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हंसः mNs

Thu, 06/23/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form हंसः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.28.64.

यथा पुरुष आत्मानमेकमादर्शचक्षुषोः । द्विधाभूतमवेक्षेत तथैवान्तरमावयोः ।। ४-२८-६३ ।।
एवं स मानसो हंसो हंसेन प्रतिबोधितः । स्वस्थस्तद्व्यभिचारेण नष्टामाप पुनः स्मृतिम् ।। ४-२८-६४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तर्हि कथमावयोरज्ञत्वसर्वज्ञत्वादिधर्मभेदस्तत्राह – यथेति । आत्मानं देहमादर्शे निर्मलं महान्तं स्थिरं चावेक्षेत । परस्य चक्षुषि च तद्विपरीतम् । विद्याविद्योपाधिकृतो धर्मभेद इत्यर्थः ।। ६३ ।। एवममुना प्रकारेण मानसो हंसः क्षेत्रज्ञो हंसेन परमात्मना बोधितः सन्स्वस्थ आत्मनि स्थितः संश्चिरं ध्यात्वा तद्व्यभिचारेणेश्वरवियोगेन विषयाभिलाषबुद्ध्या नष्टां स्मृतिमहं ब्रह्मास्मीति ज्ञानं पुनः प्राप्तवान् ।। ६४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Just as a man sees himself (his image) differently in a mirror and in the pupil of another’s eye, the difference between us two is of the same type (63). Admonished thus by the fellow-swan, the swan of the Mānasa lake was (once more) established in his own self and regained his self-consciousness, which had been lost due to his having parted company with his friend (64).

हंस: (a swan) may be derived as हन्ति (गच्छति – one who goes/moves) – from the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) as follows –

(1) हन् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix ‘ल्यु’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘नन्दि’; the affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘ग्रहि’; and the affix ‘अच्’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘पच्’।
Note: The पचादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though हंस: may not be specifically listed in the पचादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पचादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.

(2) हन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) हन् सँक् + अ । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
Note: The पृषोदरादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though हंस: may not be specifically listed in the पृषोदरादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पृषोदरादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc addition of the augment ‘सँक्’ at the end (ref. 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ) of the base ‘हन्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘हंस’ which is accepted by the scholars.

(4) हन्स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(5) हंस । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि – The letter ‘न्’ and the letter ‘म्’ which do not occur at the end of a पदम् get अनुस्वारः as replacement when a झल् letter follows.

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) हंस + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।

(7) हंस + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) हंस: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Questions:

1. Can you spot a द्वन्द्व: compound in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-15 यस्य विभाषा been used in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the affix णिच् been elided?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘क’ in the form स्वस्थ: used in the verses? Which one prescribes it in the form क्षेत्रज्ञ: used in the commentary?

5. From which verbal root is the form ध्यात्वा (used in the commentary) derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Look at that beautiful swan, white as snow.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘white as snow’ = ‘तुषार इव गौर:’।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः been used in the verses?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

सिंहः mNs

Mon, 06/20/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form सिंहः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.50.31.

जग्राह विरथं रामो जरासन्धं महाबलम् । हतानीकावशिष्टासुं सिंहः सिंहमिवौजसा ।। १०-५०-३१ ।।
बध्यमानं हतारातिं पाशैर्वारुणमानुषैः । वारयामास गोविन्दस्तेन कार्यचिकीर्षया ।। १०-५०-३२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
किंच जग्राहेति । हतान्यनीकानि यस्य, अवशिष्टा असव एव यस्य तं च तं च ।। ३१ ।। हता बहुशोऽरातयो येन तथाभूतमपि जरासन्धं बध्यमानं वारयामासेति ।। ३२ ।।

Gita Press translation – (Even) a lion would seize another with force, Balarāma caught hold of Jarāsandha, who though very powerful, had lost his chariot and was left (alone) with his life, his (entire) force having been wiped out (31). With intent to accomplish His (own) work (of concentrating all undesirable elements) through him Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Protector of cows) prevented his being bound (by Balarāma) with the cords of Varuṇa as well as with human ropes, although he had (himself) killed (numberless redoubtable) foes (in the past) (32).

सिंह: (a lion) may be derived as हिनस्ति (one who hurts/injures) from the verbal root √हिन्स् (हिसिँ हिंसायाम् ७. १९) as follows –

(1) हिन्स् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix ‘ल्यु’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘नन्दि’; the affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘ग्रहि’; and the affix ‘अच्’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘पच्’।
Note: The पचादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though सिंह: may not be specifically listed in the पचादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पचादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.

(2) हिन्स् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) सिन्ह । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
Note: The पृषोदरादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though सिंह: may not be specifically listed in the पृषोदरादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पृषोदरादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc interchange of the letters ‘ह्’ and ‘स्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘सिंह’ which is accepted by the scholars.

(4) सिंह । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि – The letter ‘न्’ and the letter ‘म्’ which do not occur at the end of a पदम् get अनुस्वारः as replacement when a झल् letter follows.

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) सिंह + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।

(6) सिंह + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) सिंह: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सिंह’ been used in the गीता (Chapter One)?

2. What is the विग्रह: of the compound हतानीकावशिष्टासुम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हतानीकावशिष्टासु’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

3. In which compound in the verses does the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः find application?

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘अ’ in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the compound महाबलम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाबल’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All the animals in the forest are afraid of (from) the lion.” Use the masculine noun ‘मृग’ for ‘animal.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ज्’ in the form जग्राह?

2. In which word(s) in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 7-3-109 जसि च been used?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

बलाहकः mNs

Thu, 06/16/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form बलाहकः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.55.26.

अन्तःपुरवरं राजन्ललनाशतसङ्‌कुलम् । विवेश पत्न्या गगनाद्विद्‌युतेव बलाहकः ।। १०-५५-२६ ।।
तं दृष्ट्वा जलदश्यामं पीतकौशेयवाससम् । प्रलम्बबाहुं ताम्राक्षं सुस्मितं रुचिराननम् ।। १०-५५-२७ ।।
स्वलङ्‌कृतमुखाम्भोजं नीलवक्रालकालिभिः । कृष्णं मत्वा स्त्रियो ह्रीता निलिल्युस्तत्र तत्र ह ।। १०-५५-२८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
विद्‌युता सह बलाहको मेघ इव ।। २६ ।। २७ ।। नीलाश्च वक्राश्च येऽलकास्त एवालयस्तैः । ह्रीता लज्जिताः ।। २८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Like a cloud attended with lightning, Pradyumna descended with his spouse from the sky into the magnificent gynaeceum crowded with hundred of ladies (26). Seeing him, sombre as a cloud and clad in yellow silk, with exceptionally long arms and reddish eyes, wearing a winsome smile and a charming countenance, his lotus-like face graced with locks of dark-blue curly hair, and thinking him to be Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the ladies, so the story goes, hid themselves wherever they could (out of bashfulness) (27-28).

(1) वारिणो वाहक: = बलाहक: – a cloud (carrier of water.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) वारि ङस् + वाहक सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘वारि ङस्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case.
And hence as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘वारि ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘वारि ङस् + वाहक सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च । This allows the सूत्रम् 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(3) वारि + वाहक । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) बलाहक । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
The पृषोदरादि-गण: is listed in the गण-पाठ: as follows – ‘पृषोदर’, ‘पृषोत्थान’, ‘बलाहक‘, ‘जीमूत’, ‘श्मशान’, ‘उलूखल’, ‘पिशाच’, ‘बृसी’, ‘मयूर’।
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc substitution of ‘ब’ in place of the entire पूर्वपदम् ‘वारि’ and of the letter ‘ल्’ in place of the initial letter ‘व्’ of the उत्तरपदम् ‘वाहक’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘बलाहक’ listed in the पृषोदरादि-गण:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बलाहक’ is masculine since the latter member ‘वाहक’ (which after the application of 6-3-109 becomes ‘लाहक’) of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) बलाहक + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।

(6) बलाहक + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) बलाहक: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Questions:

1. Which compound in the verses has been composed using the सूत्रम् 2-1-55 उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः?

2. What type of compound is रुचिराननम् as used in the verses?
i. कर्मधारय:
ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. द्वन्द्व:

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound सुस्मितम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुस्मित’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the words पत्न्या and विद्‌युता used in the verses?

5. Can you spot the समासान्त: affix षच् in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Without clouds lightning cannot occur.” Use the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) with the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’ for ‘to occur.’

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the substitution णल् (in place of the affix तिप्) been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य been used in the verses?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

जीमूतम् mAs

Mon, 06/13/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form जीमूतम्  mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.4.108.

जातरूपमयैः शृङ्गैर्भ्राजमानैर्महाप्रभैः । आदित्यशतसंकाशः सोऽभवद्गिरिसत्तमः ।। ५-४-१०६ ।।
समुत्थितमसङ्गेन हनूमानग्रतः स्थितम् । मध्ये लवणतोयस्य विघ्नोऽयमिति निश्चितः ।। ५-४-१०७ ।।
स तमुच्छ्रितमत्यर्थं महावेगो महाकपिः । उरसा पातयामास जीमूतमिव मारुतः ।। ५-४-१०८ ।।
स तदाऽऽसादितस्तेन कपिना पर्वतोत्तमः । बुद्ध्वा तस्य हरेर्वेगं जहर्ष च ननाद च ।। ५-४-१०९ ।।

Gita Press translation – With its shining peaks of gold, emitting a dazzling splendor, that jewel among mountains shone brightly like a hundred suns (106). Hanumān positively considered the mountain, which instantly stood very high before him in the midst of the salty sea, to be a stumbling block (in his journey) (107). Hanumān, the mighty monkey who was possessed of great impetuosity, felled with his breast the exceedingly lofty mountain (even) as the wind would strike down a cloud (108). Worsted on that occasion by the aforesaid monkey (Hanumān) and recognizing his impetuosity, Maināka (the foremost of mountains) felt rejoiced and roared too (109).

There are a few different ways of deriving the compound जीमूत:। One of them is as follows –

(1) जीवनस्य (जलस्य) मूत: = जीमूत: – a cloud (a collection of water.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) जीवन ङस् + मूत सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘जीवन ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘जीवन ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘जीवन ङस् + मूत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) जीवन + मूत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) जीमूत । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
The पृषोदरादि-गण: is listed in the गण-पाठ: as follows – ‘पृषोदर’, ‘पृषोत्थान’, ‘बलाहक’, ‘जीमूत‘, ‘श्मशान’, ‘उलूखल’, ‘पिशाच’, ‘बृसी’, ‘मयूर’।
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc elision of the letters ‘वन’ of ‘जीवन’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘जीमूत’ listed in the पृषोदरादि-गण:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the तत्पुरुष: compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जीमूत’ is masculine since the final member ‘मूत’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) जीमूत + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) जीमूतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. What type of compound is यथोपदिष्टम् which occurs in the सूत्रम् 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् (used in step 5)?
i. अव्ययीभाव:
ii. तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. द्वन्द्व:

2. Among the two compounds महावेग: and महाकपिः used in the verses which one is a कर्मधारय: compound and which one is a बहुव्रीहि: compound?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the word विघ्न:?

4. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे prevent the formation of the compound पर्वतोत्तमः?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form उरसा used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Yesterday there were many clouds in the sky. Today there is not even one.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-35 कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form ननाद?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

पितरौ mNd

Thu, 06/09/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form पितरौ  mNd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.4.12.

तोकानां पितरौ बन्धू दृश: पक्ष्म स्त्रियाः पतिः । पतिः प्रजानां भिक्षूणां गृह्यज्ञानां बुधः सुहृत् ।। ६-४-१२ ।।
अन्तर्देहेषु भूतानामात्माऽऽस्ते हरिरीश्वरः । सर्वं तद्धिष्ण्यमीक्षध्वमेवं वस्तोषितो ह्यसौ ।। ६-४-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रजानां प्रजापतिरेव बन्धुरतस्तज्जीविकानाशो न कर्तव्य इति दृष्टान्तपञ्चकेनाह । तोकानां बालानां मातापितरौ । अज्ञानां ज्ञानदो बुध एव सुहृत् ।। १२ ।। ईश्वराधिष्ठानत्वाच्च भूतद्रोहो न युक्त इत्याह – अन्तर्देहेष्विति । वो युष्माभिः ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – The parents are the (true) friends of children; the eye-lashes, of an eye; the husband, of a (married) woman; the sovereign, of a people (and through them of all living beings including trees); the householder, of mendicants; and a wise man is the friend of the ignorant (12). The almighty Śrī Hari indwells the hearts of (all) living beings as their Inner Controller. (Therefore,) regard the entire creation (both animate and inanimate) as His abode; in this way He will be really propitiated by you (13).

(1) माता च पिता च = मातापितरौ or पितरौ – parents (mother and father).
Please refer to the following post for the derivation of the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘मातापितृ’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/04/21/मातापितरौ-mad/

(2) पितृ । By 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा – When the word पिता (father) is used with the word माता (mother) then (either both the words remain to form a द्वन्द्व: compound or) optionally only the word पिता remains.

Note: य: शिष्यते स लुप्यमानार्थाभिधायी – the one (‘पितृ’) that remains also denotes the meaning of the one (‘मातृ’) that gets elided. Hence a dual case ending is now used following ‘पितृ’।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा।

(3) पितृ + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘औ’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 to apply in the next step.

(4) पितर् + औ । By 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending letter ‘ऋ’ of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

= पितरौ ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा (used in step 2) the काशिका says – अन्यतरस्यामिति वर्तते नैकवदिति। Please explain.

2. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Which सूत्रम् gives the ready-made compound form ‘सुहृद्’?

4. Where has the affix ‘क’ been used in the verses? Where has it been used in the commentary?

5. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I salute the Supreme Lord and (Goddess) Pārvatī – the parents of the world.” Form a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘Supreme Lord’ = परमश्चासावीश्वर:। Use this compound to form a द्वन्द्व: compound with ‘पार्वती’।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the affix शप् taken the लुक् elision?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ been used in the verses?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

असह्यानि nNp

Mon, 06/06/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form असह्यानि  nNp from रघुवंशम् verse 13-27.

एतद्गिरेर्माल्यवतः पुरस्तादाविर्भवत्यम्बरलेखि शृङ्गम् ।
नवं पयो यत्र घनैर्मया च त्वद्विप्रयोगाश्रु समं विसृष्टम् ॥ 13-26॥
गन्धश्च धाराहतपल्वलानां कादम्बमर्धोद्गतकेसरं च ।
स्निग्धाश्च केकाः शिखिनां बभूवुर्यस्मिन्नसह्यानि विना त्वया मे ॥ 13-27 ।।

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
माल्यवतो नाम गिरेरम्बरलेख्यभ्रङ्कषं शृङ्गमेतत्पुरस्तादग्र आविर्भवतियत्र शृङ्गे घनैर्मेघैर्नवं पयो मया त्वद्विप्रयोगेण यदश्रु तच्च समं युगपद्विसृष्टम् । मेघदर्शनाद्वर्षतुल्यमश्रु विमुक्तमिति भावः ।। २६ ।। यस्मिञ्छृङ्गे धाराभिर्वर्षधाराभिर्हतानां पल्वलानां गन्धश्चअर्धोद्गतकेसरं कादम्बं नीपकुसुमं स्निग्धा मधुराः शिखिनां बर्हिणाम् । ‘शिखिनौ वह्निबर्हिणौ’ इत्यमरः । केकाश्चत्वया विना मेऽसह्यानि बभूवुः । ‘नपुंसकमनपुंसकेन -‘ इति नपुंसकैकशेषः ।। २७ ।।

Translation – ‘Here comes to view in front, this sky-scraping peak of the Mālyavat mountain, where was let fall the first shower of water by the clouds and tears due to your separation, by me also, simultaneously; and where, the fragrant smell of the puddles struck by the showers (of rain), and the Kādamba flower with the filaments half opened, and the pleasant notes of the peacocks became unbearable to me, without you (26-27).

(1) The masculine form असह्य: (गन्धः) and the neuter form असह्यम् (कादम्बम्) and the feminine form असह्या: (केकाः) have been referred to collectively by the neuter form असह्यानि as per the सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् – Only the neuter form remains and is optionally treated as singular when used with non-neuter forms provided that the difference between the forms is only due to gender.
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः’ comes down from the सूत्रम् 1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः in to this सूत्रम् 1-2-69.

See question 1.

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् ।

(2) असह्य + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(3) असह्य + शि ।By 7-1-20 जश्शसोः शिः – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ get ‘शि’ as the replacement when they follow a neuter अङ्गम्। ‘शि’ gets the सर्वनामस्थानसंज्ञा by 1-1-42 शि सर्वनामस्थानम्। This allows 7-1-72 to apply below.

(4) असह्य + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(5) असह्य नुँम् + इ । By 7-1-72 नपुंसकस्य झलचः – When a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix follows, the neuter bases that end in a झल् letter or an अच् (vowel) get the नुँम् augment. As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the ‘नुँम्’ augment is placed after the last अच् (the letter ‘अ’ after the letter ‘य्’) in ‘असह्य’।

(6) असह्यन् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) असह्यान् + इ । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ – The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in the letter ‘न्’ gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

= असह्यानि ।

Questions:

1. What would be the alternate final form in this example?

2. Where does the सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् (used in step 1) find application in the last five verses of Chapter Three of the गीता?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् (used in step 1) the काशिका says – ‘अनपुंसकेन’ इति किम्? शुक्लं च शुक्लं च शुक्लं च शुक्लानि। एकवच्चेति न भवति। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘णिनिँ’ in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Heaven, earth and the intermediate region (between heaven and earth) – all these/this are/is pervaded by the Lord.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अन्तरिक्ष’ for ‘the intermediate region (between heaven and earth.)’

Advanced question:

1. Derive the उपपद-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘अभ्रङ्कष’ (used in the form अभ्रङ्कषम् (नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the commentary.) You will need to use the following सूत्रम् (which we have not studied so far) – 3-2-42 सर्वकूलाभ्रकरीषेषु कषः – The affix ‘खच्’ may be used after the verbal root √कष् (कषँ हिंसार्थः १.७८१) when in composition with a कर्म-पदम् (a पदम् which denotes the object of the action) which is either ‘सर्व’ or ‘कूल’ or ‘अभ्र‘ or ‘करीष’।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-32 ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment वुक् in the form बभूवु:?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

रागिणः mAp

Thu, 06/02/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form रागिणः mAp from शिशुपालवधम् verse 10-90.

इति मदमदनाभ्यां रागिणः स्पष्टरागाननवरतरतश्रीसङ्गिनस्तानवेक्ष्य ।
अभजत परिवृत्तिं साथ पर्यस्तहस्ता रजनिरवनतेन्दुर्लज्जयाधोमुखीव ।। १०-९० ।।

टीका
इतीति ।। इतीत्थं मदमदनाभ्यां स्पष्टरागान् सर्वदा रागित्वेऽपि तदा ताभ्यामपि व्यञ्जितरागानित्यर्थः । अनवरतरतश्रीसङ्गिनः अविच्छिन्नसुरतसंपल्लपटांस्तान् रागिणो रागिण्यश्च रागिणश्च तान् रागिणः । ‘पुमान्स्त्रिया’ (१।२।६७) इत्येकशेषः । अवेक्ष्य अथावेक्षणानन्तरं पर्यस्तः परिवृतो हस्तो नक्षत्रविशेषः करश्च यस्याः सा । ‘हस्तो नक्षत्रभेदे स्यात्करेभकरयोरपि’ इत्युभयत्रापि विश्वः । अवनतेन्दुः स्रस्तचन्द्रा अत एव सा रजनिर्लज्जया । ग्राम्यचेष्टादर्शनजनितयेति भावः । अधोमुखी नम्रमुखीवेत्युत्प्रेक्षा । परिवृत्तिं निवृत्त्युन्मुखतामभजत । प्रभातप्रायाऽभूदित्यर्थः । स्त्रियो हि परकीयग्राम्यचेष्टादर्शने त्रपावनतमुख्यो हस्तेन दृष्टिमन्तर्धाय द्रागपसरन्तीति भावः । अत एवानन्तरसर्गे प्रभातवर्णनाय प्रस्तावः । मालिनीवृत्तमेतत् । लक्षणं तूक्तं वक्ष्यते चोत्तरसर्गादौ ।।

Translation – Having thus seen those lovers whose passion was evident due to intoxication and lust and who were attached to the wealth in the form of ceaseless sexual pleasure, that night then waived her hand (in the form of the 13th lunar mansion named ‘Hasta’) and with the moon going down sought to retire with her face as if downcast with shame.
Note: ‘हस्त’ of course means ‘hand’ but it is also the name of the 13th lunar mansion. In the present verse ‘हस्त’ has been used in both meanings. The night is portrayed as a woman whose hand is the 13th lunar mansion and whose face is the moon. Just as a woman, on seeing lovers engaged in sexual pleasure would motion her hand (to cover her vision) and quickly turn away with her face down due to bashfulness, similarly the night, on seeing the impassioned lovers, motioned her hand (in the form of the 13th lunar mansion named ‘Hasta’) and sought to retire with her face (in the form of the moon) turned downward due to bashfulness. (Saying that the night sought to retire implies that the day was about to dawn.)

(1) रागिण्यश्च रागिणश्च – Passionate women and passionate men = रागिणः – Passionate persons.
As per the सूत्रम् 1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया – Only the masculine form remains when used with the feminine form provided that the difference between the two forms is only due to gender.

Note: य: शिष्यते स लुप्यमानार्थाभिधायी – the one (‘रागिणः’) that remains also denotes the meaning of the one (‘रागिण्यः’) that gets elided.

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः’ comes down from the सूत्रम् 1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः in to this सूत्रम् 1-2-67.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् ।

(2) रागिन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।

(3) रागिन् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of शस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(4) रागिणस् । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि – The letter ‘न्’ is replaced by ‘ण्’ when either ‘र्’ or ‘ष्’ precedes, even if intervened by a letter of the अट्-प्रत्याहार: or by a letter of the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्गः or the term ‘आङ्’ or ‘नुँम्’ (अनुस्वारः) either singly or in any combination.

(5) रागिणः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Questions:

1. From which सूत्रम् down to which सूत्रम् does the अधिकार: of ‘एकशेष:’ run in the अष्टाध्यायी?

2. The एकशेष-वृत्ति: is a अपवाद: for which समास:?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया (used in step 1) the काशिका says – तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेष इत्येव – कुक्कुटश्च मयूरी च कुक्कुटमयूर्यौ। Please explain.

4. In which word(s) in verses 12-17 of Chapter 18 of the Geeta may the सूत्रम् 1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया be applied?

5. Can you spot a द्वन्द्व: compound in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When Śrī Rāma went to the forest all the (male and female) residents of Ayodhyā become dispirited.” Use the सूत्रम् 1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया to derive the form for ‘(male and female) residents’ = निवासिनश्च निवासिन्यश्च। Use the verbal root √सद् (षद्ऌँ विशरणगत्यवसादनेषु १. ९९०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ for ‘to be dispirited.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘शप्’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-77 गातिस्थाघुपाभूभ्यः सिचः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the commentary?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

योगवैराग्ययुक्तया fIs

Mon, 05/30/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form योगवैराग्ययुक्तया  fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.31.48.

तस्मान्न कार्यः सन्त्रासो न कार्पण्यं न सम्भ्रमः । बुद्ध्वा जीवगतिं धीरो मुक्तसङ्गश्चरेदिह ।। ३-३१-४७ ।।
सम्यग्दर्शनया बुद्ध्या योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । मायाविरचिते लोके चरेन्न्यस्य कलेवरम् ।। ३-३१-४८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यस्मान्न वस्तुतो जीवस्य जन्ममरणादि तस्मान्मरणात्संत्रासो न कार्यो जीवने च कार्पण्यं दैन्यं कार्यम् । संभ्रमश्च जीवनप्रयत्ने ।। ४७ ।। ननु सर्वथा मुक्तसङ्गत्वे कथं जीवितमत आह । सम्यक् पश्यति विचारयतीति सम्यग्दर्शना तया बुद्ध्या मायाविरचिते लोके कलेवरं न्यस्य निक्षिप्य । तस्मिन्नासक्तिं त्यक्त्वा विचरेदित्यर्थः ।। ४८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Therefore, a man should neither view death with horror nor have recourse to stinginess in life nor give way to infatuation. Realizing the true nature of the Jīva, he should move about in this world free from attachment and steadfast of purpose (47). Nay, he should relegate his body to this illusory world through his reason endowed with right vision and strengthened by Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion, and move about (unconcerned) (48).

(1) First we form the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ as follows –
योगश्च वैराग्यं च = योगवैराग्ये – Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

(2) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । ‘योग’ has two syllables while ‘वैराग्य’ has three syllables. Therefore ‘योग’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) योग + वैराग्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्य ।

Now we form the द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ as follows –
(5) योगवैराग्याभ्यां युक्ता = योगवैराग्ययुक्ता (बुद्धि:) – (intellect/reason) – endowed with Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्य’ which denotes the agent of the action.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(6) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(7) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(8) योगवैराग्य + युक्त । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्ययुक्त ।

As per the न्याय: – द्वन्द्वान्ते श्रूयमाणं पदं प्रत्येकमभिसम्बध्यते, in the final compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ the पदम् ‘युक्त’ which (immediately) follows the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ connects individually with the members (‘योग’ and ‘वैराग्य’) of the द्वन्द्व: compound. Hence we get the meaning ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘योगयुक्त’ + ‘वैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘endowed with Yoga’ and ‘endowed with dispassion.’

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘युक्त’ of the compound is an adjective. It is used here in the feminine since it is qualifying the feminine noun ‘बुद्धि’। Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ by adding the feminine affix टाप्।

(9) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम् ।

(12) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् ।

(13) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(14) योगवैराग्ययुक्ते + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ‘आप्’ ending bases get the letter ‘ए’ as the substitute when followed by the affix ‘आङ्’ (‘टा’) or ‘ओस्’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘आ’ of the base ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ is replaced by ‘ए’।

(15) योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।

Questions:

1. Which compound used in the last five verses of Chapter Three of the गीता is a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तत्पुरुष: compound?

2. Can you spot another (besides योगवैराग्ययुक्तया) तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. What type of compound is मुक्तसङ्ग: as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix ण्यत् been used?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should be free of attachment and aversion.” Form a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘free of attachment and aversion’ = रागद्वेषाभ्यां वियुक्त:।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the augment यासुट् been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-78 पाघ्राध्मास्थाम्नादाण्दृश्यर्तिसर्तिशदसदां पिबजिघ्रधमतिष्ठमनयच्छपश्यर्च्छधौशीयसीदाः been used in the commentary?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

त्रयोदश nAp

Thu, 05/26/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form त्रयोदश nAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.22.2.

केचित्षड्विंशतिं प्राहुरपरे पञ्चविंशतिं । सप्तैके नव षट्केचिच्चत्वार्येकादशापरे ।। ११-२२-२ ।।
केचित्सप्तदश प्राहुः षोडशैके त्रयोदश । एतावत्त्वं हि सङ्ख्यानामृषयो यद्विवक्षया । गायन्ति पृथगायुष्मन्निदं नो वक्तुमर्हसि ।। ११-२२-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एतावतीनां भाव एतावत्त्वं नानात्वमित्यर्थः । यद्विवक्षया यत्प्रयोजनमभिप्रेत्य च गायन्तिआयुष्मन्नित्यमूर्ते ।। ३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Some (however) speak of twenty-six categories; others, of twenty-five. Some (more) declare seven, nine, six and four respectively; while others mention eleven (2). Some (again) declare seventeen; others, sixteen and (still) others, thirteen. With what intention do the sages severally declare such a (large) variety of numbers? Be pleased O eternal Lord, to tell us this (3).

(1) त्रीणि च दश च = त्रयोदश – (Three + ten =) Thirteen.

(2) त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् । Note: Since ‘त्रि जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘त्रि जस् + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) त्रि + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) त्रयस् + दशन् । By 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः – When followed by the final member of a compound, the (entire) term ‘त्रि’ takes the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘त्रि’ (and not just the ending letter ‘इ’) is replaced by ‘त्रयस्’।

See question 1.

(6) त्रयरुँ + दशन् । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः ।

(7) त्रयउ + दशन् । By 6-1-114 हशि च – When preceded by the letter ‘अ’ and followed by a हश् letter, the letter ‘रुँ’ is substituted by the letter ‘उ’।

(8) त्रयोदशन् । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्रयोदशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number thirteen. Here it is used in the neuter gender because it is qualifying तत्त्वानि (which is not explicitly mentioned in the verses.)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया ।

(9) त्रयोदशन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: ‘त्रयोदशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

(10) त्रयोदशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘त्रयोदशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(11) त्रयोदश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Where else (besides 6-3-48) does the सूत्रम् ‘त्रेस्त्रयः’ appear in the अष्टाध्यायी?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अशीतौ तु त्र्यशीति:। Please explain.

3. How is the substitution ‘आ’ in the form एकादश justified?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form वक्तुम् used in the verses?

5. What type of compound is नित्यमूर्ते (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नित्यमूर्ति’, पुंलिङ्गे सम्बुद्धि:) as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There are only thirteen days left in this month.” Use the verbal root √शिष् (शिषॢँ विशेषणे ७.१४) in the passive with the उपसर्ग: ‘अव’ for ‘to be left.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in the form गायन्ति?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

नामाष्टशतम् nNs

Mon, 05/23/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form नामाष्टशतम् nNs from महाभारतम् 3.3.14.

जनमेजय उवाच
कथं कुरूणामृषभः स तु राजा युधिष्ठिरः । विप्रार्थमाराधितवान्सूर्यमद्‌भुतदर्शनम् ।। ३-३-१३ ।।
वैशम्पायन उवाच
शृणुष्वावहितो राजञ्शुचिर्भूत्वा समाहितः । क्षणं च कुरु राजेन्द्र सम्प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ।। ३-३-१४ ।।
धौम्येन तु यथा पूर्वं पार्थाय सुमहात्मने । नामाष्टशतमाख्यातं तच्छृणुष्व महामते ।। ३-३-१४ ।।

Translation – Janamejaya said: For the sake of the Brāhmaṇas, how did that foremost of the Kurus, king Yudhiṣṭhira, worship the Sun of wonderful appearance? (13) Vaiśampāyana said: O king, (first) purify yourself and being composed listen with attention. O king of kings, make some leisure. I shall (then) tell you everything in detail (14). O highly intelligent one, listen to the one hundred and eight names (of the Sun), as they were told earlier by Dhaumya to the very high-souled Yudhiṣṭhira (son of Pṛthā) (15).

(1) अष्टौ च शतं च = अष्टशतम् – (Eight + hundred =) hundred and eight.

(2) अष्ट जस् + शत सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) अष्ट जस् + शत सुँ । Note: Since ‘अष्ट जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘शत सुँ’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अष्ट जस् + शत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अष्ट + शत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now the ending letter (‘अ’) of ‘अष्ट’ would be replaced by the letter (‘आ’) as per the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
But this operation is blocked by the following वार्तिकम् –

(5) अष्टशत । वार्तिकम् – प्राक् शतादिति वक्तव्यम् – The substitution ‘आ’ (in place of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 as well as the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ (in place of ‘त्रि’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 is restricted to those compounds whose final members denote numbers less than a hundred. Hence the substitution does not apply in the present example.

(6) Now we form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound नाम्नामष्टशतम् = नामाष्टशतम्  – hundred and eight of names.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(7) नामन् आम् + अष्टशत सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(8) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘नामन् आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘नामन् आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘नामन् आम् + अष्टशत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(9) नामन् + अष्टशत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: Now ‘नामन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(10) नाम + अष्टशत । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now as per 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्, this elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य) to arrive at the form ‘नाम’ should not be visible to any prior rule (in the अष्टाध्यायी)। But 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limits the authority of 8-2-1 and says that the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those rules that are in the four categories mentioned below – others do see the elision of the letter ‘न्’।
The four categories are:
1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत् affix.

(11) Since 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः does not fall in any of the above four categories, it does see the elision of the letter ‘न्’ and hence applies to give नाम + अष्टशत = नामाष्टशत। (This would not have been possible if we did not have 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limiting the application of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्)।

Note: As a convention in the language, the number शतम् (hundred) – as well as compound numbers (like अष्टशतम्) ending in शतम् – are always used in the neuter (even when they’re adjectives to non-neuter terms.) They are used in the singular except (as in the present example) when used as just numbers (not adjectives) they may be used in the dual/plural also.
For example – शतं नरा: = hundred men, शतं नार्य: = hundred women, शतं कुटुम्बानि = hundred families. (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) शतम् = hundred (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) द्वे शते = two hundred (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) त्रीणि शतानि = three hundred (of men/women/families) etc.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the द्वन्द्वः compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अष्टशत’ is neuter since the final member ‘शत’ of the compound is neuter. Similarly, the तत्पुरुषः compound (नामाष्टशत) is neuter since the final member ‘अष्टशत’ of the compound is neuter.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(12) नामाष्टशत + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(13) नामाष्टशत + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(14) नामाष्टशतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In which other compound (besides नामाष्टशतम्) used in the verses does the सूत्रम् 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति find application?

2. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix खश् been used?

3. What type of compound is अद्‌भुतदर्शनम् as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. From which verbal root are the forms अवहितः and समाहितः derived?

5. Which सूत्रम् blocks the augment इट् in the form भूत्वा?

6. How would you say this in Snaskrit?
“One should recite with devotion the hundred and eight names of Lord Viṣṇu everyday.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘व’ in the form शृणुष्व?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-106 उतश्च प्रत्ययादसंयोगपूर्वात्‌ been used in the verses?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

अष्टचत्वारिंशत् fNs

Thu, 05/19/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form अष्टचत्वारिंशत्  fNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.21.4.

वियद्वित्तस्य ददतो लब्धं लब्धं बुभुक्षतः । निष्किञ्चनस्य धीरस्य सकुटुम्बस्य सीदतः ।। ९-२१-३ ।।
व्यतीयुरष्टचत्वारिंशदहान्यपिबतः किल । घृतपायससंयावं तोयं प्रातरुपस्थितम् ।। ९-२१-४ ।।
कृच्छ्रप्राप्तकुटुम्बस्य क्षुत्तृड्भ्यां जातवेपथोः । अतिथिर्ब्राह्मणः काले भोक्तुकामस्य चागमत् ।। ९-२१-५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
वियद्वित्तस्य वियतो गगनादिवोद्यमं विना दैवादुपस्थितमेव वित्तं भोग्यं यस्य । यद्वा वियद्व्ययं प्राप्नुवद्वित्तं भोग्यं यस्य । तदेवाह – बुभुक्षतोऽपि सतो लब्धं लब्धं ददतः । तत्प्रपञ्चयति – निष्किंचनस्येत्यादिसार्धैः पञ्चदशभिः ।। ३ ।। अपिबतो जलपानमप्यकुर्वतः । घृतादित्रयाणां द्वन्द्वैक्यम् । तोयं च ।। ४ ।। ५ ।।

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/04/11/घृतपायससंयावम्-nns/

Gita Press translation – In the case of Rantideva, who subsisted on whatever was obtained without any effort and who, though feeling hungry (himself), gave away all that was got, and was thus rendered (utterly) destitute (having no provision even for the evening much less for the next day), and therefore suffering terrible hardship, along with his family – who were reduced to (great) straits – (nay), trembling due to (excessive) hunger and thirst, yet calm, passed (not less than) forty-eight days – so the tradition goes – without his taking (even) water. In the morning (of the forty-ninth day) there came to him (by chance) ghee, rice cooked in milk with sugar, Saṁyāva (a kind of porridge made of wheat flour with ghee and milk), as well as water. And when he was intending to partake of it, there arrived, at that (very) time, a newcomer in the person of a Brāhmaṇa (3-5).

(1) अष्टौ च चत्वारिंशच्च = अष्टचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टाचत्वारिंशत् – (Eight + forty =) forty-eight.

(2) अष्ट जस् + चत्वारिंशत् सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) अष्ट जस् + चत्वारिंशत् सुँ । Note: Since ‘अष्ट जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘चत्वारिंशत् सुँ’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अष्ट जस् + चत्वारिंशत् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अष्ट + चत्वारिंशत् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत् । By 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) is replaced by ‘आ’।

(6) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् । As per the सूत्रम् 6-3-49 विभाषा चत्वारिंशत्प्रभृतौ सर्वेषाम् – The substitution ‘आ’ (in place of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 as well as the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ (in place of ‘त्रि’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 is only optional in those compounds whose final members denote numbers forty or greater.

Note: As a convention in the language, numbers from विंशति: (twenty) up to नवति: (ninety) – as well as compound numbers ending in these numbers – are always used in the feminine (even when they’re adjectives to non-feminine terms.) They are used in the singular except when used as just numbers (not adjectives) they may be used in the dual/plural also.
For example – विंशतिर्नरा: = twenty men, विंशतिर्नार्य: = twenty women, विंशति: कुटुम्बानि = twenty families, नवनवतिर्नरा: = ninety-nine men, नवनवतिर्नार्य: = ninety-nine women, नवनवति: कुटुम्बानि = ninety-nine families. (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) विंशति: = twenty (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) द्वे विंशती = two twenties (of men/women/families) = forty (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) तिस्रो विंशतय: = three twenties (of men/women/families) = sixty (of men/women/families) etc.

In the present example, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत्’ is qualifying अहानि which is neuter and plural. But as per the above convention, ‘अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत्’ is used in the feminine singular.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा ।

(7) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(8) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्/अष्टचत्वारिंशत् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।

Questions:

1. What it the विग्रह: of the compound वियद्वित्तस्य (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वियद्वित्त’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. What is the alternate form for the compound सकुटुम्बस्य used in the verses?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-40 द्यतिस्यतिमास्थामित्ति किति been used in the verses?

4. In which word(s) in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of the affix ‘लँट्’) been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the form उद्यमम् used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In our grammar-group there are forty-eight students.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वर्ग’ for group.

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the गुण: substitution (‘ओ’) in the form जातवेपथोः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जातवेपथु’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् apply in the form पञ्चदशभिः (used in the commentary)?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

अष्टादश nAp

Mon, 05/16/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form अष्टादश  nAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.36.11.

गृहीत्वा शृङ्गयोस्तं वा अष्टादश पदानि सः । प्रत्यपोवाह भगवान्गजः प्रतिगजं यथा ।। १०-३६-११ ।।
सोऽपविद्धो भगवता पुनरुत्थाय सत्वर: । आपतत्स्विन्नसर्वाङ्गो निःश्वसन्क्रोधमूर्च्छितः ।। १०-३६-१२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रत्योपवाह प्रतिलोमं व्यनुदत् ।। ११ ।। अपविद्धोऽपक्षिप्तः । आपतदाद्रवत् स्विन्नानि स्वेदयुक्तानि सर्वाङ्गानि यस्य सः । क्रोधमूर्च्छितः क्रोधेन व्याप्तः ।। १२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Seizing him by the horns, the Lord actually pushed him back, like an elephant driving a rival elephant, to a distance of eighteen steps (11). Knocked down by the Lord, the bull quickly rose again and, filled with fury, rushed forward sweating all over and breathing hard (12).

(1) अष्टौ च दश च = अष्टादश – (Eight + ten =) Eighteen.

(2) अष्ट जस् + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) अष्ट जस् + दशन् जस् । Note: Since ‘अष्ट जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अष्ट जस् + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अष्ट + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अष्टादशन् । By 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) is replaced by ‘आ’।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अष्टादशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number eighteen. Here it is used as an adjective to पदानि, which is neuter. Therefore it is used in the neuter gender here.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया ।

(6) अष्टादशन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: ‘अष्टादशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

(7) अष्टादशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘अष्टादशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(8) अष्टादश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Can you spot a प्रादि-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

2. From which verbal root is the form अपविद्ध: derived?

3. What it the विग्रह: of the compound स्विन्नसर्वाङ्ग: used in the verses?

4. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) in the form गृहीत्वा?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I will be staying here for eighteen days.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form प्रत्यपोवाह?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the commentary?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

द्वादश mNp

Thu, 05/12/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form द्वादश mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.11.12.

तयोः समुच्चयो मासः पितॄणां तदहर्निशम् । द्वौ तावृतुः षडयनं दक्षिणं चोत्तरं दिवि ।। ३-११-११ ।।
अयने चाहनी प्राहुर्वत्सरो द्वादश स्मृतः । संवत्सरशतं नॄणां परमायुर्निरूपितम् ।। ३-११-१२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
षण्मासा अयनम्दिवीत्यस्योत्तरेणान्वयः ।। ११ ।। दिवीति देवानामहोरात्रे प्राहुःद्वादश मासाः ।। १२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Both these fortnights, taken together, make one month, which constitutes a day and night of the Pitṛs (manes). Two months, taken together, go to make a Ṛtu (season); while an Ayana consists of six months. An Ayana is southerly and northerly by turns (according as the sun takes a southerly or northerly course), and the two Ayanas constitute the day and night of the gods in heaven. These are known as one year or twelve months (on earth) and a hundred years have been declared as the full life-span of human beings (11-12).

(1) द्वौ च दश च = द्वादश – (Two + ten =) Twelve.

See question 1.

(2) द्वि औ + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) द्वि औ + दशन् जस् । Note: Since ‘द्वि औ’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘द्वि औ + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) द्वि + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) द्वादशन् । By 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) is replaced by ‘आ’।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्वादशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number twelve. Here it is used as an adjective to ‘मास’, which is masculine. Therefore it is used in the masculine gender here.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा ।

(6) द्वादशन् + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: ‘द्वादशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

(7) द्वादशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘द्वादशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(8) द्वादश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. What is an alternate way (other than द्वन्द्वः) of deriving the compound द्वादश? Hint: Consider the वार्तिकम् (under 2-1-60 क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ् in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) शाकपार्थिवादीनां सिद्धये उत्तरपदलोपस्‍योपसंख्‍यानम्।

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः किम्? द्वित्राः। द्व्यशीतिः। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the काशिका says – द्व्यष्टन इति किम्? पञ्चदश। Please explain.

4. Can you spot another (besides द्वादश) द्वन्द्वः compound in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the masculine noun समुच्चय:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There are eighteen chapters in the Bhagawad Geeta.”

Easy questions:

1. In which other word (besides द्वादश) has the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् been used in the verses?

2. What is the alternate form for नॄणाम्?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

द्यावापृथिव्योः fGd

Mon, 05/09/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form द्यावापृथिव्योः fGd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.22.6.

अथ स एष आत्मा लोकानां द्यावापृथिव्योरन्तरेण नभोवलयस्य कालचक्रगतो द्वादश मासान्भुङ्क्ते राशिसंज्ञान्संवत्सरावयवान्मासः पक्षद्वयं दिवा नक्तं चेति सपादर्क्षद्वयमुपदिशन्ति यावता षष्ठमंशं भुञ्जीत स वै ऋतुरित्युपदिश्यते संवत्सरावयवः ।। ५-२२-५ ।। अथ च यावतार्धेन नभोवीथ्यां प्रचरति तं कालमयनमाचक्षते ।। ५-२२-६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
स एव स्वगत्या मासादिव्यवहारकारणमित्याह । स एष लोकानामात्माद्यावापृथिव्योरन्तरेण मध्ये यन्नभोवलयमन्तरिक्षं तस्य मध्ये यत्कालचक्रं तद्गतः । राशिभिर्मेषादिभिः संज्ञा येषाम् । चैत्रादिसंज्ञास्तु चान्द्रमासानाम् । मासमाह । पक्षद्वयं मास इति चान्द्रेण मानेन । सपादं महानक्षत्रद्वयं सौरेण, दिवानक्तं चाहोरात्रमिति पित्र्येण । षष्ठमंशं राशिद्वयम् ।। ५ ।। ६ ।।

Gita Press translation – Now, entering (in the form of the sun) the wheel of Time (as symbolized by the stellar sphere) existing in the firmament between heaven and earth, the same Lord who is the soul of all living beings passes through twelve months, the (twelve) parts of a year, known by the names of the (twelve) signs of the zodiac (Meṣa, Vṛṣa and so on). The learned declare that a month is equivalent to a couple of fortnights (one bright and the other dark, according to the lunar calendar), a day and night (in the eye of the manes) and the period taken in traversing two constellations and a quarter (from the point of the sun). And the fraction of a year in which He (the sun-god) covers the sixth part (of His orbit) is called a Ṛtu (season) (5). And, again, they refer to the (duration of) time in which He traverses one-half of His passage through the heavens as an Ayana (a half-year) (6).

(1) द्यौश्च पृथिवी च = द्यावापृथिव्यौ – Heaven and earth.

(2) दिव् सुँ + पृथिवी सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) दिव् सुँ + पृथिवी सुँ । ‘दिव्’ has one syllable while ‘पृथिवी’ has three syllables. Therefore ‘दिव्’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘दिव् सुँ + पृथिवी सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दिव् + पृथिवी । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) द्यावापृथिवी । By 6-3-30 दिवसश्च पृथिव्याम् – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term ‘दिव्’ takes the substitution ‘दिवस्’ as well as ‘द्यावा’ when followed by ‘पृथिवी’ as the final term of the compound. As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘दिव्’ is replaced by ‘द्यावा’।

See question 1.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्यावापृथिवी’ is feminine since the final member ‘पृथिवी’ of the compound is feminine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like नदी-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी ।

(6) द्यावापृथिवी + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) द्यावापृथिव्योस् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि।

(8) द्यावापृथिव्यो: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः ।

Questions:

1. What is the alternate form of the compound ‘द्यावापृथिवी’?

2. In which Chapter of the Geeta has the compound द्यावापृथिव्यो: been used?

3. Can you spot a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

4. Which word in the verses is formed using the affix ल्युट्?

5. What is the विग्रह: of the compound राशिसंज्ञान् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राशिसंज्ञ’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The Sun illumines both heaven and earth.” Use a causative form of the verbal root √काश् (काशृँ दीप्तौ १. ७३४) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘प्र’ for ‘to illumine.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

2. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

द्यावाभूम्योः fGd

Thu, 05/05/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form द्यावाभूम्योः fGd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.20.43.

अण्डमध्यगतः सूर्यो द्यावाभूम्योर्यदन्तरम् । सूर्याण्डगोलयोर्मध्ये कोट्यः स्युः पञ्चविंशतिः ।। ५-२०-४३ ।।
मृतेऽण्ड एष एतस्मिन्यदभूत्ततो मार्तण्ड इति व्यपदेशः । हिरण्यगर्भ इति यद्धिरण्याण्डसमुद्भवः ।। ५-२०-४४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
विस्तरेणोक्तं ब्रह्माण्डमानं सर्वतोऽपि निरूपयति । अण्डमध्यगतः । किं तन्मध्यं तदाह । द्यावाभूम्योः पूर्वोत्तरकपालयोर्यदन्तरं मध्यस्थानम् । सर्वतः पञ्चविंशतिकोट्यः ।। ४३ ।। अण्डमध्यावस्थाने कारणं तन्नामनिर्वचनेनाह । मृतेऽचेतने एष सूर्यो वैराजरूपेण यस्मात्प्रविष्टः ।। ४५ ।।

Gita Press translation – (The orb of) the sun is located in the middle of the egg (of this universe), which corresponds to the center of space lying between heaven (the upper shell of the cosmic egg) and earth (the lower shell of the cosmic egg.) The (extent of) space between (the orb of) the sun and (the outer shell of) the cosmic egg (on all sides) is twenty-five crore Yojanas (or two thousand million miles) (43). Because the sun-god appeared in this lifeless (inanimate) egg (as the Cosmic Being), the appellation of Mārtaṇḍa (मृते अण्डे भवः) has been applied to him (ever) since. He is (also) called Hiraṇyagarbha inasmuch as he (as the sun) represents the embryo (located) in (the centre of) the golden egg (of this universe) (44).

(1) द्यौश्च भूमिश्च = द्यावाभूमी – Heaven and earth.

(2) दिव् सुँ + भूमि सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) दिव् सुँ + भूमि सुँ । Note: ‘दिव्’ has one syllable while ‘भूमि’ has two syllables. Therefore ‘दिव्’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘दिव् सुँ + भूमि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दिव् + भूमि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) द्यावाभूमि । By 6-3-29 दिवो द्यावा – When the final member of the compound follows, in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote names of deities there is a substitution of ‘द्यावा’ in the place of the term ‘दिव्’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘दिव्’ is replaced by ‘द्यावा’।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्यावाभूमि’ is feminine since the final member ‘भूमि’ of the compound is feminine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like मति-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी।

(6) द्यावाभूमि + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) द्यावाभूम्योस् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि।

(8) द्यावाभूम्यो: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Questions:

1. From which सूत्रम् does the अनुवृत्ति: of देवताद्वन्द्वे come down in to the सूत्रम् 6-3-29 दिवो द्यावा (used in step 5)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः been used in the verses?

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound पञ्चविंशतिः?

4. Which वार्तिकम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form विस्तरेण used in the commentary?

5. Where has the particle नञ् been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lord Vāmana took away heaven and earth from king Bali.” Use the verbal root √हृ (हृञ् हरणे १. १०४६) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘अप’ for ‘to take away.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-77 गातिस्थाघुपाभूभ्यः सिचः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘अ’ in the form स्युः?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

वाय्वग्नी mNd

Mon, 05/02/2016 - 23:20

Today we will look at the form वाय्वग्नी  mNd from महाभारतम् 5.61.18.

अश्विनावथ वाय्वग्नी मरुद्भिः सह वृत्रहा । धर्मश्चैव मया द्विष्टान्नोत्सहन्तेऽभिरक्षितुम् ।। ५-६१-१८ ।।
यदि ह्येते समर्थाः स्युर्मद्द्विषस्त्रातुमञ्जसा । न स्म त्रयोदश समाः पार्था दुःखमवाप्नुयुः ।। ५-६१-१९ ।।
नैव देवा न गन्धर्वा नासुरा न च राक्षसाः । शक्तास्त्रातुं मया द्विष्टं सत्यमेतद्ब्रवीमि ते ।। ५-६१-२० ।।

Translation – The two Aświns (celestial physicians), Vāyu (the wind-god), Agni (the fire-god), Indra (the slayer of Vṛtra) with the Maruts and Dharma himself would not dare protect them whom I dislike (18). Indeed if they (mentioned above) had been truly capable of protecting my enemies then the sons of Pṛthā (Kuntī) would not have suffered for thirteen years (19). I speak the truth when I tell you that neither the gods nor the Gandharvas nor the Asuras nor the Rākṣasas are capable of protecting my enemy (20).

(1) अग्निश्च वायुश्च = वाय्वग्नी or अग्निवायू – (the deities) Vāyu and Agni.

(2) वायु सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) वायु सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । Note: ‘वायु’ and ‘अग्नि’ both have two syllables. Both have the घि-सञ्ज्ञा। Hence as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ as well as 2-2-32 द्वंद्वे घि either term could be placed in the prior position. In the present example ‘वायु सुँ’ is placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘वायु सुँ + अग्नि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) वायु + अग्नि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now as per the सूत्रम् 6-3-26 देवताद्वंद्वे च, (the ending letter of) ‘वायु’ should have taken the substitution ‘आनँङ्’ because here ‘वायु’ is the penultimate member of a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote names of deities. But this substitution is blocked by the following वार्तिकम् – वायुशब्दप्रयोगे प्रतिषेध: – The substitution ‘आनँङ्’ (prescribed by 6-3-26) is prohibited if the द्वन्द्व: compound contains ‘वायु’ as the final or prior member.

(5) वाय्वग्नि । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वाय्वग्नि’ is masculine since the final member ‘अग्नि’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा ।

(6) वाय्वग्नि + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) वाय्वग्नी । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

Questions:

1. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देव’ (used in the form देवा: (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) in the verses)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verses?

3. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘क्विँप्’ in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form त्रातुम् used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“May the fire-god and the wind-god always protect all of us.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the augment ‘ईट्’ in the verses?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

मित्रावरुणयोः mGd

Thu, 04/28/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form मित्रावरुणयोः mGd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.1.13.

अप्रजस्य मनोः पूर्वं वसिष्ठो भगवान्किल । मित्रावरुणयोरिष्टिं प्रजार्थमकरोत् प्रभुः ।। ९-१-१३ ।।
तत्र श्रद्धा मनोः पत्नी होतारं समयाचत । दुहित्रर्थमुपागम्य प्रणिपत्य पयोव्रता ।। ९-१-१४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
सूर्यपौत्रस्य सुद्युम्नस्य स्त्रीत्वे सति बुधात्पुरूरवःप्रभृतिसोमवंशसंचारं वक्तुं सप्रस्तावमिलोपाख्यानमाह – अप्रजस्य मनोः पूर्वमित्यादिना यावदध्यायसमाप्ति । पूर्वमिक्ष्वाकुप्रभृतीनामुत्पत्तेः प्राक् ।। १३ ।। दुहित्रर्थं मम कन्या यथा भवेत्तथा यजेति होतारं सम्यगयाचत । पय एव व्रतमाहारो नियतो यस्याः ।। १४ ।।

Gita Press translation – In the beginning (before Ikṣwāku and others were born) the glorious and powerful sage Vasiṣṭha (the preceptor of the solar race), it is said, conducted a sacrifice in propitiation of the gods Mitra and Varuṇa for the sake of a son to the Manu, who was (yet) issue-less (13). During that sacrificial performance the Manu’s wife, Śraddhā, who was subsisting on milk alone, approached the priest invoking the gods and reciting the Ṛgveda and, falling prostrate before him, humbly requested him to conduct the sacrifice in such a way as to ensure the birth of a daughter (14).

(1) मित्रश्च वरुणश्च = मित्रावरुणौ – (the deities) Mitra and Varuṇa

(2) मित्र सुँ + वरुण सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) मित्र सुँ + वरुण सुँ । Note: ‘मित्र’ has two syllables while ‘वरुण’ has three. Hence ‘मित्र सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.,

Note: ‘ मित्र सुँ + वरुण सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मित्र + वरुण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मित्र् आनँङ् + वरुण । By 6-3-26 देवताद्वन्द्वे च – When the final term of the compound follows, there is a substitution of ‘आनँङ्’ (in place of the penultimate term) in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote names of deities. As per 1-1-53 ङिच्च, only the ending letter ‘अ’ of ‘मित्र’ is substituted with ‘आनँङ्’।

(6) मित्रान् + वरुण । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: Here ‘मित्रान्’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य to apply in the next step.

(7) मित्रावरुण । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मित्रावरुण’ is masculine since the final member ‘वरुण’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी ।

(8) मित्रावरुण + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) मित्रावरुणे + ओस् । By 7-3-104 ओसि च, the ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् changes to letter ‘ए’ when followed by the affix ‘ओस्’ ।

(10) मित्रावरुणयोस् । अयादेशः by 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।

(11) मित्रावरुणयोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-26 देवताद्वन्द्वे च (used in step 5) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – पुनर्द्वन्द्वग्रहणं प्रसिद्धसाहचर्यस्य परिग्रहार्थम्‌। तेन ब्रह्मप्रजापती इत्यादौ नानङ्‌। एतद्धि नैकहविर्भागित्वेन श्रुतं नापि लोके प्रसिद्धं साहचर्यम्‌। Please explain.

2. The form अप्रजस्य used in the verses is a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage.) What is the grammatically correct form?

3. What type of compound is पयोव्रता as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. What is the alternate form for उपागम्य?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a seventh case affix in स्त्रीत्वे and सति in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I have never seen a sacrifice (in propitiation) of (the gods) Mitra and Varuṇa.” Paraphrase to passive – “A sacrifice (in propitiation) of (the gods) Mitra and Varuṇa has never been seen by me.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-11 अप्तृन्तृच्स्वसृनप्तृनेष्टृत्वष्टृक्षत्तृहोतृपोतृप्रशास्तॄणाम् been used in the verses?

2. In which word in the commentary has the affix ‘हि’ taken the लुक् elision?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

पितापुत्राभ्याम् mId

Mon, 04/25/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form पितापुत्राभ्याम्  mId from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.1.9.

तत्र ह वा एनं देवर्षिर्हंसयानेन पितरं भगवन्तं हिरण्यगर्भमुपलभमानः सहसैवोत्थायार्हणेन सह पितापुत्राभ्यामवहिताञ्जलिरुपतस्थे ।। ५-१-९ ।।
भगवानपि भारत तदुपनीतार्हणः सूक्तवाकेनातितरामुदितगुणगणावतारसुजयः प्रियव्रतमादिपुरुषस्तं सदयहासावलोक इति होवाच ।। ५-१-१० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
हंसयानेनोपलक्षणेनैनं पितरमुपलभमानो मत्पिताऽयमिति लक्षयन् पितापुत्राभ्यां मनुप्रियव्रताभ्यां सह नारदः कृताञ्जलिः सन्सहसैवाभ्युत्थायार्हणेन पूजया सहोपतस्थे तुष्टाव । प्रियव्रतं तदा मन्दरद्रोण्यां नारद उपदिशति मनुश्च तं नेतुमागतोऽस्तीति ज्ञातव्यम् ।। ९ ।। हे भारत, भगवानादिपुरुषो ब्रह्मापि तं प्रियव्रतमिति होवाचेत्यन्वयः । तेन नारदेनोपनीतमर्हणं यस्य सः । सूक्तवाकेन यथोचितवाक्येन । अतिशयेनोदिता वर्णिता गुणगणा अवताराः सुजयाः सर्वोत्कर्षाश्च यस्य ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – Recognizing there from his mount, a swan, that he was no other than his father, the glorious Brahmā, Nārada (the celestial sage) quickly rose and waited upon him with articles of worship along with the father (Swāyambhuva Manu) and son (Priyavrata), his palms joined (in prayer) (9). The glorious Brahmā too, the first among embodied beings, who was offered (many an article of) worship (by Nārada) and whose hosts of virtues, coming down to the earth (to bless his devotees), and excellent glories were sung in appropriate words, spoke as follows to Priyavrata, casting at him a smiling look full of compassion indeed (10).

(1) पिता च पुत्रश्च = पितापुत्रौ – father and son.

(2) पितृ सुँ + पुत्र सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) पितृ सुँ + पुत्र सुँ । As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) अभ्यर्हितं च, we place ‘पितृ सुँ’ in the prior position in the compound because the father commands greater respect than the son. Even otherwise, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) लघ्वक्षरं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘पितृ सुँ’ would be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पितृ सुँ + पुत्र सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पितृ + पुत्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) पित् आनँङ् + पुत्र । By 6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वन्द्वे – When the final term of the compound follows, there is a substitution of ‘आनँङ्’ (in place of the penultimate term) in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms – i) all end in the letter ‘ऋ’ and ii) denote a relationship either via knowledge/study or birth.
Note: Even though ‘पुत्र’ does not end in the letter ‘ऋ’, the सूत्रम् 6-3-25 applies here because of the अनुवृत्ति: of ‘पुत्रे’ which comes down in to this सूत्रम् 6-3-25 from the सूत्रम् 6-3-22 पुत्रेऽन्यतरस्याम् via मण्डूकप्लुति: (frog-jump) – which means that the अनुवृत्ति: skips the intervening rules 6-3-23 and 6-3-24.

See question 1.

As per 1-1-53 ङिच्च, only the ending letter ‘ऋ’ of ‘पितृ’ is substituted with ‘आनँङ्’।

(6) पितान् + पुत्र । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: Here ‘पितान्’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य to apply in the next step.

(7) पितापुत्र । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितापुत्र’ is masculine since the final member ‘पुत्र’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.

The विवक्षा is तृतीया।

(8) पितापुत्र + भ्याम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘भ्याम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) पितापुत्रा + भ्याम् । By 7-3-102 सुपि च – The ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् is elongated if it is followed by a सुँप् affix beginning with a letter of the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।

= पितापुत्राभ्याम् ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the example पितापुत्रौ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अनयोरपि योनिकृतः सम्बन्धो जन्यजनकभावलक्षणः। Please explain.

2. What type of compound is अवहिताञ्जलि: as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. तृतीया-तत्पुरुष:

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form अर्हणेन used in the verses?

4. What is the विग्रह: of the compound तदुपनीतार्हणः used in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-82 आने मुक् been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Only a father and (his) son live in this house.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘केवल’ for ‘only.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः been used in the verses?

2. From which verbal root is the form तुष्टाव (used in the commentary) derived?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

मातापितरौ mAd

Thu, 04/21/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form मातापितरौ  mAd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.8.9.

अहो बतायं हरिणकुणकः कृपण ईश्वररथचरणपरिभ्रमणरयेण स्वगणसुहृद्बन्धुभ्यः परिवर्जितः शरणं च मोपसादितो मामेव मातापितरौ भ्रातृज्ञातीन्यौथिकांश्चैवोपेयाय नान्यं कञ्चन वेद मय्यतिविस्रब्धश्चात एव मया मत्परायणस्य पोषणपालनप्रीणनलालनमनसूयुनानुष्ठेयं शरण्योपेक्षादोषविदुषा ।। ५-८-९ ।।
नूनं ह्यार्याः साधव उपशमशीलाः कृपणसुहृद एवंविधार्थे स्वार्थानपि गुरुतरानुपेक्षन्ते ।। ५-८-१० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
आसक्तिं प्रपञ्चयति – अहो इत्यादिना इति कृपानुषङ्ग इत्येतत्पर्यन्तेन । ईश्वररथचरणः कालचक्रं तस्य परिभ्रमणवेगेन स्वगणादिभ्यो विभ्रंशितः मा इति मां च शरणं प्रापितः मामेव मातापित्रादिबुद्ध्योपेयाय प्राप्तः । यौथिकान्यूथसंघातिनः । अनसूयुना एतन्निमित्तं मम स्वार्थो भ्रश्यतीति दोषदृष्टिमकुर्वता ।। ९ ।। तदेवाह – नूनं हीति ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – “Oh, torn from its class as well as from its near and dear ones and alas! brought under my protection by the fast rotating wheel of Time, this helpless young deer has accepted me alone for its parents, kith and kin and mates, knowing no one else, and has great confidence in me. Hence it behooves me (too) to nourish, protect (from enemies), gratify and fondle in an unavailing spirit this fawn exclusively depending on me, knowing as I do that it is sinful to forsake him who seeks my protection (9). Surely worthy and pious souls who are given to self-control and are friends of the poor ignore their own big interests for the sake of such (wretched) creatures (10).”

(1) माता च पिता च = मातापितरौ – parents (mother and father).

(2) मातृ सुँ + पितृ सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) मातृ सुँ + पितृ सुँ । As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) अभ्यर्हितं च, we place ‘मातृ सुँ’ in the prior position in the compound because the mother commands greater respect than the father. Otherwise, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) लघ्वक्षरं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘पितृ सुँ’ would have been placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘मातृ सुँ + पितृ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मातृ + पितृ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मात् आनँङ् + पितृ । By 6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वन्द्वे – When the final term of the compound follows, there is a substitution of ‘आनँङ्’ (in place of the penultimate term) in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms – i) all end in the letter ‘ऋ’ and ii) denote a relationship either via knowledge/study or birth. (Since the parents are jointly involved in the birth of their offspring, they do have a relationship via birth.)
As per 1-1-53 ङिच्च, only the ending letter ‘ऋ’ of ‘मातृ’ is substituted with ‘आनँङ्’।

(6) मातान् + पितृ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: Here ‘मातान्’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य to apply in the next step.

(7) मातापितृ । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मातापितृ’ is masculine since the final member ‘पितृ’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया।

(8) मातापितृ + औट् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘औट्’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 to apply below.

(9) मातापितृ + औ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(10) मातापितर् + औ । By 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending letter ‘ऋ’ of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

= मातापितरौ ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वन्द्वे (used in step 5) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – न चाकारमात्रमेव विधीयतामिति वाच्यम्। ‘उरण् रपरः’ इति रपरप्रसङ्गात्। Please explain.

2. Which compound in the verses is a द्वन्द्व: compound constructed समाहारे?

3. Can you spot the affix यत् in the verses?

4. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आर्य’ (used in the form आर्या: (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) in the verses) derived?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-74 तस्मान्नुडचि been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My parents have passed away.” Paraphrase to “My parents have gone to heaven.” Use the अव्ययम् ‘स्वर्’ for ‘heaven.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in the form भ्रश्यति used in the commentary?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

बलाबलम् nAs

Mon, 04/18/2016 - 19:30

Today we will look at the form बलाबलम्  nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.34.25.

किं नु स्याच्चित्तमोहोऽयं भवेद्वातगतिस्त्वियम् । उन्मादजो विकारो वा स्यादयं मृगतृष्णिका ।। ५-३४-२३ ।।
अथवा नायमुन्मादो मोहोऽप्युन्मादलक्षणः । सम्बुध्ये चाहमात्मानमिमं चापि वनौकसम् ।। ५-३४-२४ ।।
इत्येवं बहुधा सीता सम्प्रधार्य बलाबलम् । रक्षसां कामरूपत्वान्मेने तं राक्षसाधिपम् ।। ५-३४-२५ ।।
एतां बुद्धिं तदा कृत्वा सीता सा तनुमध्यमा । न प्रतिव्याजहाराथ वानरं जनकात्मजा ।। ५-३४-२६ ।।

Gita Press translation – “Can this (meeting of mine with a monkey) be a delusion of my mind? Or it may be a delusion caused by my being possessed by a ghost (clothed with an aerial body). Or (again) it may be a malady born of insanity or it may be (only) an optic illusion (23). Or this may not be (a case of) insanity, nor even delusion showing symptoms similar to those of insanity, for I am conscious of my own self as well as of this monkey (24).” Having thus duly considered in many ways the strength of ogres and the weakness of monkeys (who cannot be expected to leap across a vast sea), and (also) considering the fact that the ogres are able to change their form at will, Sītā concluded Hanūmān to be Rāvaṇa (the suzerain ruler of ogres) (25). Having arrived at this conclusion at that time that lady of slender waist, Sītā, Janaka’s daughter, did not speak any more to the monkey (26).

(1) बलं चाबलं चानयो: समाहार: = बलाबलम् – a group (in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) of strength and weakness.

(2) बल सुँ + अबल सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) बल सुँ + अबल सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘अबल सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘अबल’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘बल’ does not. But since ‘बल’ has only two syllables while ‘अबल’ has three syllables, ‘बल सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.
Note: 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the prior rule 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌। Therefore ‘बल सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.

Note: ‘बल सुँ + अबल सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) बल + अबल । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) बलाबल । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः ।

Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound have opposite meanings and do not denote physical objects, it is optionally singular in number and hence expresses either a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) or इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident) as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-13 विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि – A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms have opposite meanings and do not denote physical objects is optionally singular in number and hence expresses either a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) or इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.).

In the present example, the compound is singular in number and hence expresses a समाहार:।

See questions 1 and 2.

And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) बलाबल + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) बलाबल + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) बलाबलम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. What would be the final form in this example if the compound were to express इतरेतरयोग:?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-13 विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि (used in step 5) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – वैकल्पिक: समाहारद्वन्द्व: ‘चार्थे द्वन्द्वः’ इति सूत्रेण प्राप्त: स विरुद्धार्थानां यदि भवति तर्हि अद्रव्यवाचिनामेवेति नियमार्थमिदम्। तेन द्रव्यवाचिनामितरेतरयोग एव। शीतोष्णे उदके स्त:। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – विप्रतिषिद्धं किम्? नन्दकपाञ्चजन्यौ। इह पाक्षिक: समाहारद्वन्द्वो भवत्येव। Please explain.

4. What is the विग्रह: of the compound तनुमध्यमा as used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form कामरूपत्वात् used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should engage in war only after having duly considered the strength and weakness of the enemy.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘अ’ in the form स्यात्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the verses?

Categories: Sanskrit Grammar

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