 . This post is loud thinking of that deliberation. The two सूत्र-s are दाधा घ्वदाप् (1’1’20) and तरप्-तमपौ घः (1’1’22). Both of these are  संज्ञासूत्र-s, because सूत्रम् – दाधा घ्वदाप् (1’1’20) defines what all is denoted by the संज्ञा घु.  The other सूत्रम् – तरप्-तमपौ घः (1’1’22) defines what all is denoted by the संज्ञा घः 

As is obvious, संज्ञा घु has many elements encompassed by दाधा excepting of course दाप्. The point is “संज्ञा घु has many elements”. That became the clue for my deliberation and I proceeded to check whether most संज्ञा-s have more-than-one elements. And lo ! That appears to be THE fact !

In mathematics, entity having a number of elements is called a “set”. By that token संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी seem to be names given to sets. All प्रत्याहार-s are basically sets and they connote names or संज्ञा-s of respective sets. For example, अच् is the name of the set, which has all vowels as its elements; हल् is the name of the set, which has all consonants as its elements. Even the very first सूत्रम् – वृद्धिरादैच् (1’1’1) defines the संज्ञा “वृद्धिः” which has the elements आत् and ऐच्; Actually ऐच् is a sub-set having elements ऐ and औ; आत् is the other sub-set of वृद्धिः, and has only a single element आत्. So वृद्धिः is a “union” of two subsets आत् and ऐच्. 

Set theory in mathematics recognizes even null sets. I wonder, whether अष्टाध्यायी has any संज्ञा, which is a null set !

In सूत्रम् – दाधा घ्वदाप् (1’1’20), exception of दाप् is like intersection of a set to leave an element out. 

I wonder whether relating concepts of set theory can give a good insight into the structure of अष्टाध्यायी. 

I feel like complimenting myself for the deliberation and observation that संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी are names given to sets. Elements of sets are detailed primarily in two different ways. The सूत्र-s such as वृद्धिरादैच् (1’1’1), दाधा घ्वदाप् (1’1’20), etc. detail their elements in the particular संज्ञासूत्र itself. But elements of some सूत्र-s such as सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि (1’1’27) are better detailed in गणपाठ. In this context it would be interesting to see my post “What is गणपाठ ?“.

The third way of identifying a संज्ञा and detailing its elements is to do that in different सूत्र-s. A good example is the सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14). There are two संज्ञा-s included here सुप् and तिङ्. Elements of सुप् are detailed in स्वौजसमौट्-छष्टाभ्याम्-भिस्-ङे-भ्याम्-भ्यस्-ङसि-भ्याम्-भ्यस्-ङसोसाम्-ङि-ओस्-सुप् (4’1’2). Elements of तिङ् are detailed in तिप्-तस्-झि-सिप्-वस्-थ-मिब्-वस्-मस्-ताताम्-झ-थासाथाम्-ध्व-मिड्-वहि-महिङ् (3’4’78). 

Actually सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14) is interesting, because it also contains and defines a third संज्ञा viz. पदम्. Whatever is सुबन्त or तिङन्त, i.e. whatever has in its ending सुप् or तिङ्, i.e. whatever has either a सुप् or तिङ् suffix, is a पदम्. And as defined by this सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (1’4’14),  पदम् is a set having two sub-sets सुप् and तिङ्.

  • On a different note, I am a bit concerned of this definition of पदम् as सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्. This is because there are many पद-s, which are neither सुबन्त nor तिङन्त, e. g. क्त्वान्त- or तुमन्त-कृदन्त-s. To my mind, these are also पद-s, because they qualify the सूत्रम् – समर्थः पदविधिः (2’1’1). They are, for sure, समर्थ, meaningful and significant.

Anyway, we can grant that संज्ञा is a terminology of Sanskrit grammar. If so, one wonders what is the terminology in English grammar equivalent to संज्ञा ? In English grammar, among parts of speech, there are nouns and pronouns. Since pronouns are same as सर्वनामानि, one can think that नामानि would correspond with nouns. Since संज्ञा-s are also given names, संज्ञा also seemingly corresponds with ‘noun’. 

Looking at स्वौजसमौट्-छष्टाभ्याम्-भिस्-ङे-भ्याम्-भ्यस्-ङसि-भ्याम्-भ्यस्-ङसोसाम्-ङि-ओस्-सुप् (4’1’2) and तिप्-तस्-झि-सिप्-वस्-थ-मिब्-वस्-मस्-ताताम्-झ-थासाथाम्-ध्व-मिड्-वहि-महिङ् (3’4’78), it can be thought that elements of सुप् and तिङ् enumerated in these सूत्र-s are not संज्ञा-s; they are nouns नामानि of सुप्-प्रत्यय-s and तिङ्-प्रत्यय-s.  I guess, this line of thinking can help distinguish between नामानि and संज्ञा-s. Then we can say that English grammar has nothing equivalent to संज्ञा-s.

That is some loud thinking about संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी. 

शुभमस्तु !


Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

Comprehensive study of grammar of Sanskrit

Tue, 11/21/2017 - 00:17

What all must be studied for complete study of grammar of Sanskrit ? One general impression is that one should study and then the job is done. But there is a श्लोक

अनधीते महाभाष्ये व्यर्था सा पदमञ्जरी ।
अधीते तु महाभाष्ये व्यर्था सा पदमञ्जरी ॥

Here, the word पदमञ्जरी usually refers to अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनि.  So, here we have reference to two books – अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनि and महाभाष्य by पतञ्जलि respectively. Original of the two is अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनि, though, in this श्लोक more credence is accorded to study of महाभाष्य by पतञ्जलि.

However in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, भट्टोजी दीक्षित pays his tributes as मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य. This seems to be so, because Sanskrit grammar is itself known as त्रिमुनि-व्याकरणम्. The त्रिमुनि-s are पाणिनि, वररुचि कात्यायन and पतञ्जलि  Contribution of वररुचि कात्यायन is by his वृत्ति-s, which often explain सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी by supplementary सूत्र-s, as if अष्टाध्यायी becomes more complete by the supplementary सूत्र-s in वृत्ति-s of वररुचि कात्यायन. Because of his वृत्ति-s वररुचि कात्यायन is also known as the वार्त्तिक (वृत्तीनां कर्ता).

अष्टाध्यायी is the base both for महाभाष्य by पतञ्जलि and वृत्ति-s of वररुचि कात्यायन. That is why it is said in the above श्लोक, that if one studies महाभाष्य, there is no need to study अष्टाध्यायी separately.

Actually language has two aspects – (1) words and (2) using the words to make a meaningful expression. The second part “using the words to make a meaningful expression” often becomes the exercise of composing a sentence.

From what I have understood, अष्टाध्यायी’s focus is on words, rather on formatting of words. This is so, because in Sanskrit every word to be used in a sentence, rather, for any word to be worthy of use in a sentence, it has to be a formatted word.

Second aspect of Sanskrit is freedom from syntax. In Sanskrit the formatting of words makes the words so much self-same, that they can be placed anywhere, in any sequence or order. Although the word order is most commonly the Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) order, that is not any rigid word order.

Formatting of words is best detailed in अष्टाध्यायी. But study of अष्टाध्यायी should not be understood as study only of the eight chapters, four quarters of each chapter. There are important परिशिष्ट-s, which are part and parcel of अष्टाध्यायी. They are गणपाठः, धातुपाठः, लिङ्गानुशासनम्, उणादिसूत्राणि, फिट्सूत्राणि, पाणिनीया शिक्षा.

Most books on अष्टाध्यायी detail सूत्राणि in the thirty-two quarters in अष्टाध्यायी. But to make the study of Sanskrit grammar complete, one must study also all the परिशिष्ट-s.

One method of study has been as propounded in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी by भट्टोजी दीक्षित. But सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is said to be a composition of 17th century, just about 400 years old. There certainly have been many studies of अष्टाध्यायी, evidenced by many commentaries, called as वृत्ति-s, some well-known among them being काशिका-वृत्तिः, न्यासः, मनोरमा, बाल-मनोरमा, प्रौढ-मनोरमा, तत्त्व-बोधिनी, etc.

Although Sanskrit offers quite some freedom of syntax, there have been some definite concepts of composing sentences. These are possibly best detailed in वाक्पदीयम् of भर्तृहरि, said to be step brother of राजा विक्रमादित्य of 5th AD.

Another aspect of Sanskrit language, which is considered as part of its grammar is adorned speech, adorned by rhythm or by fancy.

  • Adornment of speech by rhythm is covered in study of prosody छन्दःशास्त्रम्, also called as शब्दालङ्कार.
  • Adornment of speech by fancy is covered in अर्थालङ्कार.

As mentioned earlier, every word to be worthy of use in a sentence needs to be formatted. In formatting there is morphology through different steps called as प्रक्रिया. There have been studies focusing only on the morphological aspects of formatting of words and are available in books such as प्रक्रियासर्वस्वम्.

Actually etymological studies व्युत्पत्तिविचार may be considered as the converse of morphological studies. But etymological studies can go deeper than just the converse of morphological studies. I came across a book व्युत्पत्तिवाद published by राष्ट्रिय संस्कृत संस्थानम् http://www.sanskrit.nic.in/DigitalBook/V/Vyutpattivada_2016.pdf

One more aspect of study of words is study of synonyms and antonyms. Sanskrit has a great old tradition of such study. Two such studies which are monumental, are निघण्टु-निरुक्त by यास्काचार्य and अमरकोश (actual name नामलिङ्गानुशासनम्) by अमरसिंह.

I hope this compilation becomes useful to anyone wanting to undertake comprehensive study of grammar of Sanskrit.

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

Are there nouns in Sanskrit ?

Mon, 05/08/2017 - 19:04

The more I think of etymologies of Sanskrit nouns, the more I get to think that there are no nouns in Sanskrit.

But it is the structural requirement of sentences that subject-words, object-words have to be nouns or pronouns.

So what a word is etymologically and what the word is in a sentence are considerations, which have great influence of the context.

The very first sentence, rather the very first श्लोक in गीता would become a good example. Here is its study. 

In the simple looking phrase of just two words धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे the number of permutations of interpretations can be 
  1. considering धर्मक्षेत्रे as adjective of कुरुक्षेत्रे 
  2. considering कुरुक्षेत्रे as adjective of धर्मक्षेत्रे 
  3. considering both धर्मक्षेत्रे and कुरुक्षेत्रे as nouns.
Interesting it then is, that all of these three interpretations will be grammatically valid.  By mathematics of permutations, there can be a fourth permutation of considering both धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे to be adjectives. That permutation will not be valid, keeping structural requirement of a sentence.  By similar considerations in this same श्लोक, there are four words, समवेताः युयुत्सवः मामकाः पाण्डवाः All are in प्रथमा, बहुवचनम्. Hence they are all eligible to be subject-words, subjects of the verb अकुर्वत. We can consider number of sentences possible with as many subject-words =>
  1. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः किमकुर्वत
  2. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे युयुत्सवः किमकुर्वत
  3. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे मामकाः किमकुर्वत
  4. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे पाण्डवाः किमकुर्वत
  5. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः युयुत्सवः किमकुर्वत
  6. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः मामकाः किमकुर्वत
  7. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः पाण्डवाः किमकुर्वत
  8. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे युयुत्सवः मामकाः किमकुर्वत
  9. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे युयुत्सवः पाण्डवाः किमकुर्वत
  10. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः युयुत्सवः मामकाः किमकुर्वत
  11. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः युयुत्सवः पाण्डवाः किमकुर्वत
  12. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेताः युयुत्सवः मामकाः पाण्डवाः च किमकुर्वत
It may be noticed that all the 12 permutations as above are valid sentences.  But study of the first sentence brings forth that, though समवेताः is etymologically an adjective, it is serving the function of subject-word and hence in the sentence, it should be considered to be a noun. Etymologically समवेताः is क्त-कृदन्तम् of धातुः समवे (सम् + अव + इ) hence definitely an adjective. One can prove that all the four words समवेताः युयुत्सवः मामकाः पाण्डवाः are adjectives by their etymology. For example पाण्डव (पाण्डोः यः सः पाण्डवः) is basically an adjective and qualifies all five पाण्डवाः. To say पाण्डवः युधिष्ठिरः, पाण्डवः भीमः, पाण्डवः अर्जुनः, पाण्डवः नकुलः, पाण्डवः सहदेवः are all valid phrases, where पाण्डवः is an adjective.  So, what a word is etymologically and what the role of the word is in a sentence are two different things. Possibly one should be finding good discussion on the role of a word in a sentence in वाक्यपदीयम् of भर्तृहरिः. That could be the logic of its title having the word वाक्य not वाक्. It comes to mind that by this viewpoint, study of वाक्यपदीयम् of भर्तृहरिः has its own significance. Probably such significance of वाक्यपदीयम् has not been brought out at all. There is so much talk of study of अष्टाध्यायी, कौमुदी etc., that study of वाक्यपदीयम् hardly ever gets any mention.  शुभमस्तु ! -o-O-o-
Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

When would one need सिद्धान्तकौमुदी ?

Fri, 02/17/2017 - 10:56

Ms. Irene Gelstian posted a query, “Please help me understand when should one consult the full version, and when the abridged version is sufficient.” By ‘full version’ she meant सिद्धान्तकौमुदी and by ‘the abridged version’ लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी. Here is my deliberation.

Just a look at the contents of the two books also brings out some major differences. For example second chapter in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is परिभाषाप्रकरणम्. There is no such chapter itself in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी  So, if one wants to understand what परिभाषा is, then one needs to study it only in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी.   As per my understanding, परिभाषाः are premises, which are inherent in the structure of the book.   For example there is  सूत्रम् – विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (पा. 1-4-2). In the instance of dilemma, go by the latter.
  • An example of dilemma is अच्सन्धिः of इ + इ, say इति इच्छा
  • If one should go by इको यणचि (6-1-77) the संधि should be इत्यिच्छा.
  • But by अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-101) the संधि would be इतीच्छा.
  • So we have a dilemma – should इति इच्छा be इत्यिच्छा or इतीच्छा ?
  • विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् resolves the dilemma saying “go by the latter.” Between (6-1-77) and (6-1-101) the latter is (6-1-101). Hence, इतीच्छा only.
  • So विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् is the परिभाषा, the premise behind पाणिनि’s sequencing of the सूत्राणि in अष्टाध्यायी.
  • But this premise विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् does not extend all across. It extends only up to (8-1-74). Its application beyond (8-1-74) is stopped by पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् (8-2-2).
    • For example, what should be संधि of ते अज्ञानम् ?
    • By एचोऽयवायावः (6-1-78) तयज्ञानम्
    • By लोपः शाकल्यस्य (8-3-19) तेऽज्ञानम्
    • Going by विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् it should be only तेऽज्ञानम्. However since application of विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् does not extend beyond (8-1-74), तयज्ञानम् as per एचोऽयवायावः (6-1-78) is also valid.
So, a totally different answer to the query “when should one consult the full version” is, “go by अष्टाध्यायी itself.” Even the full version सिद्धान्तकौमुदी may not explain many such nuances, much less, the short or abridged version लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी.   One may get intrigued by the सूत्राणि listed in different chapters, both in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी and सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. For example अच्सन्धिप्रकरणम् in both lists the सूत्रम् – झलां जश्झशि (8-4-53). Prima facie, the वर्ण-s dwelt upon in this सूत्रम् are all हलः. Why then is this सूत्रम् in अच्सन्धिप्रकरणम् at all ?   Having said all this, it seems, first of all, one needs to ask oneself, how deep one wants to go. Looks like, the query seeks clear identification as “लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी will take one as much deep, सिद्धान्तकौमुदी that much deeper and for further depth only अष्टाध्यायी itself.” I don’t think any such identification exists.  Particular study on hand will itself dictate which book to refer. शुभमस्तु ! -o-O-o-  
Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

प्रत्ययाः – नु, नुक्, क्नु

Wed, 09/21/2016 - 17:15

In my study of Sanskrit, it often happens that one search leads to another. I made a guess that the word देहः is from धातुः दिह्. The guess was correct ! Note देहः = दिह्-घञ् So I thought it good, to understand the meaning of देहः by understanding meaning of दिह्. In धातुपाठ, the meaning given is दिहँ उपच॒ये In Apte’s online dictionary, it is “1 To anoint, smear, plaster, spread over.” Wow ! देहः is what anoints; anoints the आत्मा ? Let me leave it at that.

On the page for दिह्, just above, there was the word दिष्णुः. That triggered thought of words ending with नु. Promptly भानुः, धेनुः, विष्णुः came to mind. I searched on these words. I got –

  • भानुः [भा-नु Uṇ.3.32] 1 Light, lustre, brightness.-2 A ray of light
  • धेनुः f. [धयति सुतान्, धीयते वत्सैर्वा, धे-नु इच्च Tv.] 1 A cow, milch-cow
  • विष्णुः [विष् व्यापने नुक् Uṇ.3.39].
  • On the same page as of विष्णुः, I also noticed धृष्णु a. [धृष्-क्नु] 1 Bold, confident, courageous, valiant, powerful (in a good sense).

Even when all these words end in नु/णु, the प्रत्यय-s are different.

  • In भानुः and धेनुः the प्रत्यय is नु Uṇ.3.32
    • In case of धेनुः नु is mentioned to be a प्रत्यय and also इत् (इच्च). I wonder whether that is correct.
  • In विष्णुः it is नुक् Uṇ.3.39
  • In धृष्णु it is क्नु

This is how I landed into this study of प्रत्ययाः – नु, नुक्, क्नु

नु Uṇ.3.32 and नुक् Uṇ.3.39 certainly suggest that these are उणादि suffixes.

  • उणादिसूत्रम् 3’32 (सिद्धान्तकौमुद्यां 319) is दाभाभ्यां नुः || दानुर्दाता | भानुः || In तत्त्वबोधिनी व्याख्या it is further detailed as – डुदाञ् दाने, भा दीप्तौ | ‘दानुर्दातरि विक्रान्तौ’ इति मेदिनी | ‘भानूरश्मिदिवाकरौ’ इत्यमरः |
  • उणादिसूत्रम् 3’34 (सिद्धान्तकौमुद्यां 321) is धेट इच्च || धयति सुतानिति धेनुः || In तत्त्वबोधिनी व्याख्या it is further detailed as – धेट् पाने – अस्मान्नुः स्यादिकारश्चान्तादेशः | ‘धेनुःस्यान्नवसूतिका’ इत्यमरः |
    • It comes to mind that the name of the धातु is धेट्. Here the ending ट् is इत् as per हलन्त्यम् (1-3-3). Hence it has to be dropped off by तस्य लोपः (1-3-9). The phrase इच्च in उणादिसूत्रम् 3’34 means all that.
  • उणादिसूत्रम् 3’39 (सिद्धान्तकौमुद्यां 326) is विषेः किच्च || विष्णुः || In तत्त्वबोधिनी व्याख्या it is further detailed as – विषेः | विपॢँ व्याप्तौ | अस्माण्णुः स्यात्स च किच्चान्नित् | नित्वादाद्युदात्तत्वम् | विष्णुरिद्धा | ‘विष्णुर्नारायणः कृष्णः’ इत्यमरः |
    • विषेः किच्च clarifies that the उणादिप्रत्यय is to be understood as नुक् of which the ending क् is क्-इत्. Being an इत् it gets dropped off by तस्य लोपः (1-3-9). What affixes is नु only.

In Abhyankar’s Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar, क्नु is detailed as कृत्-affix नु added to roots त्रस्, गृध्, धृष्, क्षिप् in the sense of habituated etc., as given in पाणिनिसूत्र-s – तच्छीलतद्धर्मतत्साधुकारिषु ३।२।१३४ त्रसिगृधिधृषिक्षिपेः क्नुः ३।२।१४० Hence त्रस्नुः, गृध्नुः || I can see that –

  • तच्छीलम् तद्धर्मः तत्साधुकारः seem to have been together translated by काशिनाथशास्त्री अभ्यंकर as that habit, which is implicit in the meaning of the धातु. Since गृध् means ‘to hanker for’, गृध्नुः means one who is in the habit of hankering. Since त्रस् means ‘to trouble’ त्रस्नुः means one who is in the habit of making trouble. By the way, if one gets troubled and shows it as much, vitiates the whole atmosphere, spreads his troubles and in turn causes trouble. So त्रस्नुः then would mean one who gets troubled and causes trouble.

It is contended that उणादिसूत्राणि were in vogue before पाणिनि. He acknowledged them in उणादयो बहुलम् (3’1’1). Possibly तच्छीलतद्धर्मतत्साधुकारिषु ३।२।१३४ त्रसिगृधिधृषिक्षिपेः क्नुः ३।२।१४० and such सूत्र-s were added to cover त्रस्नुः, गृध्नुः etc., which were not covered in उणादिसूत्राणि. He seems to have thought it good to give a different name to the suffix as क्नु, where also the beginning क् is an इत् as per लशक्वतद्धिते (1-3-8) and it gets dropped off by तस्य लोपः (1-3-9).

Even in भानुः the sun, भानु is one who has तत् शीलम्, तद्धर्मः, तत् साधुकारः of भा i.e. ‘to emit light’. All this revelation, to understand why one name of sun is भानुः, is sheer ecstasy !

In a way, by his सूत्रम् – तच्छीलतद्धर्मतत्साधुकारिषु ३।२।१३४, पाणिनि has given colorful explanation of not only his own क्नु, but also नु, नुक् etc. in उणादिसूत्राणि.

Look at the brevity of the words त्रस्नुः, गृध्नुः etc., compared with the long-winding phrases, one has to use to explain their meanings in English.

They say, success is its own reward. Study of Sanskrit is also that, ‘its own reward’ !

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

Another, a Simpler View of अष्टाध्यायी

Sun, 06/12/2016 - 12:22

Another, a Simpler View of अष्टाध्यायी ?

In today’s (5th June 2016) class of Dr. नीलेश जोशी, we started discussion of संहिता-s with the अधिकारसूत्रम् संहितायाम् (6-1-72). I put forth an observation that rules of संहिता are primarily rules of phonetics. I was of course happy that Dr. नीलेश जोशी endorsed my observation. Carrying that thought further, it now comes to mind that instead of thinking that सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी are of six types, अष्टाध्यायी can be viewed in a different perspective, i.e. to check, which important aspects of grammar अष्टाध्यायी dwells on .

  1. One is of course morphology, i.e. पदसिद्धि
  2. Second is phonetics or phonology. उच्चारणम् – Six सूत्र-s come to mind, which detail how each vowel sound can be pronounced in 18 different ways. They are ऊकालोऽझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः (1-2-27) अचश्च (1-2-28) उच्चैरुदात्तः (1-2-29) नीचैरनुदात्तः (1-2-30) समाहारः स्वरितः (1-2-31) मुखनासिकावचनोऽनुनासिकः (1-1-8)
  3. Some rules such as मोऽनुस्वारः (8-3-24) deal with WRITING the nasal sounds by using the अनुस्वार symbol ँ or ँ्.

If this may give an idea that सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी could as well be sorted into these 3 categories, Dr. नीलेश जोशी explained very beautifully how in certain instances, सूत्र-s of morphology and of phonology may have to be taken into consideration together. He explained it by an example sentence, मा छिनत्तु The word मा has two interpretations. मा is द्वितीया-विभक्ति, एकवचनम् of अस्मद्. It is also निषेधात्मकमव्ययम् rather a निपातः having two forms as मा and माङ् as detailed in गणपाठ, both, under स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् (1-1-37) and चादयोऽसत्त्वे (1-4-57).

  • If मा is taken to be द्वितीया-विभक्ति, एकवचनम् of अस्मद्, मा छिनत्तु would mean “cut me”
  • If मा is taken to be निषेधात्मकमव्ययम्, which has the संज्ञा माङ् [the ending ङ् to be dropped by हलन्त्यम् (1-3-3) and तस्य लोपः (1-3-9)], then मा छिनत्तु would mean “Do not cut”.
    • Now, if मा is taken to be निषेधात्मकमव्ययम्,  then by its संज्ञा माङ्, and by the rules of phonology viz, [संहितायाम् (6-1-72) छे च (6-1-73) आङ्माङोश्च (6-1-74)], the sentence मा छिनत्तु should rather be written and should certainly be pronounced as माच्छिनत्तु. Note the extra च्.

Hundreds of obeisances to Dr. नीलेश जोशी for explaining this nuance !!!

For the meaning “Do not cut”, to derive and pronounce not as मा छिनत्तु but as माच्छिनत्तु the considerations are both morphological and phonological.

Now at this point of माच्छिनत्तु as a sentence, I am not sure, whether अष्टाध्यायी deals with composing sentences, including the rules of syntax. For example, when अपि is to be used as an interrogative, it should be at the beginning of the sentence. I need to check up whether any सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी covers such aspects of syntax.

  1. In English grammar, sentences may be simple, compound or complex. As such, clauses in a sentence is an important aspect of grammatical analysis. In Sanskrit सति-सप्तमी and सच्छष्ठी are special constructs. There are also the कृत्-प्रत्यय-s तुमुन्, क्त्वा/ल्यप् which put into sequence two actions by the same subject. This aspect of same subject is very much mentioned in अष्टाध्यायी, as in the सूत्र-s समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् (3-3-158) समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले (3-4-21)
  2. It seems that the grammatical aspect of वाक्यम् is better detailed by भर्तृहरी in वाक्यपदीयम्.

I am of course excited to find that this “Another View” is very much endorsed also at a website, http://www.sepo.net/books/english-grammar/essentials-of-english-grammar/  I landed here, when searching for “essential features of grammar”

There is an interesting mention there –

“.. There are four great divisions of Grammar, viz.:

Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody.

Orthography treats of letters and the mode of combining them into words.

Etymology treats of the various classes of words and the changes they undergo.

Syntax treats of the connection and arrangement of words in sentences.

Prosody treats of the manner of speaking and reading and the different kinds of verse.

The three first mentioned concern us most. ..”.

Relating this to grammar of Sanskrit in general and to अष्टाध्यायी in particular, it comes to mind, that अष्टाध्यायी is concerned only with two and not even three.  अष्टाध्यायी seems to be concerned only with Orthography and Etymology. Since Syntax is fairly flexible in Sanskrit, अष्टाध्यायी may not be dealing with this. Prosody is of course a different aspect, related to verses and their constructs and of course out of the scope of अष्टाध्यायी.

What is mentioned as Orthography here need not be considered much different from Phonetics or Phonology. May I coin for it a Sanskrit term वर्णव्यवस्था.

Also what is mentioned as Etymology here and what I mentioned as Morphology earlier need also not be considered as different. In Sanskrit, I would term it as पदसिद्धिः.

So for “another view”, I would propose that अष्टाध्यायी be studied by these two aspects (by just these two aspects) of वर्णव्यवस्था and पदसिद्धिः. Would that make study of अष्टाध्यायी as much simpler ?

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

संज्ञाः संज्ञासूत्राणि च | When

Sat, 06/04/2016 - 10:17

संज्ञाः संज्ञासूत्राणि च |

When one thinks of संज्ञा-s and संज्ञासूत्राणि, it comes to mind that संज्ञा-s in अष्टाध्यायी are not just those, which are mentioned in संज्ञासूत्राणि. Rather, in अष्टाध्यायी, one would come across 4/5 distinct types of संज्ञा-s –

Type (1) In अष्टाध्यायी there are many such संज्ञा-s, i.e. words and terms, which were well-prevalent and did not need any explanation or definition. For example पाणिनि uses the term धातु straightaway right in (1-1-4), giving some detailing of it, not really an explanation of it, that too much later in भूवादयो धातवः (1-3-1) and सनाद्यन्ता धातवः (1-3-32). Thanks to Dr. H. N. Bhat for citing these.

Type (2) He uses as many as 43 प्रत्याहार-s and these are used as संज्ञा-s. It comes to mind that use of प्रत्याहार-s as संज्ञा-s was prevalent before पाणिनि. That must be why he does not explain what a प्रत्याहार is. He uses two such प्रत्याहार-संज्ञा-s straightaway, right in the first सूत्रम् – वृद्धिरादैच् (1-1-1). वृद्धिशब्दः संज्ञा; आदेचः संज्ञिनः [so said in महाभाष्यम् on (1-1-1)]. For संज्ञा-s of both types (1) and (2), the logic seems to be प्रख्यातस्य व्याख्यानेन किम् ? Why should there be elaboration of what is already well-known ?

Type (3) He coins his own संज्ञा-s using इत्-s. I discussed this in a special post on this. See https://grammarofsanskrit.wordpress.com/category/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%82%E0%A4%9C%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%9E%E0%A4%95-s-or-%E0%A4%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D-s-of-%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BF/

Type (4) पाणिनि does explain certain संज्ञा-s however, e.g. in अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् (1-2-45) he explains what a प्रातिपदिकम् is. I am left wondering, why प्रातिपदिकम् as a संज्ञा needed such explanation or definition. Was it not a प्रख्यातसंज्ञा ? Did he coin it by himself ? Or, was it not possibly defined as clearly as he did by saying अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्.

Type (5) One also comes across संज्ञा-s such as तु in न विभक्तौ तुस्माः (1-3-4) also चुटू (1-3-7). There are actually two संज्ञा-s here, चु and टु. Mr. D. V. N. Sharma, thanks to him, brought to my notice, that there is सूत्रम् – अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः (1-1-69) which explains how these संज्ञा-s connote  sets of consonants of their class, e.g. कु stands for the set of consonants of क्-वर्ग, चु stands for the set of consonants of च्-वर्ग, टु stands for the set of consonants of ट्-वर्ग, तु stands for the set of consonants of त्-वर्ग, पु stands for the set of consonants of प्-वर्ग.  One is left to wonder whether these संज्ञा-s were coined by पाणिनि were prevalent before him. The above सूत्रम्  suggests that the ending उ-कार-s are to be understood as actually being उत्-कार-s where the ending त्-s are actually इत्-s. I am not sure, whether that means that the संज्ञा-s themselves are to be considered to be कुत्, चुत्, टुत्, तुत् and पुत्, the ending त् becoming invisible according to हलन्त्यम् (1-3-3) and तस्य लोपः (1-3-9). One also comes across a problem that some संज्ञा-s seem to be coined with vowel-endings, which have nasal pronunciation, but the nasal pronunciation may often be not written in the written texts. For example in (4-1-2) स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्-ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्॥ the first सुप्-प्रत्ययः is सु. Its application can be explained only by considering that it is actually सुँ not सु. Here सुँ has the nasal vowel ending उँ, which gets dropped according to उपदेशेऽजननुनासिक इत् (1-3-2) and तस्य लोपः (1-3-9). One can of course concede that it is difficult or not possible to write the nasal सुँ here, especially when it has a संधि with औ. One needs to take it however, that in the oral tradition, the pronunciation must have been insisted to be nasal. This underscores the importance of oral tradition and the need, that the oral tradition itself needs to be absolutely perfect !!

संज्ञा-s being of 4/5 types as above, one question of natural curiosity is “How many संज्ञा-s does one find in अष्टाध्यायी ? In response to my post on अधिकारसूत्राणि one Mr. सीताराम informed that there are 170 संज्ञासूत्राणि in अष्टाध्यायी. On 23 September 2011, Venetia-Ansell-महोदया had posted her study of some 80 संज्ञासूत्राणि. But, there are so many other संज्ञा-s, apart from those mentioned in संज्ञासूत्राणि.

In response to that post of Venetia-Ansell-महोदया, I had raised a basic question, “What is a संज्ञा ?”. Is it defined in अष्टाध्यायी ? Its first occurrence in अष्टाध्यायी is in पूर्वपरावरदक्षिणोत्तरापराधराणि व्यवस्थायामसंज्ञायाम् ॥ (1-1-34). Here the word संज्ञा is used by its antonym असंज्ञा. Obviously पाणिनि did not think it necessary to explain or define, what a संज्ञा is or what असंज्ञा is.

Actually the word संज्ञा seems to have different meanings in different contexts.

काशिनाथ-शास्त्री-अभ्यंकर-वर्यः compiled a dictionary of Sanskrit grammar. In that, the word संज्ञा is detailed as below –

“…. संज्ञा a technical term, a short wording to convey ample sense; a term to know general nature of things; convention; see also वृद्धिशब्दः संज्ञा; आदेचः संज्ञिनः (so said in महाभाष्यम् on (1-1-1). There are two main divisions of संज्ञा – कृत्रिमसंज्ञा or an artificial term such as टि, घु, or भ, which is merely conventional and अकृत्रिमसंज्ञा which refers to the literal sense conveyed by the word such as अव्यय, सर्वनाम and the like. Some grammar works like चन्द्र avoid purely conventional terms. These संज्ञा-s are necessary for every scientific treatise. In Panini’s grammar, there are the first two chapters, giving and explaining the technical terms whose number exceeds well-nigh hundred. ..”

In श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता also, this word संज्ञा is used in different senses, as in नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान्ब्रवीमि ते (1-7) Here संज्ञार्थं =  for (your) knowledge or information; भूतभावोद्भवकरो विसर्गः कर्मसंज्ञितः (8-3) Here कर्मसंज्ञितः = is called as Karma; द्वन्द्वैर्विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञैः (15-5) Here सुखदुःखसंज्ञैः = as connoted by सुखदुःख.

By parallelism between grammars of English and Sanskrit, one can also think that what is a ‘noun’ in English grammar is संज्ञा in Sanskrit grammar. But in English grammar we have “pronoun”, for which parallel word in Sanskrit grammar is सर्वनाम. As a corollary, one can say that नाम and संज्ञा are synonyms used in Sanskrit grammar.

In Apte’s dictionary, 12 meanings of the word संज्ञा are detailed, many with examples from Sanskrit texts. Appended thereto is also meaning of the compound word संज्ञासूत्रम् –

“… संज्ञा 1 Consciousness, अकरुण पुनः संज्ञाव्याधिं विधाय किमीहसे Māl.9.42; रतिखेदसमुत्पन्ना निद्रा संज्ञाविपर्ययः Ku.6.44. संज्ञा लभ्, आपद् or प्रतिपद् ‘to regain or recover one’s consciousness, come to one’s senses’. -2 Knowledge, understanding; नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान् व्रवीमि ते Bg.1.7; Mb.12.153.63. -3 Intellect, mind; लोकतन्त्रं हि संज्ञाश्च सर्वमन्ने प्रतिष्ठितम् Mb.13.63.5. -4 A hint, sign, token, gesture; मुखापिंतैकाङ्गुलिसंज्ञयैव मा चापलायेति गणान् व्यनैषीत् Ku.3.41; उपलभ्य ततश्च धर्मसंज्ञाम् Bu. Ch.5.21; Bhāg. 6.7.17. -5 A name, designation, an appellation; often at the end of comp. in this sense; द्वन्द्वैर्विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञैः Bg.15.5. -6 (In grammar) Any name or noun having a special meaning, a proper name. -7 The technical name for an affix. -8 The Gāyatrī Mantra; see गायत्री. -9 A track, footstep. -10 Direction. -11 A technical term. -12 N. of the daughter of Viśvakarman and of wife of the sun, and of mother of Yama, Yamī, and the two Aśvins. संज्ञासूत्रम् – any Sūtra which teaches the meaning of a technical term. ..”

From all this discussion, I would say that संज्ञा-s detailed in संज्ञासूत्राणि is but a small subset of the  set संज्ञा-s, which is much vaster.

By the way, there are as many as 7 सूत्राणि, all reading as संज्ञायाम् at (2-1-44), (3-3-109), (3-4-42), (4-1-72), (4-3-117), (6-2-159) and (8-2-11). There are also 18 more सूत्राणि, which start with the word संज्ञायाम्. All these are not संज्ञासूत्राणि. They rather seem to be विधिसूत्राणि, explaining what to do in the instance of a संज्ञा. संज्ञायाम् simply means “in the instance of a संज्ञा”.

There would be a large multitude of सूत्राणि, where one would come across the word संज्ञा. A novice, excited to learn about संज्ञा, should not get over-excited, whenever in any सूत्रम् he would notice the word संज्ञा.

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

अधिकारसूत्राणि | Among methods of

Sun, 05/01/2016 - 07:58

अधिकारसूत्राणि |

Among methods of learning Sanskrit, there seem to be different schools of thought. Recently I got two books, Parts 1 and 2 of संस्कृत पठन-पाठन की अनुभूत सरलतम विधि by पं. ब्रह्मदत्त जिज्ञासु, published by रामलाल कपूर ट्रस्ट, रेवली, सोनीपत – ३९, हरियाणा. On the cover page itself there is a declaration बिना रटे ६ मासमें अष्टाध्यायी-पद्धतिसे संस्कृत का पठन-पाठन, meaning Learning and Teaching Sanskrit in 6 months by अष्टाध्यायी-method, without any rote. अष्टाध्यायी-method means method of learning based on सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी.

Sanskrit-Grammarians seem to agree on a concept that सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी are of six types – (1) संज्ञासूत्राणि – Terminologies (2) परिभाषासूत्राणि – Meta-Rules (3) अधिकारसूत्राणि – by which topics are declared (4) विधिसूत्राणि – Processes (5) अतिदेशसूत्राणि – Extended logic (6) विशेषसूत्राणि – Special or exceptional instances.

Of these six types, my thoughts on परिभाषाप्रकरणम् have been already compiled.

Another important type is अधिकारसूत्राणि – by which topics are declared. In Part 1-book by पं. ब्रह्मदत्त जिज्ञासु he advocates study of following अधिकारसूत्र-s as essential study.

Before that, it is to be borne in mind that every अधिकारसूत्रम् has a range of its अधिकार i.e. command-range. When some अधिकारसूत्रम् has a range embedded within the range of another अधिकारसूत्रम् having a broader range, I am calling the smaller range as उपाधिकारः. I have extended this concept to connote some सूत्र-s as even having उपपराधिकारः. This concept is similar to the concept in computer-programming, related to embedding for-next loops or if-then conditions.

Number of सूत्र-s in the range of every अधिकारसूत्रम् is also indicated. These are calculated from अष्टध्यायी-सूत्रपाठः as available in a book अष्टध्यायी by श्रीगोपालशास्त्री published by चौखम्बा सुरभारती प्रकाशन, वाराणसी.

Wherever the range includes the सूत्रम् (3-3-1) उणादयो बहुलम् the count of number of सूत्र-s does not include सूत्र-s in उणादि-subset.

इत्प्रकरणम् – Range encompasses 8 सूत्राणि from उपदेशेऽजनुनासिकः इत् (1-3-2) up to (1-3-9) तस्य लोपः

(1) अधिकारः – आत्मनेपदम् (1-3-12) Range encompasses 66 सूत्राणि up to (1-3-77) विभाषोपपदेन प्रतीयमाने

(2) अधिकारः – परस्मैपदम् (1-3-78) Range encompasses 16 सूत्राणि up to (1-3-93) लुटि च क्लृपः

(3) अधिकारः – कारके (1-4-23) Range encompasses 33 सूत्राणि up to (1-4-55) तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च

(4) अधिकारः – निपाताः (1-4-56) Range encompasses 43 सूत्राणि up to (1-4-97) अधिरीश्वरे

(5) अधिकारः – समासः (2-1-3) Range encompasses (70 + 38 = 108) सूत्राणि up to (2-2-38) कडाराः कर्मधारये

(6) अधिकारः – अनभिहिते (2-3-1) Range encompasses 73 सूत्राणि up to (2-3-73) चतुर्थी चाशिष्यायुष्य-मद्र-भद्र-कुशल-सुखार्थं-हितैः

(7 + 8) अधिकारौ

प्रत्ययः (3-1-1) Range encompasses [(150 + 188 + 176 + 117) + (178 + 145 + 168 + 144) + (136 + 140 + 119 + 160) = 1821 सूत्राणि up to (5-4-160) निष्प्रवाणिश्च

परश्च (3.1.2) Range encompasses 1820 सूत्राणि up to (5-4-160) निष्प्रवाणिश्च

  • उपाधिकारः धातोः (3-1-91) Range encompasses further (59 + 188 + 176 + 117 = 540) सूत्राणि up to (3-4-117) छन्दस्युभयता
    • उपपराधिकारः – कृदतिङ् (3-1-93) Range encompasses (57 + 188 + 176 + 117 = 538) सूत्राणि up to (3-4-117) छन्दस्युभयता
    • उपपराधिकारः – कृत्याः (प्राङ् ण्वुलः) (3-1-95) Range encompasses 38 सूत्राणि up to (3-1-132) चित्याग्निचित्ये च
    • उपपराधिकारः – भूते (3-2-84) Range encompasses 39 सूत्राणि up to (3-2-122) पुरि लुङ् चास्मे
    • उपपराधिकारः – भविष्यति (3-3-3) Range encompasses 15 सूत्राणि up to (3-3-17) सृ स्थिरे
    • पूर्वम् अनिर्दिष्टविरामयोः उपाधिकारोपपराधिकारयोः विरामः (3-4-117) छन्दस्युभयता
  • उपाधिकारः ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात् (4-1-1) Range encompasses [(178 + 145 + 168 + 144) + (136 + 140 + 119 + 160) = 1082 सूत्राणि up to (5-4-160) निष्प्रवाणिश्च
    • उपपराधिकारः स्त्रियाम् (4-1-3) Range encompasses 73 सूत्राणि up to (4-1-81) दैव-यज्ञि-शौचि-वृक्षि-सात्यमुग्रि-काण्ठे-विद्धिभ्योऽअन्यतरस्याम्
    • उपपराधिकारः तद्धिताः (4-1-76) Range encompasses 980 सूत्राणि up to (5-4-160) निष्प्रवाणिश्च
  • पूर्वम् अनिर्दिष्टविरामाणाम् अधिकार-उपाधिकार-उपपराधिकाराणाम् विरामः (5-4-160) निष्प्रवाणिश्च

(9) अधिकारः संहितायाम् (6-1-70) Range encompasses further 81 सूत्राणि up to (6-1-151) ह्रस्वाञ्चन्द्रोत्तरपदे मन्त्रे

(10) अधिकारः अङ्गस्य (6-4-1) Range encompasses further [174 + (103 + 118 + 120 + 97) = 612] सूत्राणि up to (7-4-97) ई च गणः

(11) अधिकारः पदस्य (8-1-16) Range encompasses further [(58 + 108 + 54) = 220] सूत्राणि up to (8-3-54) इडाया वा |

  • उपाधिकारः पदात् (8-1-17) Range encompasses further 52 सूत्राणि up to (8-1-69) रोऽसुपि
  • उपाधिकारः – संहितायाम् (8-2-108) Range encompasses further (119 + 67 = 186) सूत्राणि up to (8-4-67) नोदात्तस्वरितोदयमगार्ग्यकाश्यपगालवानाम्
  • Here range उपाधिकारः of the सूत्रम् – संहितायाम् (8-2-108) is outflowing range i.e. अधिकारः of the सूत्रम् – पदस्य (8-1-16)

एवमत्र इत्प्रकरणम् तथा 11 अधिकाराः, 4 उपाधिकाराः 6 उपपराधिकाराः |

As can be noticed अधिकारः 7 declared by the सूत्रम् – प्रत्ययः (3-1-1) extends over 1821 सूत्र-s, which is 45%+ of entire अष्टाध्यायी. In this context my earlier write-up on प्रत्ययाः becomes interesting and relevant.

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar


Sun, 04/10/2016 - 12:30

(1) As is obvious, सुबन्ताः is a compound word (सुप् अन्ते यस्य सः सुबन्तः → ते) सुबन्ताः are words which have सुप् at their ending.

(2) सुप् means any one of the suffixes प्रत्यय-s contained in the सूत्रम् –

स्वौजसमौट्छस्टाभ्याम्भिस्-ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् (पा. ४-१-२)

(3) This सूत्रम् is again a compound word, containing संधि of many पद-s, (सु च, औ च, जस् च), (अम् च, औट् च, शस् च), (टा च, भ्यां च, भिस् च), (ङे च, भ्यां च, भ्यस् च), (ङसि च, भ्यां च, भ्यस् च), (ङस् च, ओस् च, आं च), (ङि च, ओस् च, सुप् च) |

  • By using the brackets, I have grouped the suffixes in 7 groups of 3 in each group.

(4) सुप्-प्रत्यय-s are affixed to प्रातिपदिक-s, which are defined as – अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् (१-२-४५), अर्थवत्-अधातुः-अप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, meaning

  • what is अर्थवत्, what is meaningful
  • अधातुः, what is not a धातु
  • अप्रत्ययः, which does not contain a suffix
  • Is called as प्रातिपदिकम्

(5) Root words of all नामानि nouns, सर्वनामानि pronouns and विशेषणानि adjectives are प्रातिपदिकानि, because, they are meaningful, they are NOT धातु-s, being root words, they do not contain any प्रत्यय-s.

(9) By common parlance, what one gets by affixing सुप्-प्रत्यय-s to प्रातिपदिकानि are called as शब्दरूपाणि. However, in Sanskrit grammar they are all पद-s, as defined in the सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (पा. १-४-१४).

(10) The seven groups of सुप्-प्रत्यय-s are related to seven cases विभक्ति-s. Each group has three सुप्-प्रत्यय-s, which are to be affixed according to the number वचनम्, which is detailed in the सूत्रम् – तान्येकवचनद्विवचनबहुवचनान्येकशः (पा. १-४-१०१). तानि एकवचन-द्विवचन-बहुवचनानि एकशः ।

(11) Uses of the seven different cases are also explained in various सूत्र-s. In लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी by वरदराज there is a good chapter विभक्त्यर्थाः wherein one finds the following सूत्र-s.

  1. Uses of प्रथमा – प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा (२-३-४६)
    1. संबोधने च (२-३-४७)
  2. Uses of कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म (१-४-४९) also कर्मणि द्वितीया (२-३-२) and अकथितं च (१-४-५१)
  3. Uses of तृतीया – स्वतंत्रः कर्ता (१-४-५४); साधकतमं करणम् (१-४-४२); कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया (२-३-१८)
  4. Uses of चतुर्थी – कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स सम्प्रदानम् (१-४-३२); चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने (२-३-१३); नमस्स्वस्तिस्वाहास्वधालंवषड्योगाश्च (२-३-१६)
  5. Uses of पञ्चमी – ध्रुवमपादायेऽपादानम् (१-४-२४); अपादाने पञ्चमी (२-३-२८)
  6. Uses of षष्ठी – षष्ठी शेषे (२-३-५०)
  7. Uses of सप्तमी – आधारोऽधिकरणम् (१-४-४५); सप्तम्यधिकरणे च (२-३-३६)

(12) Since सुप्-प्रत्यय-s apply to नामानि, सर्वनामानि and विशेषणानि, it will be good to know the rule about how सुबन्त-s of these relate with each other. There is a good verse for the rule.

यल्लिङ्गं यद्वचनं या च विभक्तिर्विशेष्यस्य |

तल्लिङ्गं तद्वचनं सा च विभक्तिर्विशेषणस्यापि ||

(13) Having outlined in the above 12 paras, the basics of सुबन्त-s, we can get into the grammatical processes प्रक्रिया-s of obtaining सुबन्तपदानि from different प्रातिपदिकानि. This will have two main aspects –

  • One would derive an अङ्गम् from the प्रातिपदिकम्. Note, अङ्गम् is defined in a सूत्रम् as यस्मात्प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेऽङ्गम् (१-४-१३)
  • One would also note whether the सुप्-प्रत्यय will also undergo any changes, when it gets affixed to the अङ्गम्.

(14) As is detailed in para (3), the सुप्-प्रत्यय of प्रथमा विभक्ति, एकवचनम् is सु.

  1. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् राम, we have the सुबन्तपदम् रामः
  2. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् वन, we have the सुबन्तपदम् वनम्
  3. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् माला, we have the सुबन्तपदम् माला
  4. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् हरि, we have the सुबन्तपदम् हरिः
  5. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् मति, we have the सुबन्तपदम् मतिः
  6. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् वारि, we have the सुबन्तपदम् वारि
  7. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् नदी, we have the सुबन्तपदम् नदी
  8. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् भानु, we have the सुबन्तपदम् भानुः
  9. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् धेनु, we have the सुबन्तपदम् धेनुः
  10. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् मधु, we have the सुबन्तपदम् मधु
  11. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् भू, we have the सुबन्तपदम् भूः
  12. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् पितृ, we have the सुबन्तपदम् पिता
  13. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् मातृ, we have the सुबन्तपदम् माता
  14. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् कर्तृ (नपुं.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् कर्तृ
  15. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम्  गो, we have the सुबन्तपदम् गौः
  16. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् नौ, we have the सुबन्तपदम् नौः
  17. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् दुह्, we have the सुबन्तपदम् धुक्/धुग्
  18. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् उपानह्, we have the सुबन्तपदम् उपानत्/उपानद्
  19. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् इदम् (पुं.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् अयम्
  20. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् इदम् (स्त्री.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् इयम्
  21. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् इदम् (नपुं.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् इदम्
  22. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् अस्मद्, we have the सुबन्तपदम् अहम्
  23. When it affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् युष्मद्, we have the सुबन्तपदम् त्वम्
  24. When प्रत्ययः जस् affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् चतुर् (पुं.,बहु.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् चत्वारः
  25. When प्रत्ययः जस् affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् चतुर् (स्त्री.बहु.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् चतस्रः
  26. When प्रत्ययः जस् affixes to a प्रातिपदिकम् चतुर् (नपुं.बहु.), we have the सुबन्तपदम् चत्वारि

Items 19 to 23 become really thought-provoking, how the same प्रत्ययः सु lends सुबन्त-s, so very different from each other and quite different from their प्रातिपदिकम्.

  • In items 19 to 21, the सुबन्त-s are different from each other, obviously because gender लिङ्गम् is different.
  • In items 22 and 23, the सुबन्त-s are quite different from the प्रातिपदिकम्, though the सुबन्त-s are independent of gender, rather, त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु समानाः |

Whereas I have listed above 26 items, in a pocket-size book रूपचन्दिका by श्री. ब्रह्मानंद त्रिपाठी published by चौखंबा सुरभारती प्रकाशन, वाराणसी, one gets all सुबन्त-s in all विभक्ति-s and वचन-s for as many as 182 typical प्रातिपदिकानि. Under the tabulations of सुबन्त-s, author lists many other प्रातिपदिकानि, which follow the pattern of each typical प्रातिपदिकम्. Of course, no such list can ever be comprehensive and complete.

Now, in the context of the mention of “.. all सुबन्त-s in all विभक्ति-s and वचन-s ..”, it ought to be noted that

  • There are no संबोधन-सुबन्तानि for सर्वनामानि.
  • There are some प्रातिपदिकानि, which are inherently plural by nature and have only बहुवचन-सुबन्तानि, as exemplified by items 24, 25 and 26.

Looking at all सुबन्तानि of any one प्रातिपदिकम् also, one wonders whether the अङ्गानि also are different, when different सुप्-प्रत्यय-s are to be affixed. There again, if the प्रातिपदिकम् is a pronoun or an adjective, the gender also influences, as shown at items 19 to 21.

And there are some exceptional प्रातिपदिकानि, e.g. पथिन् (meaning मार्गः, path), for which, in its अङ्गानि, its ending न् moves before थ् and becomes पन्थ्

Is this sounding too complex ? Point to be borne in mind is that no grammarian created the language. The प्रातिपदिकानि and their सुबन्तानि were in use, as were compiled by the grammarians. Hats off to the grammarians, that they were able to find their way through the maze and find patterns and derive rules, which explain how all सुबन्तानि of all प्रातिपदिकानि can be certified valid or not valid (if someone commits an error and forms an erroneous सुबन्तम्).

  • We need to respect the hard labor put in by the grammarians and should in turn respect that their labor has structured संस्कृत with zero tolerance, not only for erroneous सुबन्तानि, but for any erroneous पदानि. But errors would happen, especially in Spoken Sanskrit. It is on this point that I am against promotion of Spoken Sanskrit, unless and until one is sure that any Spoken Sanskrit also will be totally free of errors. It is my firm belief, that erroneous Sanskrit is not Sanskrit at all. Then why promote any such Sanskrit, which may not be Sanskrit at all ?

The rules are so set that even if some new प्रातिपदिकम् be formed, its सुबन्तानि can be derived. For example, tube-light is an item of the modern world. There can be a Sanskrit word for it – तेजोदण्डः or तेजोनलिका. Then one can have all सुबन्तानि for these. Even if Sanskrit has zero tolerance for errors, the grammarians have kept it flexible enough to provide formation of new words and their correct सुबन्तानि !

शुभमस्तु !


Categories: Sanskrit Grammar


Mon, 04/04/2016 - 12:26

As has been acknowledged, सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी are said to be of six types. This is not what पाणिनि has himself stated. This is how later grammarians have thought of in their study of अष्टाध्यायी. The six types are (1) संज्ञासूत्राणि – Terminologies (2) परिभाषासूत्राणि – Meta-Rules (3) अधिकारसूत्राणि – by which topics are declared (4) विधिसूत्राणि – Processes (5) अतिदेशसूत्राणि – Extended logic (6) विशेषसूत्राणि – Special or exceptional instances.

Mention of परिभाषासूत्राणि was made in the closing paragraph of the other post on Methodology of study of a सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी Hence this write-up.

In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी by भट्टोजी दीक्षित the second chapter is परिभाषाप्रकरणम्. This is not so detailed by any specific chapter in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी by वरदराज.

In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी this परिभाषाप्रकरणम् is detailed in thirteen सूत्र-s , detailed in as many paras, from 34 to 46. The सूत्र-s and paras read as below.

परिच्छेदः (३४) इको गुणवृद्धी (१-१-३) – गुणवृद्धिशब्दाभ्यां यत्र गुणवृद्धी विधीयेते तत्रेक इति षष्ठ्यन्तं पदमुपतिष्ठते ।।

परिच्छेदः (३५) अचश्च (१-२-२८) – ह्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतशब्दैर्यत्राज्विधीयते तत्राऽच इति षष्ठ्यन्तं पदमुपतिष्ठते ।।

परिच्छेदः (३६) आद्यन्तौ टकितौ (१-१-४६) टित्कितौ यस्योक्तौ तस्य क्रमादाद्यन्तावयवौ स्तः ।।

परिच्छेदः (३७) मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः (१-१-४७) – अच इति निर्धारणे षष्ठी । अचां मध्ये योऽन्त्यस्तस्मात्परस्तस्यैवान्तावयवो मित्स्यात् ।।

परिच्छेदः (३८) षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा (१-१-४९) – अनिर्धारितसंबन्धविशेषा षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा बोध्या । स्थानं च प्रसङ्गः ।।

परिच्छेदः (३९) स्थानेऽन्तरतमः (१-१-५०) – प्रसङ्गे सति सदृशतम आदेशः स्यात् । यत्रानेकविधमान्तर्यं तत्र स्थानत आन्तर्यं बलीयः ।।

परिच्छेदः (४०) तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य (१-१-६६) – सप्तमीनिर्देशेन विधीयमानं कार्यं वर्णान्तरेणाव्यवहितस्य पूर्वस्य बोध्यम् ।

परिच्छेदः (४१) तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य (१-१-६७) – पञ्चमीनिर्देशेन क्रियमाणं कार्यं वर्णान्तरेणाव्यवहितस्य परस्य ज्ञेयम् ।।

परिच्छेदः (४२) अलोऽन्त्यस्य (१-१-५२) – षष्ठीनिर्दिष्टान्त्यस्याल आदेशः स्यात् ।।

परिच्छेदः (४३) ङिच़्च (१-१-५३) – अयमप्यन्त्यस्यैव स्यात् । ‘-सर्वस्य-४५’ इत्यस्यापवादः ।।

परिच्छेदः (४४) आदेः परस्य (१-१-५४) – परस्य यद्विहितं तत्तस्यादेर्बोध्यम् । ‘अलोऽन्त्यस्य ४२’ इत्यस्यापवादः ।।

परिच्छेदः (४५) अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य (१-१-५५) – स्पष्टम् । अलोऽन्त्यसूत्रापवादः । ‘अष्टाभ्य औश् ३७२’ इत्यादौ ‘आदेः परस्य’ इत्येदपि परत्वादनेन बाध्यते ।।

परिच्छेदः (४६) स्वरितेनाधिकारः (१-३-११) – स्वरितयुक्तं शब्दस्वरूपमधिकृतं बोध्यम् ।। (प) परनित्यान्तरङ्गापवादानामुत्तरोत्तरं बलीयः ।। (प) असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे ।। (प) अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः ।। निमित्तं विनाशोन्मुखं दृष्ट्वा तत्प्रयुक्तं कार्यं न कुर्वन्नीत्यर्थः ।।

इति परिभाषाप्रकरणम् ।।

During a comparative study of सिद्धान्तकौमुदी by भट्टोजी दीक्षित and लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी by वरदराज, it transpired that though there is no distinct परिभाषाप्रकरणम् in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी, nine of the 13 सूत्र-s are covered in different chapters in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी.

परिच्छेदः (३६) आद्यन्तौ टकितौ (१-१-४६) is covered in Para 83 in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी in हल्-सन्धिप्रकरणम्.

परिच्छेदः (३७) मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः (१-१-४७) is covered in Para 239 in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी in अजन्तनपुंसकलिङ्गप्रकरणम्.

परिच्छेदः (३९) स्थानेऽन्तरतमः (१-१-५०) is covered in Para 239 in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी in अच्-सन्धिप्रकरणम्.

परिच्छेदः (४०) तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य (१-१-६६) is covered in Para 16 in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी in अच्-सन्धिप्रकरणम्.

परिच्छेदः (४१) तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य (१-१-६७) is covered in Para 70 in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी in हल्-सन्धिप्रकरणम्.

परिच्छेदः (४२) अलोऽन्त्यस्य (१-१-५२) is covered in Para 21 in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी in अच्-सन्धिप्रकरणम्.

परिच्छेदः (४३) ङिच़्च (१-१-५३) is covered in Para 45 in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी in अच्-सन्धिप्रकरणम्.

परिच्छेदः (४४) आदेः परस्य (१-१-५४) is covered in Para 71 in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी in हल्-सन्धिप्रकरणम्.

परिच्छेदः (४५) अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य (१-१-५५)  is covered in Para 44 in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी in अच्-सन्धिप्रकरणम्

If 9 out of 13 सूत्र-s are relevant in other chapters, वरदराज seems to be justified in not devoting any chapter as परिभाषाप्रकरणम् in his लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी.

Even out of the nine, 5 are covered in अच्-सन्धिप्रकरणम्, 3 are covered in हल्-सन्धिप्रकरणम् and one is in अजन्तनपुंसकलिङ्गप्रकरणम्.

None of the five सूत्र-s detailed in अच्-सन्धिप्रकरणम् by वरदराज in his लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी are detailed in अच्-सन्धिप्रकरणम् in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, maybe, because they have been already separated out and discussed in परिभाषाप्रकरणम् in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी.

This is so also for the 3 सूत्र-s detailed in हल्-सन्धिप्रकरणम् by वरदराज in his लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी.

So, वरदराज although a disciple of भट्टोजी दीक्षित seems to differ from his precept.

That leaves only four सूत्र-s of परिभाषाप्रकरणम् which do not have a mention anywhere in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी.

Actually लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी is basically abridged version of सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. So लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी is not expected to cover all सूत्र-s, which are detailed in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. So, for those सूत्र-s which do not have a mention anywhere in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी, one can take them as not being essential, as per the judgement of वरदराज. Accordingly we can consider लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी to be the primer for a student of अष्टाध्यायी at large and in turn for understanding minimum essentials of Sanskrit grammar.

In turn, since there is no परिभाषाप्रकरणम् in लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी, one can say, that one need not bother about what the meaning of परिभाषा is, which सूत्र-s constitute or qualify to be called as परिभाषासूत्र-s, what the significance is in learning them when learning Sanskrit grammar, etc,  

However, having taken up परिभाषाप्रकरणम् itself as the theme for discussion, dispensing it off as not significant in a primer would leave the curiosity unanswered. So it should be good to at least look for dictionary-meaning of परिभाषा. Here is what I get in Apte’s on-line dictionary at http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/contextualize.pl?p.3.apte.1982152

परिभाषा 1 Speech, discourse; ग्राम्यवैदग्ध्यया परिभाषया Bhāg.5.2.17. -2 Censure, reproof, blame, abuse. -3 An explanation. -4 Terminology, technical phraseology, technical terms (used in a work); इति परिभाषाप्रकरणम् Sk.; इको गुणवृद्धीत्यादिका परिभाषा Mbh; cf. also अधिकारशब्देन पारार्थ्यात् परिभाषाप्युच्यते । कश्चित् परिभाषारूप इति Kaiyaṭa. -5 (Hence) Any general rule, precept or definition which is applicable throughout (अनियमनिवारको न्यायविशेषः); परितः प्रमिताक्षरापि सर्वं विषयं प्राप्तवती गता प्रतिष्ठाम् । न खलु प्रतिहन्यते कदाचित् परिभाषेव गरीयसी यदाज्ञा Śi.16.8. -6 A list of abbreviations or signs used in any work. -7 (In gram.) An explanatory Sūtra mixed up with the other Sūtras of Pāṇini, which teaches the method of applying them.

Going by this meaning of परिभाषा, I am left wondering why विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (पा. सू. १-४-२) does not figure in परिभाषाप्रकरणम् in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. It is certainly applicable all across अष्टाध्यायी. For example between इको यणचि (६-१-७७) and अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (६-१-१०१) the latter will apply in the case of सवर्णसन्धि-s. So, विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् though it comes at (१-४-२) in the first chapter, it applies to सूत्र-s in sixth chapter also.

Incidentally, विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् does not seem to apply to एचोऽयवायावः (६-१-७८) and लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८-३-१९). There are good number of examples of both the सूत्र-s having been optionally employed – In श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता the word भूमावसपत्नमृद्धम् (२-८) (भूमौ असपत्नमृद्धम्) has सन्धि as per एचोऽयवायावः (६-१-७८). In the immediate next श्लोकः, न योत्स्य इति (२-९) (न योत्स्ये इति) has सन्धि as per लोपः शाकल्यस्य (८-३-१९). This could as well have been न योत्स्ययिति as per एचोऽयवायावः (६-१-७८).

The optionality between the two सूत्र-s comes from the सूत्रम् – पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् (८-२-१). This is because, the extent of application of the परिभाषा – विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् is limited by पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् (८-२-१), meaning, whatever is before (८-२-१) does not apply beyond (८-२-१).

It is generally accepted that अष्टाध्यायी has two distinct Parts, Part 1 comprising first seven chapters and the first quarter of the eighth chapter, hence called as सपादसप्ताध्यायी, (total 29 quarters) and Part 2 त्रिपादाध्यायी comprising last three quarters of eighth chapter.

By my thinking I have spotted विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् to be a परिभाषासूत्रम्. There could be many more, which have not been so considered in परिभाषाप्रकरणम् in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी.

Actually in many books of science and engineering , specific symbols, conventions and terminologies used by the author are explained right at the beginning. For example hard copy of Apte’s dictionary has good information about the abbreviations used. All that information is right in the beginning.

There are many computer programming languages, which demand variables to be declared right at the beginning.

Grammar also is the science and technology of a language. Also अष्टाध्यायी is one big algorithm or a software, fit to be computerized. One can think that परिभाषा accordingly is primarily specific conventions and terminologies used in this particular grammatical text, the अष्टाध्यायी. It would have been good if all परिभाषासूत्र-s were to be at the beginning portions in अष्टाध्यायी.

All the thirteen सूत्र-s in परिभाषाप्रकरणम् in सिद्धान्तकौमुदी are in Chapter 1 only. In fact all of them are in the first quarter. But the one spotted by me, विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (पा. सू. १-४-२) is in the fourth quarter.

I wonder whether the entire first chapter can be looked at as परिभाषाध्यायः. If it is logical that specific symbols, conventions and terminologies used by the author be given right at the beginning, then, for all his known and well-acclaimed intellect पाणिनिमुनि might have done that.

Anyway परिभाषा seems to be an interesting perspective to be kept in mind when studying and understanding सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी, especially those in the First Chapter.

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

Methodology for Study of a सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी

Mon, 03/28/2016 - 00:06

Recently Mr. Kristan Stratos posted a query at samskrita@googlegroups-dot-com. His query was –

May I have a good example from the following;  

अश्टाध्यायी सूत्र १।४।१३ – सिद्धान्तकौमुदीं  १९९

यस्मात्प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि  प्रत्ययेऽङ्गम् ।।

That was a good opportunity for me to summarize the methodology for Study of a सूत्रम् in अष्टाध्यायी. I detailed it as follows –

I understand that for understanding any सूत्रम् one should follow a sequence –

  1. Write down the सूत्रम् as given यस्मात्प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेऽङ्गम्
  2. Do पदच्छेद – यस्मात् प्रत्यय-विधिः तत्-आदि प्रत्यये अङ्गम् |
  3. Decipher compound words –  
    1. प्रत्ययस्य विधिः इति प्रत्ययविधिः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    2. तत् (एव) आदि इति तदादि (कर्मधारयः)
    3. यस्मात् प्रत्ययस्य विधिः [तत् (एव) आदि] प्रत्यये अङ्गम् |
  4. Do case-number analysis of all पद-s – यस्मात् (5/1) प्रत्ययस्य (6/1) विधिः (1/1) तत् (1/1) एव (0/0) आदि (1/1) प्रत्यये (7/1) अङ्गम् (1/1)
  5. Bring forth any such word(s) or phrase(s) from previous सूत्र (or सूत्र-s), which would be essential for proper interpretation of the given सूत्र. This step called as अनुवृत्ति may be or may not be required or applicable. For this सूत्रम् no अनुवृत्ति seems necessary.
  6. Paraphrase the सूत्रम् i.e. put it in a proper syntax i.e. write the अन्वय so that the paraphrasing brings forth the meaning. Such paraphrasing is called as वृत्ति. One may do this not necessarily in संस्कृत. Concept of वृत्ति is to bring forth the interpretation. So it can be done in any language.
    1. यस्मात् = That from which
    2. प्रत्ययस्य विधिः = the process of affixing the suffix
    3. [तत् (एव) आदि] = itself (becomes) the beginning
    4. प्रत्यये = in the (instance of) a suffix
    5. अङ्गम् = (is) the अङ्गम्
    6. In a book व्यावहारिकं पाणिनीयम् by डॉ. नरेन्द्रः published by संस्कृतकार्यालयः, श्रीअरविन्दाश्रमः, पुदुच्चेरी, the वृत्ति of this सूत्रम् is given as यस्मात् [धातोः प्रातिपदिकात् वा] प्रत्ययविधिः (प्रत्ययः विधीयते, प्रत्ययस्य प्रयोगः क्रियते) तस्मात् आरभ्य प्रत्ययपर्यन्तं (प्रत्ययं विहाय) अङ्गं कथ्यते
  7. To reinforce the interpretation, one may compile examples.
    1. Suppose we want to get प्रथमाबहुवचनम् of प्रातिपदिकम् – फल
    2. The सुप्-प्रत्यय is इ.
    3. Before affixing इ, the प्रातिपदिकम् – फल would undergo some transformation unto फलान्. That then is the अङ्गम्
      1. How फल transforms to फलान् would itself be a विधिः, a sub-process
      2. That would be explained by some other सूत्र-s.
    4. But for interpretation of this सूत्रम्, one can say, in short अङ्गम् + प्रत्ययः = पदम्
    5. Hence फलान् + इ = फलानि
  8. One may elaborate one’s own commentary. This is what has been done by वार्तिक-s in their वार्तिका-s.
    1. For example, I would dare to add my commentary that in this सूत्रम् one may do the interpretation right, even if the सूत्रम् did not have the word प्रत्यये. This word, prima facie, appeals to be superfluous.
      1. But I do acknowledge that पाणिनि would not have composed any सूत्रम् with not even a single मात्रा excessive, let alone a whole word excessive.
      2. In that case I should deliberate more to understand the significance of this word प्रत्यये. I may leave it for advanced study. For the present, let me be happy with the preliminary interpretation as above.
    2. Since this सूत्रम् sort of defines what is अङ्गम्, it can be considered as a संज्ञासूत्रम् to define the संज्ञा – अङ्गम्
    3. The summary statement अङ्गम् + प्रत्ययः = पदम् is well endorsed by the immediate next सूत्रम् – सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

Dr. H. N. Bhat added an observation “… I understand that every case ending in a Sutra, is governed with the meta rules prescribed by Panini and used with precise meaning defining the scope of the rule. ..”. By his comment Dr. Bhat has sort of laid a preface on the topic of meta rules and the purpose of doing case-number analysis, as detailed at step (4). I understand from my friend and व्याकरणशास्त्री Dr. Nilesh Joshi that this topic involves study of परिभाषासूत्राणि. Of course this topic of meta rules परिभाषासूत्राणि is a topic by itself in the study of Sanskrit grammar and of अष्टाध्यायी.

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

What is in a word ?

Sat, 03/05/2016 - 10:31

It came to mind that words distinguish one language from the other. So I searched for “What is a word in English grammar ?” I got “.. It is easy to give examples of words, but much harder to give a precise definition. ..”

Since I have come to believe that Sanskrit grammar is more precise, I searched first for translation of the word “word” into Sanskrit. I get a large number of optional translations at http://spokensanskrit.de/index.php?script=HK&beginning=0+&tinput=word&trans=Translate&direction=AU

Those that appealed to me as notable are – शब्द, पद, निगम, निघण्टु, वाच्, उक्ति, ध्वनि, from the first page. And there are 25+ more pages ! Does that itself justify the title of this article “What is in a word ?”

Among all these, I think Sanskrit grammar acknowledges पद as the grammatical terminology for what is called as “word” in English grammar.

In my article on “Phonetics and Phonology in Sanskrit” I dwelt upon how different intonations of vowels can be meaningful.

The question now is “By being meaningful do they become words ?” I am inclined to take recourse to समर्थः पदविधिः (पा. सूत्रम् 2-1-1) where I would interpret

  1. अर्थेण सह इति समर्थः what is meaningful is समर्थ
  2. विधिः = becoming; hence पदविधिः = becoming of a पद
  3. समर्थः पदविधिः = that, which has its becoming meaningful is पद. In saying so, I am interpreting समर्थः पदविधिः as यस्य विधिः समर्थः तत्पदम्

I know that this interpretation is questionable. Many may raise their eyebrows. But this helps me to contend that all those vowel-intonations, which are meaningful, can as well be called as पद-s.

I get further justification to this contention of mine from स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् (१।१।३७)

  1. All vowel-intonations are स्वरादिनिपात-s.
    1. निपात = intonation or expression which is
    2. स्वरादि = beginning with a vowel
  2. स्वरादिनिपात-s are अव्यय-s.
  3. अव्यय-s are पद-s.
  4. All vowel-intonations are पद-s.

I do not know whether English grammar would acknowledge “Uhm” or “eh” as words.

Interestingly, all स्वरादिनिपात-s seem to have universally same meaning, independent of languages. They do not have to be listed in dictionaries. But transliterations can be different, depending upon the script.

One need not go into etymology of these vowel-intonations, to find out how they emerge and get their meanings, as they emerge.

There is no need of morphological analysis, because there is no morphology. They are अव्यय-s.

Curiously, since every सूत्रम् which has the word आदि in it is detailed further in गणपाठ-appendix of अष्टाध्यायी, the गणपाठ related to स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् reads –

स्वरादिः। स्वर्। अन्तर्। प्रातर्। अन्तोदात्ताः। पुनर्। सनुतर्। उच्चैस्। नीचैस्। शनैस्। ऋधक्। ऋते। युगपत्। आरात्। अन्तिकात्। पृथक्। आद्युदात्ताः। ह्यस्। स्वस्। दिवा। रात्रौ। सायम्। चिरम्। मनाक्। ईषत्। शश्वत्। जोषम्। तूष्णीम्। बहिस्। अधस्। अवस्। समया। निकषा। स्वयम्। मृषा। नक्तम्। नञ्। हेतौ। हे। है। इद्धा। अद्धा। सामि। अन्तोदात्ताः। वत्। बत। सनत्। सनात्। तिरस्। आद्युदात्ताः। अन्तरा। अन्तोदात्तः। अन्तरेण। मक्। ज्योक्। योक्। नक्। कम्। शम्। सना। सहसा। श्रद्धा। अलम्। स्वधा। वषट्। विना। माना। स्वस्ति। अन्यत्। अस्ति। उपांशु। क्षमा। विहायसा। दोषा। मृषा। मिथ्या। मुधा। पुरा। मिथो। मिथस्। प्रायस्। मुहुस्। प्रवाहुकम्। प्रवाहिका। आर्यहलम्। अभीक्ष्णम्। साकम्। सार्धम्। नमस्। हिरुक्। धिक्। अथ। अम्। आम्। प्रताम्। प्रशान्। प्रतान्। मा। माङ्। आकृतिगणोऽयम्। हम्। वा। ह। अह। एव। एवम्। नूनम्। शश्वत्। युगपत्। भूयस्। कूपत्। कुवित्। नेत्। चेत्। चण्। कच्चित्। यत्र। नह। हन्त। माकिः। माकिम्। नकिः। नकिम्। माङ्। नञ्। यावत्। तावत्। त्वे। द्वै। त्वै। रै। श्रौषट्। वौषट्। स्वाहा। स्वधा। वषट्। तुम्। तथाहि। खलु। किल। अथो। अथ। सुष्ठु। स्म। आदह। (उपसर्गविभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च)। अवदत्तम्। अहंयुः। अस्तिक्षीरा। अ। आ। इ। ई। उ। ऊ। ए। ऐ। ओ। औ। पशु। शुकम्। यथाकथाचम्। पाट्। प्याट्। अङ्ग। है। हे। भोः। अये। द्य। विषु। एकपदे। युत्। आतः। चादिरप्याकृतिगणः। तसिलादयःप्राक्पाशपः। शस्प्रभृतयःप्राक्समासान्तेभ्यः। अम्। आम्। कृत्वोर्थाः। तसिवती। नानाञौ। एतदन्तमप्यव्ययम्।

Every item here is not स्वरादि = beginning with a vowel. Here the word स्वरादि is स्वर् + आदि i.e. starting with स्वर् and many others follow. There certainly are in the list, many beginning with a vowel.

In गणपाठ there is also the next list –

चादिः | चादयोऽसत्त्वे (१-४-५७)

च। वा। ह। अह। एव। एवम्। नूनम्। शश्वत्। युगपत्। सूपत्। कूपत्। कुवित्। नेत्। चेत्। चण्। कच्चित्। यत्र। नह। हन्त। माकिम्। नकिम्। माङ्। माङोङकारोविशेषणार्थः, माङिलुङ्इति। इहनभवति, माभवतु, मभविष्यति। नञ्। यावत्। तावत्। त्वा। त्वै। द्वै। रै। श्रौषट्। वौषट्। स्वाहा। वषट्। स्वधा। ओम्। किल। तथा। अथ। सु। स्म। अस्मि। अ। इ। उ। ऋ। ल्। उ। ए। ऐ। ओ। औ। अम्। तक्। उञ्। उकञ्। वेलायाम्। मात्रायाम्। यथा। यत्। यम्। तत्। किम्। पुरा। अद्धा। धिक्। हाहा। हे। है। प्याट्। पाट्। थाट्। अहो। उताहो। हो। तुम्। तथाहि। खलु। आम्। आहो। अथो। ननु। मन्ये। मिथ्या। असि। ब्रूहि। तु। नु। इति। इव। वत्। चन। बत। इह। शम्। कम्। अनुकम्। नहिकम्। हिकम्। सुकम्। सत्यम्। ऋतम्। श्रद्धा। इद्धा। मुधा। नोचेत्। नचेत्। नहि। जातु। कथम्। कुतः। कुत्र। अव। अनु। हाहौ। हैहा। ईहा। आहोस्वित्। छम्बट्। खम्। दिष्ट्या। पशु। वट्। सह। आनुषक्। अङ्ग। फट्। ताजक्। अये। अरे। चटु। बाट्। कुम्। खुम्। घुम्। हुम्। आईम्। शीम्। सीम्। वै।

I am surprised and curious that there are some repeats in the two lists e.g. श्रौषट्। वौषट्। स्वाहा।

Coming back to the theme “What is in a word” and continuing with specific सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी which give some insight into the concept of पद-s, I have been particularly deliberating on

  1. प्रादयः (१.४.५८) prefixes and उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे (१-४-५९) prefixes as applied to verbal roots
  2. प्रत्ययः (३।१।१) – a suffix morpheme
  3. सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (१।४।१४) – suffixes to be affixed to
    1. nominal roots to get शब्दरूप-s
    2. verbal roots to get क्रियापद-s
  4. कृदतिङ् (३।१।९३) – suffixes to get verbal derivatives
  5. उपपदमतिङ् (२.२.१९) – a component-word obtained from a verbal root, for use in compound words

Logic for deliberating on these is because these, to my mind, are morphemes, which are defined as – “.. In linguistics, a morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. In other words, it is the smallest meaningful unit of a language. The field of study dedicated to morphemes is called morphology. ..”.

From morphological viewpoint, simple answer to the question “What is in a word ?” is, word has morphemes. Above सूत्र-s are worth deliberating upon, because they are related to morphemes – prefixes, suffixes, derivatives, component words.

This deliberation reinforces my contention that in Sanskrit there are चत्वारि वाक्पदानि.

I have linked above with  three phrases “Phonetics and Phonology in Sanskrit”, “morphological viewpoint” and “चत्वारि वाक्पदानि” my related articles. In those articles and this one, I am attempting to develop for myself, some understanding of the concept of speech वाच्, how it gets formed and expressed.  

“What is in a word” is certainly an important aspect of it. By the way, in Sanskrit-English dictionary one meaning of शब्द is “.. A word, sound, significant word ..”. The English meaning “word” is a grammatical term in English grammar. But the word शब्द is not a grammatical term in Sanskrit grammar. The most appropriate term, I contend, is पदम्. In Apte’s Sanskrit-English dictionary among various meanings of this word पदम्  there are two meanings, which are grammatical

  1. A complete or inflected word; सुप्तिडन्तं पदम् P.I. 4.14. वर्णाः पदं प्रयोगार्हानन्वितैकार्थबोधकाः S. D.9; R.8.77; Ku.4.9.
  2. A name for the base of nouns before all consonantal case-terminations except nom. singular.

I am not happy with this. I would rather put पदम् to be every such component of speech, which makes the speech meaningful. This would include the vowel-intonations also and of course, the words. Is this okay ?

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

Phonetics and Phonology in Sanskrit

Thu, 03/03/2016 - 06:04

When I searched on the internet for “what is the difference between phonetics and phonology”. I got, “phonetics is the production and perception of speech sounds in any language and it deals with “phone”. Phonology on the other hand is the interpretation of speech sounds in a particular language and it deals with phoneme: the smallest unit of sound.”

I would think that Devanagari script is a phonetic script. As mentioned in above definition of phonetics there is mention of “perception of sound”. Script gives visibility and in turn, such  perception of sound. If a script gives good perception of sound, it becomes a phonetic script.

I think phonetics and phonology are much easier understood from the Devanagari script and Sanskrit grammar.

I would look at the above definition of phonetics in three parts – (1) production of speech sounds (2) perception of speech sounds (3) it deals with “phone”.

In respect of (1) production of speech sounds and (3) it deals with “phone”, it is interesting to note how production of phones is detailed in Sanskrit grammar.

  1. phones produced from the throat are कण्ठ्य.
    1. among them there are vowels स्वर-s अ, आ
    2. among them there are harsh consonants कठोर व्यञ्जन-s, क् with अल्पप्राण and ख् with महाप्राण
    3. among मृदु व्यञ्जन-s soft consonants, there is ग् with अल्पप्राण and घ् with महाप्राण
    4. among this class, there is a nasal phone अनुनासिक  ङ्.
    5. among this class, there is a phone produced by some internal recirculation अन्तस्थ ह्,
  2. phones produced by tip of tongue touching the gum are तालव्य
    1. among them there are vowels स्वर-s इ, ई
    2. among harsh consonants कठोर व्यञ्जन-s, there is च् with अल्पप्राण and छ् with महाप्राण
    3. among मृदु व्यञ्जन-s soft consonants, there is ज् with अल्पप्राण and झ् with महाप्राण
    4. among this class, there is a nasal phone अनुनासिक ञ्
    5. among this class, there is a phone produced by some internal recirculation अन्तस्थ य्
    6. among this class, there is an oozing ऊष्म phone श्
  3. phones produced by tip of tongue touching teeth are दन्त्य.
    1. among them there is vowel स्वर लृ
    2. among harsh consonants कठोर व्यञ्जन-s  there is त् with अल्पप्राण and थ् with महाप्राण
    3. among मृदु व्यञ्जन-s soft consonants, there is द् with अल्पप्राण and ध् with महाप्राण
    4. among this class, there is a nasal phone अनुनासिक न्
    5. among this class, there is a phone produced by some internal recirculation अन्तस्थ ल्
    6. among this class, there is an oozing ऊष्म phone स्
  4. phones produced by tip of tongue striking the roof are मूर्धन्य
    1. among them there are vowels स्वर ऋ ॠ
    2. among harsh consonantsकठोर व्यञ्जन-s, there is ट् with अल्पप्राण and ठ् with महाप्राण
    3. among मृदु व्यञ्जन-s soft consonants, there is ड् with अल्पप्राण and ढ् with महाप्राण
    4. among this class, there is a nasal phone अनुनासिक ण्
    5. among this class, there is a phone produced by some internal recirculation अन्तस्थ र्  
    6. among this class, there is an oozing ऊष्म phone ष्
  5. phones produced from the lips are ओष्ठ्य
    1. In this class there are vowels स्वर-s उ, ऊ ओ औ
    2. In this class there are  there are harsh कठोर and soft मृदु
    3. In this class there are harsh consonants कठोर व्यञ्जन-s, प् with अल्पप्राण and फ् with महाप्राण
    4. In this class there are soft consonants मृदु व्यञ्जन-s, ब् with अल्पप्राण and भ् with महाप्राण
    5. In this class, there is a nasal phone अनुनासिक म् .
  6. Vowels ए ऐ are phones produced from the throat and gum कण्ठतालव्य  
  7. Vowels ओ औ are phones produced from throat and rounded lips कण्ठौष्ठ्य  
  8. All vowel sounds can also have a soft release mode called as विसर्जनीय, for which the colon (:) symbol is used.

In respect of (2) perception of speech sounds

  1. it is to be acknowledged that the consonant-sounds are perceptible only if they are preceded or followed by a vowel,
    1. preceded by a vowel as in अक् इण् etc.,
    2. followed by a vowel as in पु, कि, स्त्री etc.
  2. It is also acknowledged in Sanskrit grammar that all vowel sounds can be pronounced and perceived in 18 different ways. The 18 ways are defined by following five aphorisms सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी of पाणिनि.
    1. मुखनासिकावचनोऽनुनासिकः (1-1-8) The pronunciations can be nasal अनुनासिक or not nasal अननुनासिक
    2. ऊकालोऽज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः (1-2-27) The pronunciations can be short ह्रस्व long दीर्घ extended प्लुत as in the crowing of a cock कुक कू कूऽऽ
    3. उच्चैरुदात्तः (1-2-29) The pronunciations can be pitched or stressed उदात्त
    4. नीचैरनुदात्तः (1-2-30) The pronunciations can be low and soft अनुदात्त
    5. समाहारः स्वरितः (1-2-31) The pronunciations can be level स्वरित
    6. Number of variations are [nasal or not nasal (2) x short, long, extended (3) x pitched, low or level (3)] = 18.
    7. Interestingly, all these sounds can be meaningful speech, e.g.
      1. short, nasal, low अँ may mean “Did you say something ? I was not listening”
      2. long, nasal, pitched आँ when said to a baby may mean “That’s not right, baby !”
      3. short, not nasal, level ए (eh) would mean seeking attention of someone nearby
      4. long/extended, not nasal, pitched एऽऽ would mean calling someone from a distance
      5. Such meanings are universal and not specific to any language. But it is to be appreciated that they are so clearly elaborated in Sanskrit grammar.

Since perceptions of speech sounds can be meaningful as above, it means that there are interpretations inherent in them. I am hence inclined to take it that what are ‘phone’s in phonetics are phonemes in phonology.

Since phonemes are called in phonology as smallest units of sound, phoneme can be considered as equivalent of what is called as वर्ण in Sanskrit grammar. All vowels and consonants are वर्ण-s. अक्षर is what can be pronounced and may contain one or more वर्ण-s. All vowels are अक्षर-s.

There is great logic behind how the vowels and consonants are set in different aphorisms known as शिवसूत्र-s. Looking specifically at the first four सूत्र-s containing vowels – (1) अ इ उ ण् (2) ऋ लृ क् (3) ए ओ ङ् (4) ऐ औ च् it can be noticed that the diphthongs are put together very well in सूत्र-s (3) and (4). By the way, diphthong is defined as type of vowels where two vowel sounds are connected in a continuous, gliding motion. They are often referred to as gliding vowels. Most languages have a number of diphthongs, although that number varies widely, from only one or two to fifteen or more.

There is another great aspect of perception of speech sounds, which is clarified very well in Sanskrit grammar. One should deliberate on the terms conjoint consonants संयुक्ताक्षर and conjugations संहिता/संधि. In अष्टाध्यायी there are two specific सूत्र-s, which brings out clear distinction between conjoint consonants संयुक्ताक्षर and conjugations संहिता/संधि.

  1. हलोऽनन्तराः संयोगः (१।१।७) = अनन्तराः हलः संयोगः consecutively successive consonants make a conjoint consonant. For example in the word कार्त्स्न्यम् there are phonemes वर्ण-s क् आ र् त् स् न् य् अ म्. Note, the consonants र् त् स् न् य् are in consecutive succession of each other. With all of these together, we get one conjoint consonant र्त्स्न्य
  2. परः संनिकर्षः संहिता (१।४।१०९) = different or another effect or result is (due to) conjugation. For example, तान् + ते = तांस्ते This result has an inflow of an additional स्. So तांस्ते is conjugation संहिता of तान् + ते. Having given this example, it be noted that गीतान्ते is also a संहिता of गीत + अन्ते (at the end अन्ते of a song गीत) or गीतान्ते = गीता + अन्ते (at the end of the divine verse गीता). 

There is an appendix to अष्टाध्यायी known as पाणिनीया शिक्षा. This deals with phonetics and phonology in Sanskrit in great detail, taking care of even regional variations or accents in pronunciation. For example note this → यथा सौराष्ट्रिका नारी तक्रँ इत्यभिभाषते । एवं रङ्गाः प्रयोक्तव्याः खे अराँ इव खेदया ।।

Note the symbol ँ This is the symbol for nasal अनुनासिक pronunciation. It was mentioned earlier that all vowels can be pronounced in 18 different ways. Can they be written in 18 ways ? Yes ! Note these 18 ways of writing अ.

  1. Nine not nasal अननुनासिक अ would be – अ (short ह्रस्व) अऽ (long दीर्घ) अ३ (extended प्लुत) (These three have उदात्त stressed pronunciation) अ अऽ अ३ (Note, there has to be an underscore here to indicate the pronunciation to be अनुदात्त unstressed. I could not get the underscore effect in the template of ‘wordpress’) अ| अऽ| अ३| (Note, the vertical lines here should be small superscript vertical marks above the letter is to indicate the pronunciation to be स्वरित level. I could not get the superscript effect in the template of ‘wordpress’) Image below shows the correct writing.
  2. Nine nasal अनुनासिक अ would be – अँ अँऽ अँ३ अँ अँऽ अँ३ अँ| अँ|ऽ अँ|३ 


One finds most Vedic texts written with these स्वराङ्कन-s pronunciation markings. Often one finds ॐ written optionally as ओ३म् Note, here and at six places above, the mark ३ is to be superscript. I could not get that effect in this template of ‘wordpress’.

It is said that Rishis and Munis realized that correct pronunciation of मन्त्र-s would have the mystique power to empower one with ulterior (or superhuman) effects or capabilities सिद्धि-s. That may be the reason, why phonetics and phonology is dealt with in great detail in Sanskrit grammar and Vedic texts have स्वराङ्कन-s also. Sanskrit is a language of distinction, pun intended ! Does not example of the word गीतान्ते bring forth that one needs to be smart and distinctive to indulge in interpretation of Sanskrit texts ? Or, one can say that study of Sanskrit would build in one’s intellect distinctive skills of interpretation of speech sounds, of every phone / phoneme, not just interpretation, but experiencing the impact of every phone / phoneme.

शुभमस्तु !


Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

संज्ञक-s or इत्-s of पाणिनि

Thu, 02/04/2016 - 19:26

संज्ञक-s of पाणिनि

First of all let us understand meaning of संज्ञक-s. In simple terms संज्ञां करोति इति संज्ञकम् = संज्ञकम् is, what makes or coins a name संज्ञा for something. For example we have the धातुः गम्. But instead of speaking of धातुः गम् everytime by these two words धातुः गम्, पाणिनि coins a name for it. He names it as गम्लृँ् In coining the name in this manner, he has affixed लृँ as the संज्ञकम्. Now धातुः गम् gets a name as गम्लृँ. Of course there is great intelligence in selecting लृँ as the संज्ञकम् and coining the name गम्लृँ for धातुः गम्.

When parents name their children, they do have some loving thoughts, what the name should signify. पाणिनि also loves every grammatical element so much, that he uses meaningful संज्ञक-s to coin the names.

Another passion of पाणिनि is brevity. Just as he would hate to keep calling धातुः गम् every time by these two words धातुः गम् he hates to call संज्ञक-s as संज्ञक-s. He has assigned a shorter name even for संज्ञक-s. He calls each संज्ञक as इत्. Since इत् is a grammatical noun, its plural becomes इतः. But for the comfort of English-reading people, I shall use plural of इत् as इत्-s.

Of course इत्-s have the specific purpose of coining the names intelligently. They have to be taken off, when you have to do further processing with the grammatical element itself. For example when we want to get from धातुः गम्, its past passive participle गत, then we have to first of all take away लृँ from गम्लृँ. 

Now, to obtain past passive participles from धातु-s, one uses a suffix. To call this suffix as “the suffix to get past participles from धातु-s” is too long a phrase. पाणिनि has coined a name for this suffix also. He calls it as क्त. Now to get गत from गम्लृँ् by affixing the suffix क्त, we need to bear in mind that क्त is only the name of the suffix. The process प्रक्रिया will use only त out of क्त. This is because the name क्त has in it क् as a संज्ञक or इत्.

From this we need to note that पाणिनि coins names by using संज्ञक-s or इत्-s at the beginning or at the end of grammatical elements.

In fact पाणिनि coins name of the most commonplace धातुः कृ as डुकृञ्. Here both डु and ञ् are इत्-s, one at the beginning and one at the end. When getting past passive participle of धातुः कृ, both डु and ञ् the इत्-s in डुकृञ् and also क् the संज्ञक or इत् in क्त all are to be taken off. That is how we get कृत, the past passive participle of धातुः कृ.

Questions of natural curiosity would be –

  1. What all different संज्ञक-s or इत्-s does पाणिनि use to coin names ?
  2. For what all grammatical elements does पाणिनि coin names ?

Single word answer to question (2) is उपदेशे.

Answer for question (1) is to be found in 7 aphorisms सूत्राणि in अष्टाध्यायी, from (1-3-2) to (1-3-8). Because these सूत्राणि detail the संज्ञक-s or इत्-s, these are also known as इत्संज्ञकसूत्राणि.

Coming to उपदेशे, the answer to question (2), it ought to be noted that पाणिनि uses the word उपदेश not by its meaning as ‘advice’.

To understand the meaning as implied by पाणिनि, the meaning has to be derived etymologically. The word उपदेशः has two components – the prefix उप and noun देशः. The prefix उप does mean ‘nearby’, ‘closely associated’. देशः is a masculine abstract noun, derived from धातुः दिश्. This way उपदेशः is what denotes a class. Following couplet summarizes what are called as उपदेश-s.

धातुसूत्रगणोणादिवाक्यलिङ्गानुशासनम् ।

आगमप्रत्ययादेशाः उपदेशाः प्रकीर्तिताः ॥

By पदच्छेद-s –

धातु-सूत्र-गण-उणादि-वाक्य-लिङ्गानुशासनम् ।

आगम-प्रत्यय-आदेशाः उपदेशाः प्रकीर्तिताः ॥

In सूत्रम् (1-3-2) there is the mention उपदेशे इत्, meaning पाणिनि uses इत्-s for उपदेश-s, i.e. for धातु-s, in सूत्र-s, for गण-s, for उणादि-s, in वाक्य-s, for लिङ्गानुशासनम्, for आगम-s, for प्रत्यय-s and for आदेश-s.

  1. We have already seen गम्लृँ् and डुकृञ् as names of धातु-s, where लृँ्, डु and ञ् are used as इत्-s.
  2. Example of use of इत्-s in सूत्र-s can be seen, right in the very first two सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी
    1. In सूत्र (1-1-1) वृद्धिरादैच् (= वृद्धिः आत् ऐच्) the words आत् and ऐच् are both संज्ञा-s. आत् has the संज्ञकम् त् and ऐच् has the संज्ञकम् च्
    2. In सूत्र (1-1-2) अदेङ्गुणः (= अत् एङ् गुणः) the words अत् and एङ् are both संज्ञा-s. अत् has the संज्ञकम् त् and एङ् has the संज्ञकम् ङ्
  3. The 10 गण-s of धातु-s are given names as enlisted in a श्लोक – भ्वाद्यदादी जुहोत्यादिः दिवादिः स्वादिरेव च | तुदादिश्च रुधादिश्च तन्क्र्यादी चुरादिरपि || Note
    1. भ्वादिः is पाणिनि’s name for first गण of धातु-s. The name भ्वादिः (भू-आदिः) means  भू &c.
    2. अदादिः is पाणिनि’s name for second गण of धातु-s. The name अदादिः (अद्-आदिः) means अद् &c.  
    3. जुहोत्यादिः is पाणिनि’s name for third गण of धातु-s. The name जुहोत्यादिः (जुहोति-आदिः) means हु &c.
    4. दिवादिः is पाणिनि’s name for fourth गण of धातु-s. The name दिवादिः (दिव्-आदिः) means दिव् &c.
    5. स्वादिः is पाणिनि’s name for fifth गण of धातु-s. The name स्वादिः (सु-आदिः) means सु &c.
    6. तुदादिः is पाणिनि’s name for sixth गण of धातु-s. The name तुदादिः (तुद्-आदिः) means तुद् &c.  
    7. रुधादिः is पाणिनि’s name for seventh गण of धातु-s. The name रुधादिः (रुध्-आदिः) means रुध् &c.
    8. तनादिः is पाणिनि’s name for eighth गण of धातु-s. The name तनादिः (तन्-आदिः) means तन् &c.
    9. क्र्यादिः is पाणिनि’s name for ninth गण of धातु-s. The name क्र्यादिः (क्री-आदिः) means क्री &c.
    10. चुरादिः is पाणिनि’s name for tenth गण of धातु-s. The name चुरादिः (चुर्-आदिः) means चुर् &c.
    11. Of course in coining these names, no इत्-s are used. It is a food for thought, why पाणिनि does not call the गण-s of धातु-s as प्रथमगणः, द्वितीयगणः, … दशमगणः. One logic can be his passion for brevity. Instead of saying “डुकृञ् is a अष्टमगणीयः धातुः” it certainly becomes quite crisp to say डुकृञ् तनादिः.
  4. उणादि-s are large number of typical suffixes, which have as much large number of names as hinted in उणादयो बहुलम् (3-3-1)
  5. To get examples of how concept of naming is implemented even to name वाक्य-s will need some exploration. There again, one needs to check whether meaning of वाक्य in पाणिनि’s logic is वाक्य = sentence, or something else.
  6. From the masculine word देवः we have two feminine words देवी and देवता which obviously use different suffixes. Such different suffixes will have specific grammatical names coined using इत्-s. Names of those suffixes become examples of use of इत्-s for लिङ्गानुशासनम्,
  7. When we get स्तंभित from धातुः स्तम्भ् there is an import आगम of इ. This incoming इ has the name as इट्, where ट् is the इत् in this name.
  8. We have had the example of क् as a संज्ञक or इत् in the name क्त of the प्रत्यय, which one uses to get past passive participles from धातु-s. So पाणिनि has coined names for all the large number of प्रत्यय-s, which are detailed across सूत्र-s starting from (3-1-1) to (5-4-160), i.e. from beginning of third chapter to end of fifth chapter.
  9. Grammatical meaning of आदेश is different from its colloquial meaning (आदेश = command, order, instruction). In grammar आदेश means “change, modification, alteration, substitution’. One good example of आदेश is in the सूत्रम् – इको यणचि (६।१।७७)
    1. इको यणचि (= इकः यण् अचि) means “इकः यण् भवति when followed by अच्.” Here यण् is the name of आदेश, which takes effect, when इक् is followed by अच्. For example, in इत्यलम् (इति अलम्)  Note, इति अलम् is इ-त्-इ अ-लम् → (step 2) इ-त्-य् अलम् → इत्यलम् Here, इ in ति is followed by अ, which is an अच्. By यणादेश, in step 2, इ changes to य्.

Now for answer to question (1) “What all different संज्ञक-s or इत्-s does पाणिनि use to coin names ?”, we need to study इत्संज्ञकसूत्राणि. These are –

(1) उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् | (1-3-2)

(2) हलन्त्यम् | (1-3-3)

(3) न विभक्तौ तुस्माः | (1-3-4)

(4) आदिर्ञिटुडवः | (1-3-5)

(5) षः प्रत्ययस्य | (1-3-6)

(6) चुटू | (1-3-7)

(7) ल्श्क्वतद्धिते | (1-3-8)

I would take उपदेशे इत् as a phrase common to all these सूत्र-s. Then answer to our question becomes –

(1) अजनुनासिकः = अच् (यः) अनुनासिकः

  • Note, in गम्लृँ the ending लृँ has two components the ऌ, which is an अच् and the symbol ँ which is a symbol to indicate nasal pronunciations, अनुनासिक-s. So in गम्लृँ the लृँ is अनुनासिक अच्.
  • लृँ is the इत्, which makes गम्लृँ as the name संज्ञा for धातुः गम्
  • Because गम् is a धातुः, it is an उपदेश.

(2) हलन्त्यम् = हल् (यदि) अन्त्यम् = हल् as ending.

(3) न विभक्तौ तुस्माः – Here the word तुस्माः stands for the consonants तु (i.e. consonants of त-वर्ग), स् and म्. These consonants are often ending consonants and hence integral parts of many विभक्ति-प्रत्यय-s. Hence they are not to be considered as इत्-s, name-makers of those विभक्ति-प्रत्यय-s.

This सूत्रम् does NOT specify where अन्त्यम् हल् is इत्. Rather it specifies which अन्त्य हल्-s are not to be considered as इत्-s.

(4) आदिर्ञिटुडवः | (1-3-5) – By पदच्छेद-s this सूत्रम् is आदिः ञिटुडवः. The word ञिटुडवः refers to ञि, टु (i.e. consonants of ट-वर्ग), डु (as in डुकृञ्)

which would be at the beginning of a संज्ञा. Examples are –

  • धातुः मिद् has the name ञिमिदाँ. Note, here there are two इत्-s, ञि at the beginning and आँ at the end.
  • धातुः मस्ज् has the name टुमस्ज्
  • डु as in डुकृञ् has been already mentioned.

(5) षः प्रत्ययस्य | (1-3-6) – Here षः is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of ष् which is used as an इत् in the names of some प्रत्यय-s. For example there is a प्रत्यय by the name ष्यञ्. This प्रत्यय also has two इत्-s, ष् at the beginning आदिः and ञ् which is अन्त्यम् हल्. In actual application, both the इत्-s have to be taken off. Hence the ष्यञ्-प्रत्यय will get applied only as य as in पौन:पुन्यम् is पुन:पुन: + ष्यञ् So the ष्यञ्-प्रत्यय is used to get an abstract noun from another non-verbal word such as पुन:पुन:. Note, whereas पुन:पुन: means repeatedly (an adverb), पौन:पुन्यम् means repetitiveness (abstract noun).

(6) चुटू | (1-3-7) – Here the word चुटू is a compound word with two components चु (i.e. consonants of च-वर्ग) and टु (i.e. consonants of ट-वर्ग). Hence चुटू is द्विवचनम् of चुटु. It will need some exploring to find examples, where चु (i.e. consonants of च-वर्ग) and टु (i.e. consonants of ट-वर्ग) are used to coin names of grammatical elements.

(7) ल्श्क्वतद्धिते | (1-3-8) – By पदच्छेद-s this सूत्रम् is ल्-श्-कु-अतद्धिते. It means names coined for अतद्धित-s may have ल्, श्, कु (i.e. consonants of क-वर्ग) as इत्-s in the आदि-position. For example –

  • There is a प्रत्यय ल्यप्. It affixes to धातु-s with prefix. Because it is NOT non-verbal, it is अतद्धित. Actually its name has two इत्-s,  ल् in the आदि-position and प्, which is अन्त्यम् हल्. In actual application, both the इत्-s have to be taken off. Hence the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय will get applied only as य.
    • Let us take नियमँ + ल्यप्. First of all, नियमँ name of the धातु has अँ at its end. This ending is अनुनासिक अच्. That will have to be taken off. Then we have नियम् to which add य of ल्यप्. So, we shall have नियम् + य = नियम्य.
  • Let us take a प्रत्यय, called as शतृँ. This name of the प्रत्यय also has two इत्-s, श् in the beginning and ऋँ at its end. This ending is अनुनासिक अच्. In actual application, both the इत्-s have to be taken off. Hence the शतृँ-प्रत्यय will get applied only as अत्.
    • If we want to apply to मथेँ, the name of the धातु has अँ at its end. This ending is अनुनासिक अच्. That will have to be taken off. Then we have मथ् to which add अत् of शतृँ. So, we shall have मथ् + अत् = मथत्.
  • We have already seen application of प्रत्यय क्त to गम्लृँ. Of course प्रत्यय क्त has in the beginning क्, which is a कु i.e. a consonant of क-वर्ग

(9) The instances that the प्रत्यय-s ष्यञ् and ल्यप् get applied as य should bring forth the justification for coining different names for them.  

(10) Since all इत्-s are primarily for coining names for various उपदेश-s, they have to be taken off. This is commanded by the सूत्रम् –  तस्य लोपः | (1-3-9). As has been shown, when affixing a suffix to more than one उपदेश-s, e.g. when affixing a प्रत्यय to a धातु, all इत्-s  from both have to be taken off. So, the command तस्य लोपः applies to all इत्-s. By this logic, तस्य लोपः | (1-3-9) is the concluding इत्-विधायकसूत्रम्.

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar


Sun, 01/31/2016 - 12:28


In response to my article on Morphological Thoughts and अष्टाध्यायी, one दक्षा-महोदया enquired with me whether I have any write-up on माहेश्वरसूत्राणि. I thank दक्षा-महोदया for motivating this write-up.

The title above has the word शिवसूत्राणि. Obviously these are different names.

Some people contend that they should be called only as माहेश्वरसूत्राणि, because they are said to have been composed by a grammarian by the name महेश्वर.

There is another anecdote which contends that the सूत्र-s were realized by सनकादि ऋषि-s, when they were blessed by शिव by sounding his ढक्का/डमरू in (9+5) 14 patterns. This is so said in a श्लोक

नृत्तावसाने नटराजराजः ननाद ढक्कां नवपञ्चवारम् |

उद्धर्तुकामः सनकादिसिद्धानेतद्विमर्शे शिवसूत्रजालम् ||

Anyway, these are 14 सूत्र-s –

(1) अ इ उ ण् (2) ऋ ऌ क् (3) ए ओ ङ् (4) ऐ औ च् (5) ह य व र ट् (6) ल ण् (7) ञ म ङ ण न म् (8) झ भ ञ् (9) घ ढ ध ष् (10) ज ब ग ड द श् (11) ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व् (12) क प य् (13) श ष स र् (14) ह ल् ॥

It be noted that every सूत्रम् ends with a consonant. That consonant is to be understood to be only the end-marker of the सूत्रम्. Leaving out the end markers, we can see that there are 43 elements (listed below in groups of 5 to make counting easy) –

अ इ उ ऋ ऌ

ए ओ ऐ औ ह

य व र ल ञ

म ङ ण न झ

भ घ ढ ध ज

ब ग ड द ख

फ छ ठ थ च

ट त क प श

ष स ह

This in a way is देवनागरी alphabet वर्णमाला. But the order is different from the way one learns it in schools or is followed in dictionaries. Also the letter ह is repeated. Omitting the repetition, we have 42 letters. Of these अ इ उ ऋ ऌ ए ओ ऐ औ these 9 are vowels. Rest 33 are consonants.

It becomes good to reorganize the सूत्र-s as

  • अ इ उ ण् । ऋ ऌ क् । ए ओ ङ् । ऐ औ च् । – Note, these are all vowels.
  • ह य व र ट् । ल ण् । – These are called as अन्तस्थ-s or half-vowels.
  • ञ म ङ ण न म् । – These are all nasals.
  • झ भ ञ् । घ ढ ध ष् । – These are महाप्राणमृदुव्यञ्जनानि stressed soft consonants
  • ज ब ग ड द श् । – These are अल्पप्राणमृदुव्यञ्जनानि unstressed soft consonants
  • ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व् । क प य् । – These are कठोरव्यञ्जनानि harsh consonants
  • श ष स र् । – These are ऊष्मव्यञ्जनानि
  • ह ल् ॥ – Not to be counted, since it is a repeat ह.

The consonants in सूत्र-s 5 to 13 are written as they would be, when they have the vowel अ in them. This is only for the convenience of pronunciation. All consonants are basic sounds वर्ण-s. They can be combined with all vowels and we get अक्षर-s such as क् the वर्ण and from it अक्षर-s क का कि की कु कू कृ क्लृ के कै को कौ. Vowels also are basic sounds वर्ण-s. But because they can as well be pronounced independently, they are अक्षर-s also. That may help to understand the difference between वर्ण-s and अक्षर-s. Consonant sound can also be heard distinctly as in उत्, only when it is preceded by some sound capable of being pronounced independently. People in North India seem to prefer pronouncing the word स्त्री as इस्त्री. That is understandable, because to pronounce the beginning स् of स्त्री has no sound before it, which can be pronounced independently. Though this is understandable, if people in Maharashtra can pronounce स्त्री as स्त्री, there is no reason why people in north India also cannot.

Now, if we start with the first element अ, and put the first end-marker ण् with it, we get अण्. We can now consider that this अण् is the name संज्ञा of a set containing elements starting from अ and up to the end-marker ण्. The elements of this set are अ इ उ. In this manner we can take the first element अ and put along its side all the other end-markers and we shall have अक् अङ् अच् अट् अण् अम् अञ् अष् अश् अव् अय् अर् अल्. These are all संज्ञा-s, names of different sets. These are different sets, because the elements contained in each set are different. The largest among these is अल्. All the other sets are sort of subsets of अल्. Actually in the sequence अण् अक् अङ् अच् अट् अण् अम् … the name अण् gets repeated. In that case the rule to be followed is that the first occurrence of a संज्ञा is the only valid name. We can say that the name gets booked or reserved by its first occurrence. So its recurrence is to be neglected.

We can make such संज्ञा-s from every other वर्ण. For example from इ we shall have इण् इक् इङ् इच् इट् इम् इञ् इष् इश् इव् इय् इर् इल्.

Another rule in composing संज्ञा-s is that we go only forward. For example, starting from ह, we can only have हट् हम् हञ् हष् हश् हव् हय् हर् हल्. We cannot have हण् हक् हङ् हच्.

In this manner we can have

  • 13 संज्ञा-s each from अ इ उ ऋ ऌ, i.e. 65 संज्ञा-s,
  • 12 संज्ञा-s each from ए ओ, i.e. 24 संज्ञा-s
  • 11 संज्ञा-s each from ऐ औ i.e. 22 संज्ञा-s,
  • 10 संज्ञा-s each from ह य व र i.e. 40 संज्ञा-s,
  • 9 संज्ञा-s from ल,
  • 8 संज्ञा-s each from ञ म ङ ण न i.e. 40 संज्ञा-s,
  • 7 संज्ञा-s each from झ भ i.e. 14 संज्ञा-s,
  • 6 संज्ञा-s each from घ ढ ध i.e. 18 संज्ञा-s,
  • 5 संज्ञा-s each from ज ब ग ड द i.e. 25 संज्ञा-s,
  • 4 संज्ञा-s each from ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त i.e. 32 संज्ञा-s,
  • 3 संज्ञा-s each from क प i.e. 6 संज्ञा-s,
  • 2 संज्ञा-s each from श ष स i.e. 6 संज्ञा-s,

so total (65 + 24 + 22 + 40 + 9 + 40 + 14 + 18 + 25 + 32 + 6 + 6 =) 301 संज्ञा-s.

These संज्ञा-s are also called as प्रत्याहार-s. Hence माहेश्वरसूत्राणि or शिवसूत्राणि are also called as प्रत्याहारसूत्राणि. Since they are 14, they are also called as चतुर्दशसूत्राणि.

In अष्टाध्यायी one finds use of 42 of the above 301 प्रत्याहार-s. One can appreciate that by use of प्रत्याहार-s, composition of सूत्र-s becomes compact. That is what a सूत्र required to be. When one wants to refer to a property common to अ इ उ ऋ ऌ one states that that is the property of the प्रत्याहार अक्.

There is significance in calling प्रत्याहार-s as संज्ञा-s, because in अष्टाध्यायी one finds use of words derived from such संज्ञा-s, by their विभक्ति-वचन inflections. For example अकः is षष्ठी विभक्ति, एकवचनम् of अक्. It is thus used in सूत्रम् – अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (६।१।१०१).

Actually there is some sound logic behind, why the वर्ण-s in माहेश्वरसूत्राणि are in the order they are. The logic is of commonality of properties. For example ए ओ are results of अ followed by इ and उ respectively.

Such respective order is also an important aspect in the order of the वर्ण-s in माहेश्वरसूत्राणि. For example when any vowel is to get added into इ उ ऋ ऌ these first change into their corresponding consonants य् व् र् ल्. The वर्णमाला as taught in schools has the order य र ल व. Even in dictionaries the order is य र ल व. But does not one appreciate that the order in माहेश्वरसूत्राणि has sound technical logic ?

The order of वर्ण-s in dictionaries has the logic of class वर्ग based on the place of genesis of the sound

  • क-वर्गीय consonants emanate from the throat कण्ठ्य,
  • च-वर्गीय consonants emanate by tongue near the teeth दन्त्य,
  • ट-वर्गीय consonants emanate by tongue hitting the roof मूर्धन्य,
  • त-वर्गीय consonants emanate by tongue striking the gums तालव्य,
  • प-वर्गीय consonants emanate from the lips ओष्ठ्य.

In अष्टाध्यायी the class-concept is taken note of, by naming the क-वर्ग as कु, च-वर्ग as चु, ट-वर्ग as टु, त-वर्ग as तु and प-वर्ग as पु.

माहेश्वरसूत्राणि truly serve as the building blocks of अष्टाध्यायी. One can say that अष्टाध्यायी is brilliant, may be, because माहेश्वरसूत्राणि are brilliant.

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

Morphological Thoughts

Sat, 01/30/2016 - 17:09


To find linguistics-equivalent of पदसिद्धिप्रक्रियाः, I thought of doing Google-search on “Morphology of words”. And lo ! I hit the nail on its head. I got the following – Morphology is the study of the structure and form of words in a language, including inflection, derivation, and the formation of compounds. At the basic level, words are made of “morphemes.” These are the smallest units of meaning: roots and affixes (prefixes and suffixes).

Taking clue from this detail of morphology related to formation of words, one can say that one view of why to study अष्टाध्यायी would be to understand morphology related to formation of words in Sanskrit.

In Sanskrit the processes of morphology do involve the morphemes – the roots and affixes (prefixes and suffixes).

In Sanskrit roots are of two types – verbal roots धातु-s and nominal roots प्रातिपदिक-s

Prefixes उपसर्ग-s are 22 – प्र। परा। अप। सम्। अनु। अव। निस्। निर्। दुस्। दुर्। वि। आङ्। नि। अधि। अपि। अति। सु। उत् |अभि। प्रति। परि। उप।  

In Sanskrit suffixes प्रत्यय-s are many. Some study of प्रत्यय-s can be read at https://grammarofsanskrit.wordpress.com/category/%E0%A4%B5%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%83/

There are also inflections, derivations and the formation of compounds. These words are grammatical terminologies. Let me check them one by one.

  • Inflections – a change in the form of a word (typically the ending) to express a grammatical function or attribute such as tense, mood, person, number, case, and gender. In Sanskrit functions of inflections are served by suffixes प्रत्यय-s only.
    • Typically words get grammatical attributes such as tense, mood, person, number by तिङ्-suffixes
    • words get grammatical attributes such as number, case, and gender by सुप्-प्रत्यय-s
  • Derivations – In Sanskrit derivations are innumerable.
    • For example from a verbal root one can derive 12 more उपधातु-s for extended functions such as causative, desiderative, repetitive, etc. Words having attributes of tense, mood, person, number by तिङ्-suffixes can be derived from the उपधातु-s also. Even change of voice can be effected for them.
    • One can speak of seven generations for any person, for example प्रपितामहः, पितामहः, पिता, सः, पुत्रः, पौत्रः, प्रपौत्रः Grammatical attributes such as number, case, and gender by सुप्-प्रत्यय-s will apply to all these.
    • One can also speak of seven days, 3 days prior to today प्रपरह्यः परह्यः ह्यः today अद्य and three days next श्वः परश्वः प्रपरश्वः Note, these are single words, unlike “day before yesterday” or “day after tomorrow” in English.

Going further, पदसिद्धिप्रक्रियाः include additions आगमाः (such as इडागमः), deletions (लोपाः), substitutions (स्थाने अन्यत्) and modifications (आदेशाः, विकरणाः सन्धयश्च).

Importance and charm of अष्टाध्यायी lies exactly in this that it has set up a grammatical logic to all word-formations and that logic will have to be followed for all time to come if any Sanskrit utterance is to be fit to be called as Sanskrit utterance.

शुभमस्तु !


Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

वैयाकरणभूषणसार – Preface

Sun, 01/17/2016 - 00:42

वैयाकरणभूषणसारे उपोद्घातः वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकायाम् प्रतिज्ञा च |

वैयाकरणभूषणसार is commentary by कौण्डभट्ट on वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका by भट्टोजीदीक्षित.

Although वैयाकरणभूषणसार is a prose commentary, the author कौण्डभट्ट has composed उपोद्घात the preface in 5 metrical stanzas.

In the third stanza of उपोद्घात, कौण्डभट्ट makes reference to भट्टोजीदीक्षित whom he mentions to be his पितृव्य fore-father. श्लोक-s 1 to 4 are in अनुष्टुभ्-छन्दः, whereas the last one is in शार्दूलविक्रीडितम्.

I shall attempt English interpretation of these 5 stanzas. First, the word उपोद्घातः itself.

उपोद्घातः –

  • उपोद्घातः उप + उत् + घातः
    • घातः [हन्-णिच् घञ्] 1 A blow, stroke, bruise, hit
    • उद्घातः – 1 P.VII.3.54. Beginning, commencement; उद्घातः प्रणवो यासाम् Ku.2.12
      • P.VII.3.54 denotes सूत्रम् – हो हन्तेर्ञ्णिन्नेषु
      • Literally or by its etymology उद्घातः seems to mean ‘blowing up’
      • ‘blowing up’ is like blowing a trumpet, which is announcement of the beginning of an activity, e.g. a war
      • ‘blowing up’ is also similar to day-break, which is also beginning of the day.
    • Since उपोद्घातः is उप + उद्घातः something similar to उद्घातः
    • In Apte’s dictionary उपोद्घातः – 1 A beginning, commencement. -2 An introduction, a preface

Prefaces in Sanskrit-works start with obeisances. It is not to be expected that there will be grammatical detailing or explanation of the meanings. But because I want to put it all in English, I have attempted grammatical detailing and explanation of the meanings as स्वाध्यायः my own self-study. E. & O. E. !

श्रीलक्ष्मीरमणं नौमि गौरीरमणरूपिणम् |

स्फोटरूपं यतः सर्वं जगदेतद्विवर्तते ||1||

श्रीलक्ष्मीरमणं नौमि गौरीरमणरूपिणम् | स्फोटरूपं यतः सर्वं जगत् एतत् विवर्तते ||1|| – I bow to श्रीलक्ष्मीरमण who is also seen as गौरीरमण and from whom all this world has emerged स्फोटरूपम् as if by a bang.

अशेषफलदातारं भवाब्धितरणे तरिम् |

शेषाशेषार्थलाभार्थं प्रार्थये शेषभूषणम् ||2||

To Him, who is शेषभूषण adorned by the शेष, who is तरि the boat भवाब्धितरणे to transcend this ocean of life, who is अशेषफलदातार who bestows fruits uninhibited, प्रार्थये I pray for लाभार्थं giving proper meaning to शेषाशेषार्थ all acts (even) of शेष omission and अशेष commission. What a wonderful deployment of the words शेष and अशेष !

वाग्देवी यस्य जिह्वाग्रे नरीनर्ति सदा मुदा |

भट्टोजीदीक्षितमहं पितृव्यं नौमि सिद्धये ||3||

For सिद्धये fulfilment of task on hand, अहं I (also) नौमि bow to पितृव्य my fore-father भट्टोजीदीक्षित, who has had मुदा merrily नरीनर्ति dancing again and again सदा always जिह्वाग्रे on the tip of his tongue, वाग्देवी the goddess of speech,

नत्वा गणेशपादाब्जं गुरूनथ सरस्वतीम् |

श्रीकौण्डभट्टः कुर्वेऽहं वैयाकरणभूषणम् ||4||

अहं, I कौण्डभट्ट also नत्वा bow at पादाब्ज the lotus feet of गणेश, गुरून् unto my precepts अथ and unto Goddess सरस्वती and कुर्वे proceed to compose this वैयाकरणभूषणम्.

पाणिन्यादिमुनीन्प्रणम्य पितरं रंगोजिभट्टाभिधम् |

द्वैतध्वान्तनिवारणादिफलिकां पुंभाववाग्देवतान् ||

ढण्ढिं गौतमजैमिनीयवचनव्याख्यातृभिर्दूषितान् |

सिद्धान्ताननुपत्तिभिः प्रकटये तेषां वचो दूषये ||5||

I प्रणम्य salute पाणिनि-आदि and other मुनि -s and पितरं my father अभिध known as रंगोजिभट्ट

(1) द्वैतध्वान्तनिवारणादिफलिकाम् – ध्वंस्

  • (1-1) द्वैतध्वान्त –
    • द्वैतम् [द्विधा इतं द्वितं तस्य भावः स्वार्थे अण्] 1 Duality. -2 Dualism in philosophy, the assertion of two distinct principles, such as the maintenance of the doctrine that, spirit and matter, Brahman and the Universe, or the Individual and the Supreme Soul, are different from each other; cf. अद्वैत; किं शास्त्रं श्रवणेन यस्य गलति द्वैतान्ध- कारोत्करः Bv.1.86. -3 N. of a forest.
    • ध्वान्तम् Darkness
    • द्वैतध्वान्त = darkness of duality
  • (1-2) निवारणादिफलिकाम् –
    • निवारः निवारणम् 1 Keeping off, preventing, warding off; दंशनिवारणैश्च R.2.5. -2 Prohibition, impediment.
    • फलम् [फल्-अच्] A result, fruit, consequence, effect
  • (1-3) द्वैतध्वान्तनिवारणादिफलिकाम् (प्रणम्य) = (I bow) to/unto her, who would bestow the fruit of keeping off the darkness of duality &c.

(2) पुंभाववाग्देवतान् (प्रणम्य) –

  • पुंसः भावः इति पुंभावः = masculine aptitude
  • वाचः देवता इति वाग्देवता = deity of speech
  • पुंभाववाग्देवतान् (प्रणम्य) = I bow unto the deities of speech of masculine aptitude
  • I don’t think, I have understood what कौण्डभट्ट had in mind in making mention of such deities.

(3) ढण्ढिं – No explanation found in Apte’s dictionary for this word

(4) गौतमजैमिनीयवचनव्याख्यातृभिः – By व्याख्याता-s i.e. by those, who explained वचन-s statements of गौतमजैमिनीय i.e. of गौतम and जैमिनीय

(5) दूषितान् – दूषित a. [दुष्-णिच्-क्त] 1 Corrupted. defiled, spoiled.

  • दुष् 4 P. (दुष्यति, दुष्ट) 1 To be bad or corrupted, be spoiled or suffer damage. -2 To be defiled or violated (as a woman &c.), be stained, be or become impure or contaminated; स्वल्पेनाप्यपकारेण ब्राह्मण्यमिव दुष्यति Pt.1. 66; Ms.7.24;9.318;1.12. -3 To sin, commit a mistake, be wrong. -4 To be unchaste or faithless. -Caus. (दूषयति-ते, but दूषयति-ते or दोषयति-ते in the sense of ‘making depraved’ or ‘corrupting’)
  • Anyone, who comments on a text does sort of contaminate it. That seems to be the logic in using the word दूषितान्

(6) सिद्धान्तान् – Established Rules

(7) उपपत्तिभिः – by derivations (maybe, also by illustrative examples)

(8) प्रकटये – प्र + कट् → Note कट् 1 P. (कटति, अकटीत्, कटितुम्) 1 To rain. -2 To surround. -3 To encompass, cover or screen.

  • प्रकटये = I shall detail

(9) तेषां वचो दूषये = I shall contaminate their talk (also). = I shall comment on those comments also.

इति टीकाकारोपोद्घातः As much as preface by the commentator.

श्लोक 1 below is from वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका of भट्टोजीदीक्षित. Rather, now begins वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका. But that also is preceded by the following note by श्रीकौण्डभट्ट.

पारिप्सितप्रतिबंधकोपशमनाय कृतं श्रीफणिस्मरणरूपं मङ्गलं शिष्यशिक्षार्थं निबध्नांश्चिकीर्षितं प्रतिजानीते –

This श्रीफणिस्मरणरूपं मङ्गलं omen unto and in respectful memory of श्रीफणि प्रतिजानीते seems  कृतं made for कोपशमनाय pacifying पारिप्सितप्रतिबंध possible objections   

(ग्रन्थादौ प्रतिज्ञा Declaration at the beginning of the composition)

फणिभाषितभाष्याब्धेः शब्दकौस्तुभ उद्द्धृतः |

तत्र निर्णीत एवार्थः संक्षेपेणेह कथ्यते ||1||

  • फणिभाषित as said by श्रीफणि
  • भाष्याब्धेः From भाष्याब्धि  the ocean-like commentary
  • उद्द्धृतः is referred
  • शब्दकौस्तुभ jewel of words.
  • तत्र निर्णीतः एवार्थः Whatever interpretations are concluded there
  • संक्षेपेण इह कथ्यते are summarized here. 

श्रीकौण्डभट्ट appends following his own commentary on this श्लोक by भट्टोजीदीक्षित –

(1) उद्धृत – इत्यत्रास्माभिरिति शेषः | Where it says उद्धृत, here a word अस्माभिः ‘by ourselves’ is to be taken as implicit.

(2) भाष्याब्धेः शब्दकौस्तुभ उद्द्धृतः – इत्युक्तिस्तु शब्दकौस्तुभोक्तार्थानामाधुनिकोत्प्रेक्षितत्वनिरासाय

  • भाष्याब्धेः शब्दकौस्तुभ उद्द्धृतः
  • इत्युक्तिस्तु – इति उक्तिः तु This statement  
  • शब्दकौस्तुभोक्तार्थानामाधुनिकोत्प्रेक्षितत्वनिरासाय = शब्दकौस्तुभ-उक्त-अर्थानाम् आधुनिक-उत्प्रेक्षितत्व-निरासाय
  • निरासाय – For clarifying non-existence of
  • आधुनिक-उत्प्रेक्षितत्व any modern editing
  • शब्दकौस्तुभ-उक्त-अर्थानाम् – of अर्थ-s as are there in शब्दकौस्तुभ.

(3) अन्यथा तन्मूलकस्यास्य ग्रन्थस्याप्याधुनिकोत्प्रेक्षितसारत्वापत्तौ पाणिनियानामनुपादेयतापत्तेः – Note, श्रीकौण्डभट्ट has composed his commentary using such long-winding compound words. It could be a natural style of writing for people in those times. But for us, all such compound words themselves have to be first deciphered. Actually is not a commentary supposed to help ready understanding of what may not be readily understood from reading the original text, especially if the original text is in metrical form ? श्रीकौण्डभट्ट’s commentary does not seem to be helpful for any ready understanding. Anyway –

  • अन्यथा तन्मूलकस्यास्य ग्रन्थस्याप्याधुनिकोत्प्रेक्षितसारत्वापत्तौ पाणिनियानामनुपादेयतापत्तेः = अन्यथा तन्मूलकस्य अस्य ग्रन्थस्य अपि आधुनिक-उत्प्रेक्षित-सारत्व-आपत्तौ पाणिनियानाम् अनुपादेयता आपत्तेः
  • अन्यथा = Otherwise
  • तन्मूलकस्य = for (this one) based on that
  • अस्य ग्रन्थस्य अपि = for this composition also
  • आधुनिक-उत्प्रेक्षित-सारत्व-आपत्तौ = becomes the आपत्ति charge of सारत्व essence of (original) having been उत्प्रेक्षित superimposed or superseded or replaced by आधुनिक modern thought
  • पाणिनियानाम् अनुपादेयता आपत्तेः = The charge becomes replete with अनुपादेयता non-conformance to पाणिनि and such others.

(4) तत्र निर्णीत – इत्युक्तिरितोऽप्यधिकजिज्ञासुभिः शब्दकौस्तुभे द्रष्टव्यमिति ध्वनयितुम्

  • तत्र निर्णीत इति उक्तिः The quote तत्र निर्णीत
  • ध्वनयितुम् to sound इति that
  • इतः अपि अधिकजिज्ञासुभिः – those who want to know more than what is available here
  • शब्दकौस्तुभे द्रष्टव्यम् should refer or see in शब्दकौस्तुभ.

शुभमस्तु |



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः – Introduction

Wed, 01/06/2016 - 18:53

श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षितविरचिताः वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः

I have a book as above, published by आनन्दाश्रमसंस्था पुणे.

श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित is more well-known for his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी a treatise on Sanskrit grammar. In सिद्धान्तकौमुदी the सूत्र-s of पाणिनि are arranged according to topics in grammar. Possibly सिद्धान्तकौमुदी set up a style of studying Sanskrit grammar by topics and by that it became the first प्रकरणग्रन्थः

श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित seems to have a particular liking for the word सिद्धान्त. This composition वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः also includes the word सिद्धान्त. Interestingly, whereas सिद्धान्तकौमुदी is mostly prose वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः is all poetry. Calibre of such people asश्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित composing a scholarly first प्रकरणग्रन्थः on Sanskrit grammar and also composing well-metered poetry, that too on Sanskrit grammar leaves one amazed.

For an overview of वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः it would be good to glance through the topics, which can be noted from the first page and also on the contents page.

From the first page

  1. टीकाकारोपोद्घातः –  5 श्लोकाः by कौण्डभट्टवर्यः
  2. प्रतिज्ञाश्लोकः by भट्टोजीदीक्षितवर्यः

From the contents Page –

  1. धात्वर्थाख्यातसामान्यार्थनिर्णयः 20 श्लोकाः (2-21)
  2. लकारविशेषार्थनिरूपणम् 2 श्लोकौ (22, 23)
  3. सुबर्थनिर्णयः 1 श्लोकः (24)
  4. नामार्थनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (25-27)
  5. समासशक्तिनिर्णयः 8 श्लोकाः (28-35)
  6. शक्तिनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (36, 37, 38)
  7. नञर्थनिर्णयः 2 श्लोकौ (39, 40)
  8. निपातद्योतकत्वनिर्णयः 7 श्लोकाः (41-47)
  9. भावप्रत्ययार्थनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (48-50)
  10. देवताप्रत्ययार्थनिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (51-53)
  11. अभेदैकत्वसंख्यायां वृत्तौ माननिर्णयः 1 श्लोकः (54)
  12. उद्देश्यविधेययोः संख्याविवक्षानिर्णयः 3 श्लोकाः (55-57)
  13. क्त्वाद्यर्थनिर्णयः 1 श्लोकः (58)
  14. स्फोटवादः 3 श्लोकाः (59-61)
  15. पदादिस्फोटनिरूपणम् 11 श्लोकाः (62-72)

The book published by आनन्दाश्रमसंस्था पुणे contains not just the 72 श्लोकाः but also a commentary in Sanskrit by कौण्डभट्ट. The commentary is named as वैयाकरणभूषणसार by कौण्डभट्ट the commentator. The commentary is prose.

Since both the वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिकाः and the वैयाकरणभूषणसार-commentary are in Sanskrit, for myself to understand what is there in the book, I need to translate. I may as well share it on my blog on संस्कृतव्याकरणस्य अध्ययनम् so that comments from learned readers will improve the understanding.

One can make some guess about what is there in the book by looking at the contents. As many as 12 out of 17 sections have in their title, the word निर्णयः. One can deduce that all those topics offer instances, where logical decision will have to be arrived at. Eight of the 12 topics also contain the word अर्थ. One can hence deduce that these topics offer instances where selection of an appropriate interpretation would be needed. Almost at all places the words अर्थ and निर्णयः are in that order. So, the कारिकाः may be offering definitive guidance on अर्थनिर्णयः i.e. appropriate interpretation. That sounds appealing and interesting for a detailed study.

By the way, meaning of the word कारिका is given in Apte’s dictionary as “.. A memorial verse, or a collection of such verses, on grammatical, philosophical, or scientific subjects, e. g. Bhattojī Dīkṣita’s Kārikās on grammar; called वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका; सांख्यकारिका…”. Since कारिका means memorial verse(s), श्रीभट्टोजीदीक्षित certainly deemed them to be worthy of memorizing. That is why they are verses.

There are people who have memorized all the 3994 पाणिनिसूत्र-s of his अष्टाध्यायी. Some educationists demean such education by memorization as rote-learning. But one must acknowledge that it is memorization which helped to make available so much of Sanskrit literature even though the libraries of Nalanda and Taxila were burnt. The libraries are said to have been so huge, that the embers are said to have kept burning for so long as 26 days !

I can approach the task

  • By translation verse by verse, of वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका and its commentary वैयाकरणभूषणसार or
  • scripting वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तकारिका at least topic by topic, if not scripting all the 72 verses in one go.

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

A Bird’s eye view of अष्टाध्यायी

Mon, 12/28/2015 - 16:41

अष्टाध्याय्याः विहंगमावलोकनम्

A Bird’s eye view of अष्टाध्यायी

(1) अष्टाध्यायी is a treatise of about 4000 aphorisms सूत्र-s composed by पाणिनिमुनि (about 500 BC) and covers the entire gamut of grammar of Sanskrit.

(2) As its name अष्टाध्यायी connotes, it has eight chapters अध्याय-s. Each chapter has four quarters पाद-s, so total 32 पाद-s. सूत्र-s in every पाद are numbered serially every time starting from 1. Any सूत्र in अष्टाध्यायी can thus be referred by Chapter No., पाद No. and Serial No. of the सूत्र in the पाद. So सूत्र No. 2-4-8 means 8th सूत्र in 4th पाद of 2nd अध्याय.

(3) अष्टाध्यायी also has an important annex, the गणपाठः. Among the सूत्र-s, there are many सूत्र-s, which hint to a class or sets of words, e.g. सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि (१।१।२६) refers to pronouns सर्वनामानि starting with सर्व. All the pronouns hinted by this सूत्र are detailed in the गणपाठः.

(4) Another important annex of अष्टाध्यायी is धातुपाठः. One can say that धातुपाठः is गणपाठः only, but detailing the धातु-s in their 10 गण-s.

(5) सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी are said to be covering 6 aspects of learning any subject, here, grammar of Sanskrit.

  1. संज्ञासूत्राणि – Terminologies
  2. परिभाषासूत्राणि – Definitions
  3. नियम/अधिकारसूत्राणि – Rules
  4. विधिसूत्राणि – Processes
  5. अतिदेशसूत्राणि – Extended logic
  6. विशेषसूत्राणि – Special or exceptional instances.

(6) There is possibly a great algorithmic logic in the sequencing of the सूत्र-s. By that token, अष्टाध्यायी is a Computer programme of 4000-odd steps, which can help in deriving grammatically every other word in Sanskrit language or for checking grammatical correctness of any Sanskrit word. Rather, if one has coined a word, which sounds like a Sanskrit word, but cannot stand the test of grammatical accuracy as per अष्टाध्यायी, one can adjudge the word to be flawed.

(7) There are a few basic concepts, which need to be understood, before proceeding to study अष्टाध्यायी.

(8) One such basic concept is प्रत्याहार-s. The very first सूत्र 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच् (वृद्धिः आत् ऐच्) This contains the प्रत्याहार ऐच्. Even आत् is similar to a प्रत्याहार. To understand what a प्रत्याहार is, one needs to know शिवसूत्राणि also called as माहेश्वरसूत्राणि or प्रत्याहारसूत्राणि. Since the very first सूत्र contains a प्रत्याहार, one can say that अष्टाध्यायी presumes that one knows शिवसूत्राणि and the प्रत्याहार-s derived therefrom. If one does not know these, one must first study these and only thereafter start with अष्टाध्यायी.

(9) शिवसूत्राणि are 14. Actually these 14 शिवसूत्राणि enlist the basic sounds वर्ण-s, which make the letters अक्षराणि and the words शब्दाः. In simple terms शिवसूत्राणि is the alphabet. But there is great intelligence in the arrangement of वर्ण-s in शिवसूत्राणि. Here are the शिवसूत्राणि.

(1) अ इ उ ण्  (2) ऋ लृ क्  (3) ए ओ ङ् (4) ऐ औ च्

(5) ह य व र ट् (6) ल ण्

(7) ञ म ङ ण न म्

(8) झ भ ञ्

(9) घ ढ ध ष्

(10) ज ब ग ड द श्

(11) ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व्

(12) क प य्

(13) श ष स र्

(14) ह ल्

It should be noted that there is a consonant at the end of each शिवसूत्रम्. That is not a part of the वर्ण-s in the सूत्रम्. It is the marker denoting the end of the सूत्रम्.

Also the वर्ण-s in the सूत्र-s (5) to (14) are consonants. In all these सूत्र-s the consonants are written complete with ending vowel sound of अ. That is only for ease of recitation.

(10) Now let us understand the प्रत्याहार-s. As mentioned earlier the very first सूत्र 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच् (वृद्धिः आत् ऐच्) contains the प्रत्याहार ऐच्. This प्रत्याहार is from शिवसूत्रम् (4). A प्रत्याहार has two वर्ण-s – the first one is the beginning वर्ण, the second is the end-marker. A प्रत्याहार is to be understood as denoting all the वर्ण-s, starting from beginning वर्ण up to the end-marker. So प्रत्याहार ऐच् denotes ऐ and औ. As another example प्रत्याहार अच् denotes all the वर्ण-s starting from अ up to the end-marker च्. Hence अच् = अ, इ, उ, ऋ, लृ, ए, ओ, ऐ and औ.  A प्रत्याहार is like an acronym. This is very much like the acronym VIBGYOR denoting all the colors of a rainbow, Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and Red. But the प्रत्याहार is much crispier, because it has only two वर्ण-s.

As would have been noted the प्रत्याहार अच् summarizes all vowels. Likewise प्रत्याहार हल् summarizes all consonants contained in सूत्र-s (5) to (14). प्रत्याहार ञम् from शिवसूत्रम् (7) summarizes all nasals अनुनासिक-s. प्रत्याहार झश् from शिवसूत्र-s (8), (9) and (10) summarizes all soft consonants वर्गीयमृदुव्यञ्जनानि. प्रत्याहार खय् from शिवसूत्र-s (11) and (12) summarizes all harsh consonants वर्गीयकठोरव्यञ्जनानि.

In अष्टाध्यायी, one may come across as many as 43 प्रत्याहार-s.

While a प्रत्याहार is an acronym, in mathematical terms, a प्रत्याहार is a set, its elements being वर्ण-s.

आत् is a set containing only one element. All प्रत्याहार-s containing a single element have त् as the end-marker. It may be noticed that none of the 14 शिवसूत्र-s have this end-marker त्.

(11) The word वृद्धिः in the सूत्र 1-1-1 is followed by a word गुण in the second सूत्र 1-1-2 अदेङ्गुणः (अत् एङ् गुणः). One finds both these words वृद्धिः and गुणः in the third सूत्र 1-1-3 इको गुणवृद्धी (इकः गुणवृद्धी)

  • One can surmise that these words वृद्धिः and गुणः are antonymical to each other. But these are not defined or explained anywhere in अष्टाध्यायी.
  • Since सूत्र 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच् (वृद्धिः आत् ऐच्) speaks of the वर्ण-s आ, ऐ and औ, one can decipher that वृद्धिः is the characteristics, which is common to आ, ऐ and औ.
  • Likewise सूत्र 1-1-2 अदेङ्गुणः (अत् एङ् गुणः) speaks of the वर्ण-s अ, ए and ओ. And one can decipher that गुणः is the characteristics, which is common to अ, ए and ओ.
  • सूत्र 1-1-3 इको गुणवृद्धी (इकः गुणवृद्धी) speaks of the वर्ण-s contained in the प्रत्याहार इक् (इ, उ, ऋ and लृ) from शिवसूत्र-s (1) and (2).
    • It may be noted that the starting वर्ण of a प्रत्याहार can be a वर्ण even somewhere in the middle of a शिवसूत्र. This प्रत्याहार इक् starts from इ in शिवसूत्र (1).
    • The end-marker of a प्रत्याहार is always one or the other end-marker of the शिवसूत्र-s.
    • From सूत्र 1-1-3 one can decipher that its वर्ण-s इ, उ, ऋ and लृ have both the characteristics वृद्धिः and गुणः
  • When discussing ll this, has it been noted that one does not find in the शिवसूत्र-s the vowels आ, ई, ऊ ॠ ॡ.
    • But अष्टाध्यायी-सूत्र 1-1-1 takes note of आ and mentions its characteristics being वृद्धिः.
    • Likewise सूत्र 1-1-3 seems to take note of ई, ऊ ॠ ॡ and one can decipher that these are of वृद्धि-characteristics, whereas इ, उ, ऋ and लृ have गुण-characteristics.
    • So, the प्रत्याहार इक् needs to be understood as containing not only इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, but also ई, ऊ ॠ ॡ. Only such interpretation validates सूत्र 1-1-3, that वर्ण-s in प्रत्याहार इक् have both the characteristics वृद्धिः and गुणः.

(12) The above discussion is illustrative of the approach to studying अष्टाध्यायी that every सूत्र has to be ‘interpreted’.

(13) Was it noted that in सूत्र 1-1-3, इकः is sixth case, singular of इक् ? In अष्टाध्यायी one finds names of प्रत्याहार-s being treated as शब्द-s and in turn used in their शब्दरूप-s in different विभक्ति-वचन-s.

(14) Another important concept in अष्टाध्यायी is that of अनुवृत्ति. By this concept, the logic in one सूत्र may apply in one or more succeeding सूत्र/सूत्र-s. Let me illustrate by an example.

  • There is सूत्रम् १-१-९ तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् followed by (१-१-१०) नाज्झलौ (न अच्-हलौ)
  • When interpreting (१-१-१०) नाज्झलौ (न अच्-हलौ) one needs to understand that, what concept of सवर्ण is defined in (1-1-9), does not apply (न) to अच्-हलौ. Or one should read (१-१-१०) नाज्झलौ as अच्-हलौ सवर्णौ न. Here one carries forward, makes  अनुवृत्ति of the concept of सवर्ण as defined in (1-1-9) into (१-१-१०) नाज्झलौ.
  • Note, in अज्झलौ two प्रत्याहार-s अच् and हल् have been put together as a compound word. Because they are two, अज्झलौ is द्विवचनम् of अज्झल्.
  • The concept of सवर्ण is of course important in सूत्रम् 6-1-97 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः There, it is not अनुवृत्ति of the word सवर्ण. But the concept of what a सवर्ण is, is very much relevant.

(15) पाणिनिमुनि did know that more than one processes or rules may apply. Which process should take precedence, in such instances is sort of resolved by a सूत्रम्, which becomes a rule by itself to understand and interpret अष्टाध्यायी. The सूत्रम् (१।४।२) is विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम्, which means, in the instance of dilemma, the latter will prevail. Let me explain by example.

  • If इ is followed by इ, the resultant sound would be ई. This is as per the सूत्रम् अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः
  • But there is also the rule that, when इ is followed by another vowel, इ will first become य् and the following vowel will get added to it. So, इ + इ = यि. This is as per the सूत्रम् इको यणचि (इकः यण् अचि).
  • So we have a dilemma, whether इ + इ should be ई as per अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः or it should be यि as per इको यणचि.
  • The dilemma is resolved by विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम्, because in sequential order अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः (6-1-97) comes after इको यणचि (6-1-74) Hence the later numbered अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः prevails.

(16) This underscores the important point that in a study of अष्टाध्यायी, one should be conscious of the sequential order of the सूत्र-s.

(17) अष्टाध्यायी takes in its ambit Vedic Sanskrit also. Linguistics and grammar which is specifically employed in Vedic Sanskrit are detailed in अष्टाध्यायी by mention as छन्दसि (in छन्दस् i.e. Vedic Sanskrit)

(18) There are many terms in अष्टाध्यायी, which seem to have been well-known even in times before अष्टाध्यायी. Not only the terms, but grammar as a subject has been a subject of study, rather a subject of specialized study long before अष्टाध्यायी. This is evidenced by reference in अष्टाध्यायी to many grammarians of yore.

(19) Although अष्टाध्यायी has 32 quarters in 8 chapters, the last 3 quarters i.e. quarters 8-2, 8-3 and 8-4 become a section by themselves. Thus one can say that अष्टाध्यायी has two broad sections – first one of 29 quarters from 1-1 to 8-1. The dividing line is declared by the सूत्रम् 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् (पूर्वत्र-असिद्धम्), meaning, what is not detailed earlier. 

(20) From its time of composition by पाणिनिमुनि (about 500 BC) study of Sanskrit grammar cannot be complete without the study of अष्टाध्यायी. Since सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी need to be interpreted, there have been any number of commentaries on अष्टाध्यायी. Notable among them are

  1. मनोरमा
  2. बालमनोरमा
  3. तत्त्वबोधिनी व्याख्या
  4. न्यासः
  5. काशिकावृत्तिः
  6. महाभाष्यम् by पातञ्जलि
  7. सिद्धान्तकौमुदी by भट्टोजी दीक्षित
  8. लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी by वरदराज a शिष्य of भट्टोजी दीक्षित

Though all the above are a great help in studying अष्टाध्यायी, yet an independent study of अष्टाध्यायी has its own charm. All the above commentaries are basically independent studies only, though they are of course by very acknowledged stalwarts.

शुभमस्तु !



Categories: Sanskrit Grammar