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Lesson # 127

Tue, 02/27/2018 - 18:59

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson # 127

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य शताधिकसप्तविंशतितमः (१२७) पाठः |

भवभूति the 8th-century author of the very moving play उत्तररामचरितम् has in his other work मालतीमाधवम् these lines, which serve to be consolation for any author that, even if your work receives not enough praise today, someday the right sort of reader will come along, who will derive great joy or meaning from it.

ये नाम केचिदिह नः प्रथयन्त्यवज्ञाम्

जानन्ति ते किमपि तान्प्रति नैष यत्नः ।

उत्पत्स्यते तु मम कोऽपि समानधर्मा

कालो ह्ययं निरवधिर्विपुला च पृथ्वी ॥

पदच्छेदैः :- ये नाम केचित् इह नः प्रथयन्ति अवज्ञाम् / जानन्ति ते किम् अपि तान् प्रति न एषः यत्नः / उत्पत्स्यते तु मम कः अपि समान-धर्मा कालः हि अयम् निर्-अवधिः विपुला च पृथ्वी //

विशिष्टानां शब्दानाम् अभ्यासाः :-

प्रथयन्ति – प्रथ् (1 उ.) / तस्य लटि प्र.पु. बहु. / To spread word

अवज्ञाम् – अवज्ञा इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम / तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च /

  • अवज्ञा = disrespect, dishonor, disgrace

उत्पत्स्यते – उत्+पत् (1 उ.) / कर्मणिप्रयोगे लृटि प्र.पु. एक. /

समानधर्मा – समानं धर्म यस्य सः समानधर्मा (बहुव्रीहिः) /

  • Note धर्मन् can be masculine or neuter. Here it is neuter. From Apte’s dictionary, n. 1 A religious rite. -2 Support, stay. -3 Religion, duty. -4 Law, custom. -5 A mode, manner.-6 Characteristic quality or mark.
  • By बहुव्रीहि-compounding समानधर्मन् is masculine. समानधर्मा is प्रथमा, एकवचनम्
  • समानधर्मा = One who would have identical mode, manner (of thinking).

निरवधिः – निर्-अवधिः (निर्गतः अवधिः यस्मात् सः)

  • One meaning of अवधिः is limit.
  • निरवधिः = limitless, endless.

विपुला = abundant, (by extended meaning) full of variety of characters.

पृथ्वी = earth; (by extended meaning) what supports mankind of variety of characters.

अन्वयाः (1) ये केचित् इह नः अवज्ञाम् प्रथयन्ति (2) अपि ते जानन्ति किम् (3) एषः यत्नः तान् प्रति न (4) मम समानधर्मा कः अपि तु उत्पत्स्यते / हि अयम् कालः निरवधिः पृथ्वी च विपुला /

Meaning :-

  1. ये केचित् इह नः अवज्ञाम् प्रथयन्ति = whosoever spreads words of disrespect about us
  2. अपि ते जानन्ति किम् = do they know ?
  3. एषः यत्नः तान् प्रति न = This effort (this work) is not for them (to indulge in)
  4. मम समानधर्मा कः अपि तु उत्पत्स्यते = someone will arise, who would have identical mode, manner (of thinking).
  5. हि अयम् कालः निरवधिः पृथ्वी च विपुला = because time is endless and the earth is abundant (supportive of mankind of variety of characters).

Notes टिप्पण्यः

  1. The tone of the verse sounds to be to register a protest against some defamation of character, in which some critiques of the author seem to have indulged in.
  2. But the verse seems to have become popular and famous, primarily because of the eternal principle paraphrased in the last line कालो ह्ययं निरवधिर्विपुला च पृथ्वी.
  3. Even कालिदास resorted to some similar self-defense in the opening verse of मालविकाग्निमित्रम् – पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वम् / न चापि काव्यं नवमित्यवद्यम् / सन्तः परीक्ष्यान्यतरद्भजन्ते / मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः // (Everything old is not necessarily laudable. A poetry cannot be treated as unreadable, just because it is new. Gentlemen would indulge by discretion and by self-assessment. The intelligence of the unintelligent is led by what others say.)
  4. Conservatism or not being open-minded seems to have been a trait among people in general and in literary circles in particular, almost through all ages. Even in गीता, श्रीकृष्णभगवान् denounces people, who are not open-minded अविपश्चितः and who would even argue अन्यत् न अस्ति (anything else is not to be acknowledged) – यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चितः / वेदवादरताः पार्थ नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः (2’42) Study of this verse is detailed at https://study1geetaa2sanskrit.wordpress.com/category/2-424344/ 

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

On Wed. Feb. 28,2018, commenting on the lesson, Dr. Avinash Sathaye mentions a पाठभेदः in the third line – उत्पत्स्यतेऽस्ति instead of उत्पत्स्यते तु.

The भिन्नः पाठः lends a meaning उत्पत्स्यते (वा) अस्ति (वा) Someone of character similar to mine is already there somewhere or will be born. That पाठभेदः is charming too !

On Thursday March 1, 2018, there is one more पाठभेदः from Dr. Avinash Sathaye => In the second line जानन्तु instead of जानन्ति, लोट्-लकारः instead of लट्. This would bring up change in the अन्वयः from “अपि ते जानन्ति किम् ?” to ते जानन्तु किमपि (यत्) एषः यत्नः तान् प्रति (नैव) अस्ति |

  • In the अन्वयः “अपि ते जानन्ति किम् ?” there are two interrogatives अपि and किम्. At least one is superfluous.
  • In लोट्-लकारः  in the imperative mood, there is no interrogation. ते जानन्तु किमपि just issues a notice to the critics “May they know this much, that this effort is not for them at all.”
  • In so doing, किमपि gets translated as “this much”. And that makes also some sternness in the notice !

 

Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 126

Thu, 02/11/2016 - 18:49

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 126

संस्कृताध्ययनस्य षड्विंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२६) पाठः

 

Mr. Himanshu Pota seeks analysis and interpretation of the following सुभाषितम्. On the internet I got it as सुभाषित क्र.८३६ at http://www.sanskritdeepika.org/subhashit_remote_sql.php?subh_id=%27836%20%27

अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिमुपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम्‌ ।

मेधाविनो नीतिविधिप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीमिव दर्शयन्ति ॥

पदच्छेदैः –

अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् उपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम्‌ ।

मेधाविनः नीतिविधिप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीम् इव दर्शयन्ति ॥

अन्वयः –

  1. अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम्
  2. उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌ च
  3. नीतिविधिप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीम् इव
  4. मेधाविनः दर्शयन्ति |

(1) I thought it good to detail the अन्वय in four parts, thinking that the fourth part contains the subject and the verb, first two parts are objects, the third part is adverbial, especially because of इव (= such as).

(2) Interestingly all words in parts 1, 2 and 3 are feminine, second case, singular, except of course च and इव. That is the reason, why it becomes good to detail the अन्वय in four parts.

With these preliminary observations, we can proceed to get into critical analysis of specific words.

(3) The two words अपायसंदर्शनजाम् and उपायसंदर्शनजाम् have only the first letter different, because of two different prefixes अप and उप. So common portion of them is अयसंदर्शनजाम् or आयसंदर्शनजाम्.

  • To understand अपाय and उपाय, there is also another commonly known word व्यय (वि + अय) or व्यत्यय (वि + अति + अय).  
    • अपायः [इ-अच्] 1 Going away, departure. -2 Separation; ध्रुवमपाये$पादानम् P.I.4.24. (अपायो विश्लेषः Sk.); येन जातं प्रियापाये कद्वदं हंसकोकिलम् Bk.6.75. -3 Disappearance, vanishing, absence; सूर्यापाये Me.82 at the time of sun- set; क्षणदापायशशाङ्कदर्शनः R.8.74 close of night; जलापाय- विपाण़्डुराणि Śi.4.5;4.54;18.1. -4 Destruction, loss, death, annihilation; करणापायविभिन्नवर्णया R.8.42 loss, 83; मालत्यपायमधिगम्य Māl.1.9 death or disappearance of M. -5 An evil, ill, misfortune, risk, calamity, danger (oft. opp. उपाय); तदपि मरणापायचकितः Bh.3.9; तदनेन पापबुद्धिनोपायश्चिन्तितो नापायः Pt.1 not the danger (resulting from the plan); उपायं चिन्तयेत्प्राज्ञस्तथापायं च चिन्तयेत् Pt.1.46; अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिमुपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम् Pt.1.61; बह्वपाये वने Pt.1 exposed to many dangers, dangerous; कायः संनिहितापायः H.4.65 exposed to dangers or calamities; सत्ये$प्यपायमपेक्षते H.4.12; Ki.14.19. -6 Loss, detriment, injury. -7 The end (of a word).
    • उपायः 1 (a) Means, an expedient, remedy; शक्यो$वाप्तुमुपायतः Bg.6.36. उपायं चिन्तयेत्प्राज्ञस्तथापायं च चिन्तयेत् Pt.1.46; मयि क्षीणोपाये प्रणिपतनमात्रैकशरणे Amaru.25; Bhāg.1.48.2; Ms.8.48,7.177. (b) A plan, con- trivance; ˚निलया Mu.1.5. (c) A mode, way, stratagem. उपायेन तु यच्छक्यं न तच्छक्यं पराक्रमैः । H. -2 A fact, circumstance; U.7. -3 Beginning, commencement. -4 Effort, exertion; वश्यात्मना तु यतता शक्यो$वाप्तुमुपायतः (योगः) Bg.6.36; Ms.9.248;1.2. -5 A means of success against an enemy; (these are four:- सामन् conciliation or negotiation, दानम् bribery; भेदः sowing dissensions; and दण्डः punishment (open attack); some authorities add three more :- माया deceit; उपेक्षा trick, deceit or neglect; इन्द्रजाल conjuring, thus making the total number 7); चतुर्थोपायसाध्ये तु रिपौ सान्त्वमपक्रिया Śi.2.54; सामादीनामुपायानां चतुर्णामपि पण्डिताः Ms.7.19. -6 Joining (as in singing). -7 Approach. -8 Initiation, thread ceremony (= उपनयन); अपि वा वेदतुल्यत्वाद् उपायेन प्रवर्तेरन् MS.6.2.22 (where शबर explains उपायेन प्रवर्तेरन् as उपनयनेन सह प्रवर्तेरन् ।).
    • In Apte’s dictionary, these words अपाय and उपाय are detailed under अपे (अप + इ) and उपे (उप + इ) respectively, treating अय as [इ-अच्].
    • To my mind अयः can as well be considered as अय् + घञ्. Anyway, both इ and अय् have same meaning गतौ. Both अच् and घञ् are कृत्-प्रत्यय-s, used to obtain masculine abstract nouns from धातु-s.
    • Etymologically अपायः means going away (from wellness), hence harmful. उपायः means going near (to wellness), hence helpful.
  • संदर्शनजाम् – संदर्शनज-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • सम्यक्-दर्शनम् इति संदर्शनम् |
    • संदर्शने जायते इति संदर्शनजा (स्त्री.)
  • अपायसंदर्शनजाम् = appearing or occurring when sighting wrong conduct, approach or mismatch
  • उपायसंदर्शनजाम् = occurring when sighting help, solution, remedy.

(4) आपत्तिम् – द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of आपत्ति

  • आपत्तिः f. [आ-पद्-क्तिन्] 1 Turning or changing into, entering into any state or condition. -2 Obtaining, procuring, getting; स्थानापत्तेर्द्रव्येषु धर्मलाभः Kāty. -3 Misfortune, calamity, adversity; Y.3.42. -4 A fault, transgression. -5 Remonstrance, expostulation. -6 (In phil.) An undesirable conclusion or occurrence (अनिष्टप्रसङ्ग).

(5) सिद्धिम् द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of सिद्धि

  • सिद्धिः f. [सिध्-क्तिन्] 1 Accomplishment, fulfilment, completion, perfection, complete attainment (of an object); विरोधि सिद्धेरिति कर्तुमुद्यतः Ki.14.8; क्रियासिद्धिः सत्त्वे भवति महतां नोपकरणे Subhāṣ. -2 Success, prosperity, welfare, well-being. -3 Establishment, settlement. -4 Substantiation, demonstration, proof, indisputable conclusion. -5 Validity (of a rule, law &c.). -6 Decision; adjudication, settlement (of a law-suit); कार्यकारणसिद्धौ च प्रसन्ना बुद्धिरव्यया Rām.4.18.47; तस्मान्न लेखसामर्थ्यात् सिद्धिरैकान्तिकी मता Śukra. 4.726. -7 Certainty, truth, accuracy, correctness.-8 Payment, liquidation (of a debt); अधमर्णार्थसिद्ध्यर्थमुत्तमर्णेन चोदितः Ms.8.47. -9 Preparing, cooking (as of drugs &c.). -1 The solution of a problem. -11 Readiness. -12 Complete purity or sanctification. -13 A superhuman power of faculty; (these faculties are eight:– अणिमा लघिमा प्राप्तिः प्राकाम्यं महिमा तथा । ईशित्वं च वशित्वं च तथा कामावसायिता ॥). -14 The acquisition of supernatural powers by magical means. -15 Marvellous skill or capability. -16 Good effect or result. -17 Final beatitude, final emancipation. -18 Understanding, intellect. -19 Concealment, vanishing, making oneself invisible. -2 A magical shoe (supposed to convey the wearer wherever he likes). -21 A kind of Yoga. -22 N. of Durgā. -23 Complete knowledge. -24 Advantage, use, good effect. -25 N. of Śiva (m. in this sense). -26 Efficacy, efficiency. -27 Becoming intelligible (as sounds or words). -28 (In Rhet.) The pointing out in the same person of various good qualities.

(6) अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् = अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः (ताम्)

  • अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः = Trouble, which be sighted when seeing harms

(7) उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌ = उपायसंदर्शनजा सिद्धिः (ताम्)

  • उपायसंदर्शनजा सिद्धिः = Success, achievement, fulfilment, problem-resolution, which be sighted when seeking solution.

(8) नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ताम् – द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ता

  • नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ता – नीतिना विधिना च प्रवृत्ता (ताम्)
  • नीतिः – f. 1 Guidance, direction, management. -2 Conduct, manner of conducting oneself, behaviour, course of action. -3 propriety, decorum. -4 Policy, prudence, wisdom, right course; आर्जवं हि कुटिलेषु न नीतिः N.5.13; R.13.69; Ku.1.22. -5 A plan, contriv- ance, scheme; भूयः स्नेहविचेष्टितैर्मृगदृशो नीतस्य कोटिं पराम् Māl.6.3. -6 Politics, political science, statesmanship, political wisdom; आत्मोदयः परग्लानिर्द्वयं नीतिरितीयती Śi.2.3; दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम् Bg.1.38. -7 Righteousness, moral conduct, morality. -8 The science of morality, morals, ethics, moral philosophy; निन्दन्तु नीतिनिपुणा यदि वा स्तुवन्तु Bh.2.83. -9 Acquirement, acquisition. -1 Giving, offering, presenting. -11 Relation, support.
  • विधिः – [विधा-कि] 1 Doing, performance, practice, an act or action; ब्रह्मध्यानाभ्यसनविधिना योगनिद्रां गतस्य Bh.3.41; योगविधि R.8.22; अस्याः सर्गविधौ V.1.8; लेखाविधि Māl. 1.35. -2 Method, manner, way, means, mode; निः- साराल्पफलानि ये त्वविधिना वाञ्छन्ति दण्डोद्यमैः Pt.1.376. -3 A rule, commandment, any precept which enjoins something for the first time (as distinguished from नियम and परिसंख्या q. v.); विधिरत्यन्तमप्राप्तौ; चिकीर्षाकृतिसाध्यत्व- हेतुधीविषयो विधिः; वहति विधिहुतं या हविः Ś.1.1. -4 A sacred precept or rule, ordinance, injunction, law, a sacred command, religious commandment (opp. अर्थवाद which means ‘an explanatory statement coupled with legends and illustrations’; see अर्थवाद); प्रवृत्तिपरं वाक्यं विधिः, as ज्योतिष्टोमेन स्वर्गकामो यजेत; श्रद्धा वित्तं विधिश्चेति त्रितयं तत् समागतम् Ś.7.29; R.2.16. -5 Any religious act or ceremony, a rite, ceremony; स चेत् स्वयं कर्मसु धर्मचारिणां त्वमन्तरायो भवसि च्युतो विधिः R.3.45;1.34. -6 Behaviour, conduct. -7 Condition; V.4. -8 Creation, formation; सामग्ऱ्यविधौ Ku.3.28; कल्याणी विधिषु विचित्रता विधातुः Ki.7.7. -9 The creator. -1 Fate, destiny, luck; विधौ वामारम्भे मम समुचितैषा परिणतिः Māl.4.4. -11The food of elephants. -12 Time. -13 A physician. -14 N. of Viṣṇu. -15 Use, application. -16 A means, expedient for; अक्षरं गन्तुमनसो विधिं वक्ष्यामि शीघ्रगम् Mb.12. 236.13. -17 Any act, action.
  • प्रवृत्ताम् – द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of प्रवृत्ता
    • प्रवृत्त p. p. 1 Begun, commenced, proceeded with. -2 Set in; अचिरप्रवृत्तं ग्रीष्मसमयमधिकृत्य Ś.1. -3 Engaged in, occupied with. -4 Going to, bound for. -5 Fixed, settled, determined. -6 Unimpeded, undisputed. -7 Round. -8 Flowing, running; प्रवृत्तमुदकं वायु सर्वं वानेयमाश्रयेत् Mb.14.46.12. -9 Circulated (as a book). -1 Offending, hurting. -त्तः A round ornament. -त्तम् An action, undertaking.
  • नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ताम् = endorsed or justified by logic and practice.

(9) पुरःस्फुरन्तीम् – द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of पुरःस्फुरन्ती

  • पुरःस्फुरन्ती – पुरः (पुरतः) स्फुरन्ती
    • पुरः – पुरस् ind. 1 Before (in time or space), in front, in the presence of, before the eyes of (by itself or with gen.); अमुं पुरः पश्यसि देवदारुम् R.2.36; तव प्रसादस्य पुरस्तु संपदः Ś.7.3; तस्य स्थित्वा कथमपि पुरः Me.3; Ku.4.3; Amaru.43; often used with कृ, गम्, धा, भू (see below). -2 In the east, from the east. -3 Eastward.
    • स्फुरन्ती – स्त्री. of स्फुरत् which is by शतृ-प्रत्यय to धातुः स्फुर्
    • स्फुर्  6 P. (स्फुरति, स्फुरित) 1 (a) To throb, palpitate (as eyes &c.); शान्तमिदमाश्रमपदं स्फुरति च बाहुः कुतः फल- मिहास्य Ś.1.16; स्फुरता वामकेनापि दाक्षिण्यमवलम्ब्यते Māl. 1.8; अभिमतफलशंसी चारु पुस्फोर बाहुः Bk.1.27; स्फुरति हृदयं वाहय रथम् Pratimā 3.1. (b) To shake, tremble, quiver, vibrate in general; स्फुरदधरनासापुटतया U.1.29; 6.33. -2 To twitch, struggle, become agitated; हतं पृथिव्यां करुणं स्फुरन्तम् Rām. -3 To start, dart, spring for- ward; पुस्फुरुर्वृषभाः परम् Bk.14.46. -4 To spring back, rebound (as a bow.). -5 To spring or break forth, to shoot out, spring up, rise forth; धर्मतः स्फुरति निर्मलं यशः Ku.3.68. -6 To start into view, become visible or manifest, appear clearly, become displayed; मुखात् स्फुरन्तीं को हर्तुमिच्छति हरेः परिभूय दंष्ट्राम् Mu.1.8; रचितरुचिरभूषां दृष्टिमोषे प्रदोषे स्फुरति निरवसादां कापि राधां जगाद Gīt.11. -7 To flash, scintillate, sparkle, glitter, gleam, shine; स्फुरतु कुचकुम्भयोरुपरि मणिमञ्जरी रञ्जयतु तव हृदयदेशम् Gīt.1; (तया) स्फुरत्प्रभामण्डलया चकाशे Ku.1.24; R.3.6;5.51; Me.15,27. -8 To shine, distinguish oneself, become eminent; जातस्तु गण्यते सो$त्र यः स्फुरत्यन्वयाधिकम् Pt.1.27. -9 To flash on the mind, rush suddenly into memory. -1 To go tremulously. -11 To bruise, destroy. -Caus. (स्फारयति-ते, स्फोरयति-ते) 1 To cause to throb or vibrate. -2 To cause to shine, irradiate. -3 To throw, cast. -With अप to shine forth or out. अभि1 to spread or be diffused, expand. -2 to become known.
  • पुरःस्फुरन्ती = springing up, arising, happening, becoming visible, becoming manifest in front.

(10) मेधाविनः – पुँ. प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of मेधाविन्

  • मेधाविन् – a. [मेधा-विनि] 1 Very intelligent, having a good memory. -2 Intelligent, wise, endowed with intellect; मेधाविनो नीतिगुणप्रयुक्तां पुरः स्फुरन्तीमिव दर्शयन्ति Pt. 1.61; मेधावी छिन्नसंशयः Bg.18.1.-m. 1 A learned man, sage, scholar. -2 A parrot. -3 An intoxicating drink.
  • Note मेधा [मेध्-अञ्] (changed to मेधस् in Bah. comp. when preceded by सु, दुस् and the negative particle अ) 1 Retentive faculty, retentiveness (of memory); धीर्धारणावती मेधा Ak. -2 Intellect, intelligence in general; यत् सप्तान्नानि मेधया तपसाजनयत् पिता Bṛi. Up.1.5.1; Bg. 1.34; आयुष्मन्तं सुतं सूते यशोमेधासमन्वितम् Ms.3.263; Y. 3.173. -3 A form of Sarasvathī. -4 A sacrifice. -5 Strength, power (Ved.).

(11) Putting together meanings obtained above,

  1. अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् = Trouble, which be sighted when seeing wrong conduct, approach or mismatch
  2. उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌ च = Success, achievement, fulfilment, problem-resolution, which be sighted when seeking solution.
  3. नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ताम् = endorsed or justified by logic and practice.
  4. पुरःस्फुरन्तीम् इव = arising, happening, becoming manifest in front.
  5. मेधाविनः = wise, endowed with intellect
  6. दर्शयन्ति = show.
  7. The wise show trouble(s), which be sighted when seeing harms, problem-resolution(s), which be sighted when seeking solution. (They show these) endorsed or justified by logic and practice and as if the troubles or problem-resolutions are arising, happening, becoming manifest in front.

(12) As can be noted, this सुभाषितम् is quoted in meanings of various words in Apte’s dictionary. There the reference is given as Pt.1.61 i.e. पञ्चतन्त्रे (1) मित्रभेदे. In a पञ्चतन्त्रम् book with me with Hindi translation by श्री भारतीय योगी, 1975-edition published by संस्कृति संस्थान, बरेली, this सुभाषितम् reads अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिमुपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम् | मेधाविनो नीतिगुणप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीमिव वर्णयन्ति ||

(13) Since words in this सुभाषितम् have various shades of meanings, there can be various interpretations. For example, a simple example of अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः can be a student going by a wrong approach, when solving any problem in any subject. He is bound to fail. He is bound to face the विपत्तिः of failure, because his approach is wrong. The wise would know has the संदर्शन that the approach itself is wrong, अपाय going awry. If the procedure विधि is correct and also if there are no mistake at any step, i.e. if नीति is also correct, then सिद्धि problem-resolution will follow.

(14) One may face विपत्ति or सिद्धि, depending upon whether one’s company is अपायसंदर्शनजा or उपायसंदर्शनजा and नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ता.

(15) This सुभाषितम् also brings to mind two मन्त्र-s in ईशावास्योपनिषत् – विद्यां चाविद्याञ्च यस्तद्वेदोभयं सह | अविद्यया मृत्युं तीर्त्वा विद्ययामृतमश्नुते || also संभूतिञ्च विनाशञ्च यस्तद्वेदोभयं सह | विनाशेन मृत्युं तीर्त्वा संभूत्यामृतमश्नुते || Wisdom of the wise is complete only when they are able to see both अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् and उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌.

(16) In उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनसतत्त्वदर्शिनः || (गीता 4-34) two requirements are specified for one who has to be eligible to give उपदेश. He must be ज्ञानी and also तत्त्वदर्शी. The words पुरःस्फुरन्तीमिव दर्शयन्ति in this सुभाषितम् seem to exactly connote this.

(17) This सुभाषितम् seems to fit well to astrologers. A good astrologer may see both अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् and उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌ as if a motion picture is unfolding पुरःस्फुरदिव in front of him. He may not divulge it all, though, because he has to abide by some unwritten नीतिविधिप्रवृत्तम् code about how much to divulge and how.

(18) In मित्रभेदविभाग in पञ्चतन्त्रम्, this सुभाषितम् is in a dialogue between करकट and मदनक. It is मदनक, who says this in response to करकट’s curiosity, “What will you say, when you go there ?” This सुभाषितम् is an advice that one should be alert at all times and must be a good judge of अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः and उपायसंदर्शनजा सिद्धि of one and all, who may be present in a given instance. One must have a good judgement of what elements are favorable and what are antagonistic and strategize नीतिविधिप्रवृत्तम् putting forth one’s own thoughts with absolute clarity पुरःस्फुरदिव. Ambiguity is itself अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः. To win a debate good communication skills prove to be उपायसंदर्शनजा सिद्धि.

So many shades of meaning , so many interpretations and the सुभाषितम् seems relevant in so many contexts !

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 125

Wed, 12/16/2015 - 20:26

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 125

संस्कृताध्ययनस्य पञ्चविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२५) पाठः

In a question, श्रीमती रेणुका काशिभटला asks how the word धीवरः gets one of its meanings as ‘a fisherman’. Detailing this word धीवर, Apte’s online dictionary also quotes the following सुभाषितम् from भर्तृहरेः शृङ्गारशतकम् So, question from श्रीमती रेणुका काशिभटला becomes a good prompt to study this सुभाषितम् –

मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् ।

लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ Bh.2.61

पदच्छेदैः –

मृग-मीन-सज्जनानां तृण-जल-संतोष-विहितवृत्तीनाम् ।

लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः निष्कारणवैरिणः जगति ॥

!. What are mentioned in this सुभाषितम्, are three species of living beings, what they are content with and who their ill-wishers are, though there is no good cause for the ill-wishers to be ill-wishers !

I think, tabulation will make the thought better illustrated.

Species मृग Deer मीन Fish सज्जन Gentleman what they are content with तृण Grass जल Water संतोष Contentedness who their ill-wishers are लुब्धक Hunter धीवर Fisherman पिशुन The wicked
  1. There are just five words in the entire सुभाषितम्  But four of them are compound words. Counting the component words, contained in the compound words, the total number of words would be 14. That should make deciphering the compound words interesting.
  2. मृगमीनसज्जनानाम् –
  • (3-1) मृगः च मीनः च सज्जनः च एतेषां इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वेन मृगमीनसज्जनाः → तेषाम्  
  • (3-2) मृगः [मृग्-क] 1 (a) A quadruped, an animal in general; नाभिषेको न संस्कारः सिंहस्य क्रियते मृगैः । विक्रमार्जित- राज्यस्य स्वयमेव मृगेन्द्रता; see मृगाधिप below. (b) A wild beast. -2 A deer, an antelope; विश्वासोपगमादभिन्नगतयः शब्दं सहन्ते मृगाः Ś.1.14; R.1.4,5; आश्रममृगो$यं न हन्तव्यः Ś.1. -3 Game in general. -4 The spots on the moon represented as an antelope. -5 Musk. -6 Seeking, search. -7 Pursuit, chase, hunting. -8 Inquiry, investigation. -9 Asking, soliciting. -10 A kind of elephant; N. of the third caste of elephants; Mātaṅga L.1.26.29; ‘भद्रा मन्द्रा मृगाश्चेति विज्ञेयास्त्रिविधा गजाः । क्रमेण हिमवद्विन्ध्यसह्यजाः ।’ com. on Rām.1.6.25. -11 N. of a particular class of men; मृगे तुष्टा च चित्रिणी; वदति मधुरवाणीं दीर्घनेत्रा$तिभीरुश्चपलमतिसुदेहः शीघ्रवेगो मृगो$यम् Śabdak. -12 The lunar mansion called मृगशिरस्. -13 The lunar month called मार्गशीर्ष. -14 The sign Capricornus of the zodiac. -15 N. of a district in Śākadvīpa.  
    • (3-2-1) Etymology of मृगः is from धातुः मृग् – 4 P., 1 Ā. (मृग्यति, मृगयते, मृगित) 1 To seek, search for, seek after; न रत्नमन्विष्यति मृग्यते हि तत् Ku.5. 45; गता दूता दूरं क्वचिदपि परेतान् मृगयितुम् G. L.25. -2 To hunt, chase, pursue. -3 To aim at, strive after. -4 To examine, investigate; अविचलितमनोभिः साधकैर्मृग्यमाणः Māl.5.1; अन्तर्यश्च मुमुक्षुभिर्नियमितप्राणादिभिर्मृग्यते V.1.1 ‘inwardly sought or investigated’. -5 To ask for, beg of one; एतावदेव मृगये प्रतिपक्षहेतोः M.5.2. -6 To visit, frequent.
  • (3-3) मीनः [मी-नक्] 1 A fish; सुप्तमीन इव ह्रदः R.1.73; मीनो नु हन्त कतमां गतिमभ्युपैतु Bv.1.17. -2 The twelfth sign of the zodiac (Pisces). -3 The first incarnation of Viṣṇu; see मत्स्यावतार.
    • Etymology of मीनः is from धातुः मी I. 9 U. (मीनाति मीनीते; seldom used in classical literature) 1 To kill, destroy, hurt, injure. -2 To lessen, diminish. -3 To change, alter. -4 To transgress, violate. -5 To disappear, be lost. -6To stray, go astray. -II. 1. P., 1 U. (मयति, माययति-ते) 1 To go, move. -2 To know, understand (गीतमत्योः). -III. 4. Ā. (मीयते) To die, perish; see प्रमी; जन्तोः प्रमीयमाणस्य जीवो नैवोपलभ्यते Mb.12.186.3.
    • The suffix नक् brings negative or opposite meaning.Meaning of  धातुः मी has violence in it. मीनः is what is nonviolent.
    • Meaning of मीनः should then be taken not as synonym of मत्स्यः – [मद्-स्यन्; Uṇ.4.2] 1 A fish; शूले मत्स्यानिवा- पक्ष्यन् दुर्बलान् बलवत्तराः Ms.7.2. -2 A particular variety of fish. -3 A king of the Matsyas. -त्स्यौ (dual) The sign Pisces of the zodiac. -त्स्याः(pl.) N. of a country and its inhabitants, the country of Virāṭa q. v.; Ms. 2.19.
      • The word मत्स्यः is from धातुः मद् I. 4 P. (माद्यति, मत्त) 1 To be drunk or intoxicated; वीक्ष्य मद्यमितरा तु ममाद Śi.1.27. -2 To be mad. -3 To revel or delight in. -4 To be glad or rejoiced. -5 Ved. To satisfy, delight, gladden.-6 To enjoy supreme felicity. -Caus. (मादयति) 1 To intoxicate; inebriate, madden. -2 (मदयति) To exhilarate, gladden, delight; मायूरी मदयति मार्जना मनांसि M.1.21; प्रकृतिमधुराः सन्त्येवान्ये मनो मदयन्ति ये Māl.1.36; Śi.13.38; Ki.5.26. -3 To inflame with passion; मदयति हृदयम् Māl.3.6. -4 (Ātm.) To be glad, rejoice, be pleased. -II. 1 Ā. (मादयते) To please, gratify. -III. 1 P. (मदति) 1 To be proud. -2 To be poor.
      • It seems मत्स्य-s are more energetic than मीन-s.
  • (3-4) सज्जन – सत् जनः इति सज्जनः (कर्मधारयः)
    • सत् a. (-ती f.) 1 Being, existing, existent; सन्तः स्वतः प्रकाशन्ते गुणा न परतो नृणाम् Bv.1.12; सत्कल्पवृक्षे वने Ś.7.12. -2 Real, essential, true; Bṛi. Up.2.3.1. -3 Good, virtuous, chaste; सती सती योगविसृष्टदेहा Ku.1. 21; Ś.5.17. -4 Noble, worthy, high; as in सत्कुलम्. -5 Right, proper. -6 Best, excellent. -7 Venerable, respectable. -8 Wise, learned. -9 Handsome, beautiful. -1 Firm, steady. -m. A good or virtuous man, a sage; आदानं हि विसर्गाय सतां वारिमुचामिव R.4.86; अविरतं परकार्यकृतां सतां मधुरिमातिशयेन वचो$मृतम् Bv.1.113; Bh.2. 78; R.1.1. -n. 1 That which really exists, entity, existence, essence. -2 The really existent truth, reality. -3 Good; as in सदसत् q. v. -4 Brahman or the Supre- me Spirit. -5 Ved. Water. -6 The primary cause (कारण); य ईक्षिता$हं रहितो$प्यसत्सतोः Bhāg.1.38.11. -7 (In gram.) The termination of the present parti- ciple. (सत्कृ means 1 to respect, treat with respect, receive hospitably. -2 to honour, worship, adore. -3 to adorn.)
    • जनः [जन्-अच्] 1 A creature, living being, man. -2 An individual or person (whether male or female); क्व वयं क्व परोक्षमन्मथो मृगशावैः सममेधितो जनः Ś.2.18; तत्तस्य किमपि द्रव्यं यो हि यस्य प्रियो जनः U.2.19; so सखीजनः a female friend; दासजनः a slave, अबलाजनः &c. (In this sense जनः or अयं जनः is often used by the speaker- whether male or female, in the sing. or pl. –instead of the first personal pronoun to speak of himself in the third person); अयं जनः प्रष्टुमनास्तपोधने Ku.5.4 (male); भगवन् परवानयं जनः प्रतिकूलाचरितं क्षमख मे R.8.81 (female); पश्यानङ्गशरातुरं जनमिमं त्रातापि नो रक्षसि Nag.1.1. (female and pl.). -3 Men collectively, the people, the world (in sing. or pl.); एवं जनो गृह्णाति M.1; सतीमपि ज्ञातिकुलैक- संश्रयां जनो$न्यथा भर्तृमतीं विशङ्कते Ś.5.17. -4 Race, nation, tribe. -5 The world beyond Maharloka, the heaven of deified mortals. -6 A low man, the mob; L. D. B.
  • (3-5) मृगमीनसज्जनानाम् = Of deer, of fish and of gentlemen

(4) तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम्

  • (4-1) (अनुक्रमेण) तृणेन जलेन संतोषेण वा विहिता वृत्तिः येषांस्ते तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तिनः → तेषाम्
    • (4-1-1) तृणम् – [तृह्-नक् हलोपश्च Uṇ.5.8] 1 Grass in general; किं जीर्णं तृणमत्ति मानमहतामग्रेसरः केसरी Bh.2.29. -2 A blade of grass, reed, straw. -3 Anything made of straw (as a mat for sitting); often used as a symbol of worthlessness or uselessness; तृणमिव लघुलक्ष्मीर्नैव तानसंरुणद्धि Bh.2.17; .
      • Etymology of तृणम् is from धातुः तृह् – 7. P., 1 U., 6 P. (तृणेढि, तर्हयति-ते, तृहति, तृढ; desid. तितृक्षति, तितर्हिषति, तितृंहिषति) To injure, hurt, kill, strike; न तृणेह्मीति लोको$यं मां विन्ते निष्पराक्रमम् Bk.6.39; (तानि) तृणेढु रामः सह लक्ष्मणेन 1.19.
      • The suffix नक् brings negative or opposite meaning. तृह् means To injure, hurt, kill, strike; तृणम् is what does not at all hurt.
  • (4-2) जलम् – जल a. [जल् अच् डस्य लो वा] 1 Dull, cold, frigid = जड q. v. -2 Stupid, idiotic. -लम् 1 Water; तातस्य कूपो$-यमिति ब्रुवाणाः क्षारं जलं कापुरुषाः पिबन्ति । Pt.1.322. -2 A kind of fragrant medicinal plant or perfume (ह्रीवेर). -3 The embryo or uterus of a cow. -5 The constellation called पूर्वाषाढा.
    • Etymology of जल is from धातुः जल् – I. 1 P. (जलति) 1 To be rich or wealthy. -2 To cover, hide, screen. -3 To cover (as with a net), encircle, entangle. -4 To be sharp. -5 To be cold, stiff, dull, or dumb. -II. 10 P. (जालयति) To cover, screen &c.
  • (4-3) संतोषः 1 Satisfaction, contentment; संतोषमूलं हि सुखम् Ms.4.12; संतोष एव पुरुषस्य परं निधानम् Subhāṣ. -2 Pleasure, delight, joy. -3 The thumb and fore-finger.
    • Etymology of संतोषः is from धातुः संतुष् 4 P. 1 To be pleased, satisfied or contented; संतुष्टो भार्यया भर्ता भर्त्रा भार्या तथैव च Ms.3.6; तृष्णे जृम्भसि पापकर्मनिरते नाद्यापि संतुष्यसि Bh.3.5; Bg.3.17. -2 To have great pleasure in. -Caus. 1 To satisfy; please, gratify. -2 To present with (anything).
    • Actually धातुः संतुष् is सं + तुष् where तुष् 4 P. (तुष्यति, तुष्ट) 1 To be pleased or satisfied, be contented or delighted with anything (usually with instr.); रत्नैर्महार्हैस्तुतुषुर्न देवाः Bh.2.8; Ms.3.27; Bg.2.55; Bk.2.13;15.8; R.3.62. -2 To become calm or quiet. -3 To satisfy, please (with acc.). -Caus. (तोषयति-ते) To please, gratify, satisfy.
    • As can be noted, meaning such as “To be pleased” has passive voice inherent. In case of verbs, which have passive voice inherent, the sense of active voice such as “To please” is obtained by its causative, such as Caus. (तोषयति-ते) To please, gratify, satisfy.
      • Another such धातु is जन् 4 Ā. (जायते, जज्ञे, अजनि-अजनिष्ट, जनितुम्, जात; pass. जन्यते or जायते) 1 To be born or produced (with abl. of source of birth); अजनि ते वै पुत्रः Ait. Br.; Ms.1.9; 3.39,41; प्राणाद्वायुरजायत Rv.1.9.12; Ms.1.8; 3.76;1.75. -2 To rise, spring up, grow (as a plant &c.) -3 To be, become, happen, take place, occur; अनिष्टादिष्टलाभे$पि न गतिर्जायते शुभा H.1.6; रक्तनेत्रो$जनि क्षणात Bk.6.32; Y.3.226; Ms.1.99. -4 To be possible, applicable &c. -5 To be born or destined for anything. -Caus. (जनयति) 1 To give birth, beget, cause, produce. -2 To cause, occasion.
  • (4-4) विहित – अत्र धातुः वि+धा  
    • धा – 3 U. (दधाति, धत्ते, दधौ-दधे, अधात्-अधित धास्यति-ते, धातुम्, हित; -pass. धीयते; -caus. धापयति-ते; -desid. धित्सति-ते) 1 To put, place, set, lay, put in, lay on or upon; विज्ञातदोषेषु दधाति दण्डम् Mb.; निःशङ्कं धीयते (v. l. for दीयते) लोकैः पश्य भस्मचये पदम् H.2.132. -2 To fix upon, direct (the mind or thoughts &c.) towards (with dat. or loc.); धत्ते चक्षुर्मुकुलिनि रणत्कोकिले बालचूते Māl.3.12; दधुः कुमारानुगमे मनांसि Bk.3.11;2.7; Ms.12.23. -3 To bestow anything upon one, grant, give, confer, present (with dat., gen., or loc.); धुर्यां लक्ष्मीमथ मयि भृशं धेहि देव प्रसीद Māl.1.3; यद्यस्य सो$दधात्सर्गे तत्तस्य स्वयमाविशत् Ms.1.29. -4 To hold, contain; तानपि दधासि मातः Bv.1.68; Ś.4.4. -5 To seize, take hold of (as in the hand); धनुररिभिरसह्यं मृष्टिपीडं दधाने Bk.1.26;4.26; -6 To wear, put on, bear; गुरूणि वासांसि विहाय तूर्णं तनूनि…… धत्ते जनः काममदालसाङ्गः Rs.6.13,16; धत्ते भरं कुसुमपत्रफलावलीनाम् Bv.1.94; दधतो मङ्गलक्षौमे R.12.8;9.4; Bk.17.54. -7 To assume, take, have, show, exhibit, possess; (usually Ātm.); काचः काञ्चनसंसर्गाद्धत्ते मारकतीं द्युतिम् H. Pr.35; शिरसि मसीपटलं दधाति दीपः Bv.1.74; R.2.7; Amaru. 27.7; Me.38; Bh.3.46; R.3.1; Bk.2.1;4.16,18; Śi.9.3;1.86; Ki.5.5. -8To hold up, sustain, bear up; गामधास्यत्कथं नागो मृणालमृदुभिः फणैः Ku.6.68. -9 To support, maintain संपद्विनिमयेनोभौ दधतुर्भुवनद्वयम् R.1.26. -1 To cause, create, produce, generate, make; मुग्धा कुड्मलिताननेन दधती वायुं स्थिता तत्र सा Amaru.72. -11 To suffer, undergo, incur; दधती रतेन भृशमुत्सुकताम् Śi.9.2, 32,66. -12 To perform, do. -13 Ved. To bring, convey. -14 To appoint, fix. [The meanings of this root, like those of दा, are variously modified according to the word with which it is connected; e. g. मनः, मतिम्, धियम्, &c. धा to fix the mind or thoughts upon, resolve upon; पदं धा to set foot on, to enter; कर्णे करं धा to place the hand on the ear &c.] -With अपि (the अ being sometimes dropped). 1 (a) to close, shut; ध्वनति मधुपसमूहे श्रवणमपिदधाति Gīt.5; so कर्णौ-नयने-पिदधाति (b) to cover, hide, conceal; प्रायो मूर्खः परिभवविधौ नाभिमानं पिधत्ते Ś. Til.17. (v.l.); प्रभावपिहिता V.4.2; Śi.9.76; Bk.7. 69. -2 to hinder, obstruct, bar; भुजंगपिहितद्वारं पातालमधि- तिष्ठति R.1.8. (The following verse illustrates the use of धा with some prepositions:– अधित कापि मुखे सलिलं सखी प्यधित कापि सरोजदलैः स्तनौ । व्यधित कापि हृदि व्यजनानिलं न्यधित कापि हिमं सुतनोस्तनौ N.4.111; or, better still, the following verse of Jagannātha:– निधानं धर्माणां किमपि च विधानं नवमुदां प्रधानं तीर्थानाममलपरिधानं त्रिजगतः । समाधानं बुद्धेरथ खलु तिरोधानमधियां श्रियामाधानं नः परिहरतु तापं तव वपुः ॥ G. L.18).
    • बिहित = p. p. 1 Done, performed, made, acted. -2 Arranged, fixed, settled, appointed, determined. -3 Ordered, prescribed, decreed; विहिता व्यङ्गिता तेषाम् Pt. 1.21. -4 Framed, constructed. -5 Placed, deposited. -6 Furnished with, possessed of. -7 Fit to be done. -8 Distributed, apportioned. (See धा with वि)
  • (4-5) वृत्तिः – अत्र धातुः वृत्
    • वृत् – I. 4 Ā. (वृत्यते) 1 To choose, like; cf. वावृत्. -2 To distribute, divide. -II. 1 U. (वर्तयति-ते) To shine. III. 1 Ā. (वर्तते but Paras. also in the Aorist, Second Future and Conditional; also in the Desiderative; ववृते, अवृतत्-अवर्तिष्ट, वर्तिष्यते-वर्त्स्यति, वर्तितुम्, वृत्त) 1 To be, exist, abide, remain, subsist, stay; इदं मे मनसि वर्तते Ś.1; अत्र विषये$स्माकं महत् कुतूहलं वर्तते Pt.1; मरालकुलनायकः कथय रे कथं वर्तताम् Bv.1.3; often used merely as a copula; अतीत्य हरितो हरींश्च वर्तन्ते वाजिनः Ś.1. -2 To be in any particular condition or circumstances; पश्चिमे वयसि वर्तमानस्य K.; so दुःखे, हर्षे, विषादे &c. वर्तते. -3 To happen, take place, occur, come to pass; सीतादेव्याः किं वृत्तमित्यस्ति काचित् प्रवृत्तिः U.2; सायं संप्रति वर्तते पथिक रे स्थानान्तरं गम्यताम् Śubhas. ‘now it is evening’ &c.; Ś. Til.6; अभितो ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं वर्तते विदिता- त्मनाम् Bg.5.26. -4 To move on, proceed in regular course; सर्वथा वर्तते यज्ञः Ms.2.15; निर्व्याजमज्या ववृते Bk. 2.37; R.12.56. -5 To be maintained or supported by, live on, subsist by (fig. also); कस्त्वं किं वर्तसे ब्रह्मन् ज्ञातु- मिच्छामहे वयम् Rām.1.1.12; फलमूलवारिभिर्वर्तमाना K.172; Ms.3.77. -6 To turn, roll on, revolve; यावदियं लोकयात्रा वर्तते Ve.3. -7 To occupy or engage oneself, be occupied or engaged in, set about (with loc.); भगवान् काश्यपः शाश्वते ब्रह्मणि वर्तते Ś.1; इतरो दहने स्वकर्मणां ववृते ज्ञानमयेन वह्निना R.8.2; Ms.8.346; नानवाप्तमवाप्तव्यं वर्त एव च कर्मणि Bg. 3.22. -8 To act, behave, conduct or demean oneself towards, do, perform, practise (usually with loc. or by itself); आर्यो$स्मिन् विनयेन वर्तताम् U.6; कविर्निसर्गसौहृदेन भरतेषु वर्तमानः Māl.1; औदासीन्येन वर्तितुम् R.1.25; मित्रवन् मय्यवर्तिष्ट Dk.; Ms.7.14;8.173;11.3. -9 To act a part, enter upon a course of conduct; साध्वीं वृत्तिं वर्तते ‘he acts an honest part’. -1 To act up to, abide by, follow; तदशक्यारम्भादुपरम्य मातुर्मते वर्तस्व Dk. -11 To have the sense of, signify, be used in the sense of; पुष्यसमीपस्थे चन्द्रमसि पुष्यशब्दो वर्तते Mbh. on P.IV.2.3 (often used in lexicons in this sense). -12 To tend or conduce to (with dat.); पुत्रेण किं फलं यो वै पितृदुःखाय वर्तते. -18 To rest or depend upon.
    • वृत्तिः – f. [वृत्-क्तिन्] 1 Being, existence. -2 Abiding, remaining, attitude, being in a particular state; as in विरुद्धवृत्ति, विपक्षवृत्ति &c. -3 State, condition; त्रयीं तिस्रो वृत्तीस्त्रिभुवनमथो त्रीनपि सुरान् Śiva-mahimna 27. -4 Action, movement, function, operation; शतैस्तमक्ष्णामनिमेषवृत्तिभिः R.3.43; Ku.3.73; उत्पक्ष्मणोर्नयनयोरुपरुद्धवृत्तिम् (बाष्पम्) Ś.4. 15. -5 Course, method; विनयवारितवृत्तिः Ś.2.12. -6 Conduct, behaviour, course of conduct, mode of action; कुरु प्रियसखीवृत्तं सपत्नीजने Ś.4.18; Me.8; वैतसी वृत्तिः, बकवृत्तिः &c. -7 Profession, occupation, business, employment, mode of leading life (often at the end of comp.); आश्रमांश्च यथासंख्यमसृजत् सहवृत्तिभिः Bhāg.3.12.41; वार्धके मुनिवृत्तीनाम् R.1.8; Ś.5.6; Pt.3.126. -3 Livelihood, maintenance, means of subsistence or livelihood; often in com.; सिंहत्वमङ्कागतसत्त्ववृत्तिः R.2.38; Ś.7.12; स्वयं- विशीर्णद्रुमपर्णवृत्तिता Ku.5.28; (for the several means of subsistence, see Ms.4.4-6.) -9 Wages, hire. -1 Cause of activity. -11Respectful treatment; ब्रह्मचारिणः… आचार्ये प्राणान्तिकी च वृत्तिः Kau. A.1.3; त्रिष्वप्रमाद्यन्नेतेषु त्रील्लँोकांश्च विजेष्यसि । पितृवृत्या त्विमं लोकं मातृवृत्त्या तथा परम् ॥ Mb.12.18.8. -12 Gloss, commentary, exposition; सद्वृत्तिः सन्निबन्धना Śi.2.112; काशिकावृत्तिः &c. -13 Revolving, turning round. -14 The circumference of a wheel or circle. -15 (In gram.) A complex formation requiring resolution or explanation. -16 The power or force of a word by which it expresses, indicates, or suggests a meaning; (these are three अभिधा, लक्षणा and व्यञ्जना); general character or force of a word; भ्रमयत भारती त उरुवृत्तिभिरुक्थजडान् Bhāg.1.87.36. -17 A style in composition (these are four; कौ(कै)शिकी, भारती, सात्वती and आरभटी q. q. v. v.); शृङ्गारे कैशिकी वीरे सात्वत्यारभटी पुनः । रसे रौद्रे च बीभत्से वृत्तिः सर्वत्र भारती । चतस्रो वृत्तयो ह्येताः सर्वनाठ्यस्य मातृकाः ॥ S. D. -18Customary allowance. -19 Manner of thinking.
  • (4-6) तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् = of those who are content with grass, water and contentedness

(5) लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः – लुब्धकः च धीवरः च पिशुनः च एतेषां इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः | अतः बहुवचनम् |

  • (5-1) लुब्धक – अत्र धातुः लुभ्
    • लुभ् – I. 6 P. To bewilder, confound, perplex. -II. 4 P. (लुभ्यति, लुब्ध) 1 To covet, long for, desire eagerly (with dat. or loc.); तथापि रामो लुलुभे मृगाय. -2 To allure, entice. -3 To be bewildered or perplexed, go astray. -Caus. (लोभयति-ते) 1 To make greedy, cause to long for, produce or excite desire for; पुप्लुवे बहु लोभयन् Bk. 5.48. -2 To excite lust. -3 To entice, seduce, allure, attract; लोभ्यमाननयनः श्लथांशुकैर्मेखलागुणपदैर्नितम्बिभिः R.19.26. -4 To derange, disorder, disturb.
    • लुब्धकः 1 A hunter, fowler; मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजल- संतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् । लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ Bh.2.61. -2 A covetous or greedy man. -3 A libertine. -4 The star Sirius. -5The hinder part; वैशसं नाम विषयं लुब्धकेन समन्वितः Bhāg.4.25.53.
  • (5-2) धीवरः – धिया वरः इति धीवरः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः)
    • (5-2-1) धिया – धीः इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
      • धीः – [ध्यै भावे क्विप् संप्रसारणं च] 1 (a) Intellect, understanding; धियः समग्रैः स गुणैरुदारधीः R.3.3; cf. कुधी, सुधी &c. धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् Gāyatrimantra; तत्राज्ञानं धिया नश्येदाभासात्तु घटः स्फुरेत् Vedāntasāra. (b) Mind; दुष्टधी wicked-minded; स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत Bg.2.54; R.3.3. -2 Idea, imagination, fancy, conception; न धियां पथि वर्तसे Ku.6.22; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.136. -3 A thought, intention, purpose, propensity; इमामहं वेद न तावकीं धियम् Ki.1.37. -4 Devotion, prayer. -5 A sacrifice. -6 Knowledge, science. -7 (in Horoscope) The fifth house from the लग्न.
      • अत्र धातुः ध्यै  –  1 P. (ध्यायति, ध्यात; desid. दिध्यासति; pass. ध्यायते) To think of, meditate upon, ponder over, contemplate, reflect upon, imagine, call to mind; ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते Bg.2.62; न ध्यातं पदमीश्वरस्य Bh.3.11; पितॄन् ध्यायन् Ms.3.224; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.1.136; Me.3; Ms.5.47;9.21.
    • (5-2-2) वर a. [वृ-कर्मणि अप्] 1 Best, excellent, most beautiful or precious, choicest, finest, royal, princely; with gen. or loc. or usually at the end of comp.; वदतां वरः R.1.59; वेदविदां वरेण 5.23;11.54; Ku.6.18; नृवरः, तरुवराः, सरिद्वरा &c. -2 Better than, preferable to; ग्रन्थिभ्यो धारिणो वराः Ms.12.13; Y.1.352. -रः 1 The act of choosing, selecting. -2 Choice, selection. -3 A boon, blessing, favour (तपोभिरिष्यते यस्तु देवेभ्यः स वरो मतः); वरं वृ or याच् ‘to ask a boon’; प्रीतास्मि ते पुत्र वरं वृणीष्व R.2.63; भवल्लब्धवरोदीर्णः Ku.2.32; (for the distinction between वर and आशिस् see आशिस्). -4 A gift, present, reward, recompense. -5 A wish, desire in general. -6 Solicitation, entreaty. -7 Charity, alms. -8 Surrounding, enclosing. -9 Obstructing, checking. -1 A bridegroom, husband; वरं वरयते कन्या; see under वधू (1) also. -11 A suitor, wooer. -12 A dowry. -13 A son-in-law; ‘वरो जामातरि श्रेष्ठे’ इति विश्वः; रथाङ्गभर्त्रे$भिनवं वराय Śi.3.36. -14 A dissolute man, libertine. -15 A sparrow. -16 Bdellium. -रम् Saffron; (for वरम् see separately).  
      • वरम् ind. Rather or better than, preferably to, it is better that &c. It is sometimes used with the ablative; समुन्नयन् भूतिमनार्यसंगमाद्वरं विरोधो$पि समं महात्मभिः Ki.1.8. But it is generally used absolutely, वरम् being used with the clause containing the thing preferred, and न च, न तु or न पुनः with the clause containing the thing to which the first is preferred, (both being put in the nominative case); वरं मौनं कार्यं न च वचनमुक्तं यदनृतं … वरं भिक्षाशित्वं न च परधनास्वादनसुखम् H.1.116; वरं प्राणत्यागो न पुनरधमानामुपगमः ibid; वरं गर्भस्रावो वरमृतुषु नैवाभिगमनम्, वरं जातप्रेतो वरमपि च कन्यैव जनिता । वरं वन्ध्या भार्या वरमपि च गर्भेषु वसतिर्न चाविद्वान् रूपद्रविणगुणयुक्तो$पि तनयः ॥ Pt.; sometimes न is used without च, तु or पुनः; याच्ञा मोघा वरमधिगुणे नाधमे लब्धकामा Me.6.
    • (5-2-3) धीवरः A fisherman; मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् । लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ Bh.2.61; 1.85. -रम् Iron. -री 1 A fisherman’s wife. A kind of harpoon for catching fish. -3 A fish-basket.
      • In my response to श्रीमती रेणुका काशिभटला I had said, “.. I would agree with you that for the word धीवर to have one meaning as fisherman, there must have been some story or logic.
      • Actually instead of the meaning ‘fisherman’ I would think that the meaning of धीवर should be ‘boatman’.
      • Then the logic can be that a boatman who takes you safely to the other bank is no less than God, who also can take you safely to the other bank. So a boatman is धीवर !
      • Recently during a trip to Kerala we saw Chinese fishing nets. Those were huge nets installed on a river bank and were mainly mechanisms to lower and lift the nets. That was fishermanship, not boatmanship.
      • I think धीवर is boatman. Most blessed among boatmen is निषादराज, who in श्रीरामायणम् ferried प्रभु श्रीरामचन्द्र to the other bank. It could be that story from which the word धीवर got its meaning, ‘a boatman’.
    • Nevertheless, in the context of मीन in this श्लोक, meaning of धीवर as fisherman seems appropriate.
  • (5-3) पिशुनाः – पिशुन a. [पिश्-उनच् किच्च; Uṇ.3.55] 1 (a) Indicating, manifesting, evincing, displaying, indicative of; शत्रूनामनिशं विनाशपिशुनः Śi.1.75; तुल्यानुरागपिशुनम् V.2.14; R.1.53; Amaru.97. (b) Memorable for, commemorating; क्षेत्रं क्षत्रप्रधनपिशुनं कौरवं तद् भजेथाः Me.48. -2 Slan- derous, back-biting, calumniating; पिशुनजनं खलु बिभ्रति क्षितीन्द्राः Bv.1.74. -3 Betraying, treacherous. -4 Harsh, cruel, unkind. -5 Wicked, malicious; malignant. -6 Low, vile, contemptible; of a wicked person; पिशुनं भोजनं भुङ्क्ते ब्रह्महत्यासमं विदुः Mb.13.136.16. -7 Foolish, stupid. -नः 1 A slanderer, back-biter, tale-bearer, base informer, traitor, calumniator; वरं प्राणत्यागो न च पिशुनवाक्येष्वभिरुचिः; H.1.116; Pt.1.34; Ms.3.161; पिशुनता यद्यस्ति किं पातकैः Bh.1.55. -2 Cotton. -3 An epithet of Nārada. -4 A crow. -5 N. of a goblin (said to be dangerous to pregnant women). -6 N. of a writer on अर्थशास्त्र mentioned by Kauṭilya in connection with राज- पुत्ररक्षण; Kau. A.1.17.
    • अत्र पिश् धातुः – पिश् 6 U. (पिंशति-ते) To shape, fashion, form; त्वष्टा रूपाणि पिंशतु Rv.1.184.1. -2 To be organised. -3 To light, irradiate. -4 To be reduced to one’s constituent parts. -5 Ved. To adorn, decorate.-6 To make ready, prepare.
  • (5-4) लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः = hunters, fishermen and wicked persons, (respectively)

(6) निष्कारणवैरिणः –

    • (6-1) निषिद्धं कारणं यस्य तत् निष्कारणम् |
      • निष्कारणं वैरमिति निष्कारणवैरम् |
      • निष्कारणवैरमस्यास्तीति निष्कारणवैरिन् |
      • तस्मात् निष्कारणवैरिणः-इति प्रथमाविभक्त्या बहुवचनेन च |
    • (6-2) निष्कारणम् 1 Removing, taking away. -2 Killing; cf. निकारण.
      • The prefix निष् has many shades of meaning. In explaining निष्कारणम् as निषिद्धं कारणं यस्य तत्, I am considering निष् to mean निषिद्धम्.
      • निष्कारणम् = without plausible reason
    • (6-3) वैरिणः – वैरिन् इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
      • वैरिन् – a. [वैरमस्त्यस्य इनि] Hostile, inimical. -m. 1 An enemy; शौर्ये वैरिणि वज्रमाशु निपतत्वर्थो$स्तु नः केवलम् Bh. 2.39; महाशनो महापाप्मा विद्ध्येनमिह वैरिणम् Bg.3.37; R. 12.14. -2 A hero, brave person.
      • वैरम् [वीरस्य भावः अण्] 1 Hostility, enmity, animosity, spite, grudge, opposition, quarrel; दानेन वैराण्यपि यान्ति नाशम् Subhāṣ.; अज्ञातहृदयेष्वेवं वैरीभवति सौहृदम् Ś.5. 24 ‘turns into enmity’; विधाय वैरं सामर्षे नरो$रौ य उदासते । प्रक्षिप्योदर्चिषं कक्षे शेरते ते$भिमारुतम् Śi.2.42. -2 Hatred, revenge. -3 Heroism, prowess. -4 A hostile host; यदा हि पूर्वं निकृतो निकृन्तेद्वैरं सपुष्पं सफलं विदित्वा Mb.3.34.2

 

  • (6-4) निष्कारणवैरिणः = enemies without plausible reason.

 

(7) जगति – “जगत्” इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(8) Putting together meanings of different phrases as derived in (3-5), (4-6), (5-4), (6-4) and (7), the overall meaning is

  • जगति = In the world
  • मृगमीनसज्जनानाम् = Of deer, of fish and of gentlemen
  • तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् = of those who are content with grass, water and contentedness
  • लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः = hunters, fishermen and wicked persons, (respectively)
  • निष्कारणवैरिणः = (are) enemies without plausible reason.

(9) To check the meter,

मृगमीनसज्जनानां

1-1-2-1-2-1-2-2 = 12 मात्राः

तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् ।

1-1-1-1-2-2-1-1-1-1-2-2-2 = 18 मात्राः

लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना

2-1-1-2-1-1-1-1-2 = 12 मात्राः

निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥

2-2-1-1-2-1-2 1-1-(2) = 15 मात्राः

This conforms to यस्याः पादे प्रथमे | द्वादश मात्रास्तथा तृतीयेऽपि | अष्टादश द्वितीये | चतुर्थके पञ्चदश  साऽर्या ||

(10) भर्तृहरि could have as well thought it good to make the observation as a question, say, “ Why in the world, are hunters, fishermen and wicked persons, enemies of deer, of fish and of gentlemen, (respectively), even though these are (themselves) content (merely) with grass, water and contentedness ?”

  • भर्तृहरि made it into a statement instead of a question, including therein his answer as निष्कारणम् (= without plausible reason)

(11) Do we accept भर्तृहरि’s answer or can we think of a different answer ?

(12) Thinking of deer and hunters brings to mind a story in महाभारतम्. During their 12-years long exile into forests, one night when in द्वैतवन, a flock of deer appeared in Yudhishthira’s dream and begged, “Sir, only a few of us are left. Can you oblige us by thinking of us ?” The next day, Yudhishthira narrated his dream. All agreed and the Pandavas moved on to काम्युकवन. (अध्याय 258 of वनपर्व). There is a moral, right ?

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 124

Fri, 11/13/2015 - 12:46

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 124

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य चतुर्विंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२४) पाठः ।

When looking into Apte’s dictionary for the detailing there of धातुः वस्, at http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/contextualize.pl?p.5.apte.771718 one would find two quotes –

  1. यत्राकृतिस्तत्र गुणा वसन्ति |
  2. भूतिः श्रीर्ह्रीर्धृतिः कीर्तिर्दक्षे वसति नालसे ||

(1) When searching on the internet for यत्राकृतिस्तत्र गुणा वसन्ति at http://m.bhaskar.com/article/referer/521/JYO-HAS-jyts-women-with-auspicious-symptoms-4711413-NOR.html?pg=7 I came across a सुभाषितम् –

या तूत्तरोष्ठेन समुन्नतेन |

रूक्षाग्रकेशी कलहप्रिया सा ।

प्रायो विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः

यत्राकृतिस्तत्र गुणा वसन्ति ।।

(1-1) This quote has 11 letters with their weightages being 2-2-1-2-2-1 1-2 1-2-1(2), hence त-त-ज-ग-ग गणाः and conforms to the meter इन्द्रवज्रा

(2) An internet search on भूतिः श्रीर्ह्रीर्धृतिः कीर्तिर्दक्षे वसति नालसे presents link to http://sarit.indology.info/exist/apps/sarit/works/%C5%9B%C4%81ntiparva__adhy%C4%81ya_026.html The quotation is second line in the verse –

सुखं दुःखान्तमालस्यं दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् ।

भूतिः श्रीर्ह्रीर्धृतिः कीर्तिर्दक्षे वसति नालसे ॥

In the dictionary the reference of the verse is mentioned as in 26th अध्याय of राजधर्मपर्व under शान्तिपर्व in श्रीमन्महाभारतम्. It is saild by महर्षी व्यास to युधिष्ठिर. In श्रीमन्महाभारतम् book with me, published by गीताप्रेस, गोरखपुर I located this verse in 27th अध्याय of राजधर्मानुशासनपर्व under शान्तिपर्व.

  • (2-1) This second quote can be split into four lines

सुखं दुःखान्तमालस्यं

दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम्

भूतिः श्रीर्ह्रीर्धृतिः कीर्तिर् –  

दक्षे वसति नालसे ||

Thus split, each line has 8 letters and the meter is अनुष्टुभ्- or श्लोकछन्दः

(3) The second quote, though it is a part of a श्लोक in श्रीमन्महाभारतम् its import is very much as of a सुभाषितम्.

(4) Although these quotes are from different sources, there is some curious interrelation between them, in the sense that if the first quote makes a statement यत्राकृतिस्तत्र गुणा वसन्ति and would prompt a question के गुणाः ? the second quote seems to provide the answer –  भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः

(5) पदच्छेदैः –

  1. या तु उत्तरोष्ठेन समुन्नतेन रूक्षाग्रकेशी कलहप्रिया सा । प्रायः विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति |
  2. सुखं दुःखान्तम् आलस्यं दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् । भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः दक्षे वसति न आलसे ||

(6) As संस्कृताध्ययनम् both श्लोक-s merit independent studies. But the conclusion प्रायः विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः in the first श्लोक prompts some deliberation.

  • (6-1) प्रायः (generally speaking) विरूपासु (विचित्रं रूपं यस्याः सा विरूपा → तासु, विरूपासु = ladies with strange looks) भवन्ति दोषाः = Generally speaking ladies with strange looks show defective character.
  • (6-2) This is so concluded based on an observation that या तु उत्तरोष्ठेन समुन्नतेन रूक्षाग्रकेशी कलहप्रिया सा. Interpretation of this would need अन्वय as या तु समुन्नतेन उत्तरोष्ठेन (युक्ता भवति) रूक्षाग्रकेशी (च भवति) सा कलहप्रिया (भवति) |
    • (6-2-1) या तु समुन्नतेन उत्तरोष्ठेन (युक्ता भवति) = (A lady) who has upper lip uppish
    • (6-2-2) रूक्षाग्रकेशी (च भवति) = Actually रूक्षाग्रकेशी can be split in two different ways
      • (6-2-2-1) As two separate words रूक्षा and अग्रकेशी. Hence रूक्षाग्रकेशी = रूक्षा च अग्रकेशी च. Here रूक्षा means rough, dry, harsh and अग्रकेशी (अग्रे केशाः यस्याः सा) One who prefers to have her hair, rather her braided hair वेणी in the front.
Lady with braided hair normally in the back Lady with braided hair brought forward अग्रकेशी  
      • (6-2-2-2) रूक्षाग्रकेशी can be taken as a single compound word, comprised of रूक्ष, अग्र, केश as component words and the विग्रह as
        • अग्रे केशाः इति अग्रकेशाः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
        • रूक्षाः अग्रकेशाः यस्याः सा रूक्षाग्रकेशी
        • रूक्षाग्रकेशी = (A lady) who has dry (or erect) hair in the front or brought in the front
  • (6-3) I have some doubt about formation of feminine adjective such as रूक्षाग्रकेशी. If the masculine प्रातिपदिक of this adjective is to be taken as रूक्षाग्रकेशिन् then maybe the feminine would be रूक्षाग्रकेशिनी. If a masculine प्रातिपदिक of the adjective would be रूक्षाग्रकेश (see गुडाकेशः in गीता) then the feminine could be रूक्षाग्रकेशा  
  • (6-4) सा कलहप्रिया (भवति) = (Such lady) is quarrelsome.
  • (6-5) The poet considers ladies with uppish upper lip and रूक्षाग्रकेशी as विरूपा.
  • (6-6) That such ladies are also कलहप्रिया quarrelsome, is some curious observation, indeed !
  • (6-7) If one were to look at the statement प्रायः विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः by itself, it can be taken as a simple statement of facts that any विरूपम् (विचित्रं रूपम्) is सदोषम्. But विरूपम् only of looks or only physiological handicap विरूपम् (विकलाङ्गत्वम्) has nothing to do with sharpness of intellect, as is known of अष्टावक्र Ms. Hellen Keller, also of Prof. Stephen Hawking.

(7) यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति can be also seen as a simple statement of facts. यत्र (where there is) आकृतिः (form) तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति (there are properties, attributes, characteristics). A form like amoeba, which is not even visible to naked eye also has properties.

  • (7-1) In this श्लोक the word गुणाः contrasts with दोषाः in विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः. Hence meaning of word गुणाः has to be opposite of दोषाः.
  • (7-2) Meaning of आकृतिः also has to be opposite of विरूपम्.
  • (7-3) यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति brings to mind a beautiful quote in ज्ञानेश्वरी. When a beautiful maid would wear glistening ornaments, it becomes difficult to say who adorns whom. अळंकरिले कवणा कवणे.
    • There is another beautiful श्लोक in मालविकाग्निमित्रम् by कविकुलगुरु कालिदास – पात्रविशेषे न्यस्तं गुणान्तरं व्रजति शिल्पमाधातुः | जलमिव समुद्रशुक्तौ मुक्ताफलतां पयोदस्य || Art of a creator acquires yet different quality when placed in a special frame, just as a raindrop in a seashell would become a pearl.
    • There is a good सुभाषितम् in नीतिशतकम् by भर्तृहरिः – संतप्तायसि संस्थितस्य पयसो नामापि न श्रूयते | मुक्ताकारतया तदेव नलिनीपत्रस्थितं दृश्यते । स्वात्यां सागरशुक्तिमध्यपतितं तन्मौक्तिकं जायते । प्रायेणाधममध्यमोत्तमगुणस्संसर्गतो जायते । A drop of water will be lost into oblivion on a hot plate. But a drop on the leaf of a lotus will shine like a pearl. It becomes pearl if it falls into a seashell, when the constellation is shining in the sky. In general, quality, whether low, medium or excellent, is much influenced by the associations.
    • A man is known by the company he keeps.
    • When the container and the contents match, यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति Actually the import of यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति is different. It seems to state that if the container is good, the contents will also be good.
    • The logic in marketing management is that even if the contents are good, they need to be packaged attractively, need to be presented attractively. How you speak about it is also a part of packaging and presentation. There has been adage in Marathi, one who speaks well can sell brass. One who cannot speak well would not be able to sell even gold.
    • यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति is certainly debatable.

(8) Moving on to सुखं दुःखान्तम् आलस्यं दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् । भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः दक्षे वसति न आलसे || it comes to mind that if a lazy person आलस and an industrious person दक्ष are two different containers, all good things as भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः will be with the दक्ष an industrious person, not with a lazy person आलस. This is another perception, how this second quote connects well with यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति.

(9) One can decipher four sentences in this second quote –

  • (9-1) सुखं दुःखान्तम् आलस्यं (जनयति)
    • One needs to assume the verb. I have opted it to be जनयति
    • Happiness subsequent to sorrow may cause laziness
    • I have interpreted दुःखान्तम् as subsequent to sorrow, though this word दुःखान्तम् can be deciphered variously.
      • दुःखस्य अन्तः येन तत् दुःखान्तम्
      • In दुःखान्तम् as subsequent to sorrow, दुःखस्य अन्ते यत् तत् दुःखान्तम्
    • Etymology of आलस्यम् seems interesting.
      • अलस a. [न लसति व्याप्रियते, लस्-अच्] 1 Inactive, without energy, lazy, idle, indolent. शठो नैष्कृतिको$लसः Bg.18.28. -2 Tired, fatigued, languid; मार्गश्रमादल- सशरीरे दारिके M.5; Amaru.4,88; खेदालसेव K.143,197, 211,62,98; Śi.8.7; V.3.2; Dk.2. Śi.13.48;9.39; U.1.24; Ki.1.6, V.5; गमनमलसम् Māl.1.17. -3 Soft, gentle. -4 Slow, dull (as in gait or motion); श्रोणीभारादलसगमना Me.84; तस्याः परिस्फुरितगर्भभरालसायाः U. 3.28.
      • धातुः लस् 1 P. (लसति, लसित) 1 To shine, glitter, flash; मुक्ताहारेण लसता हसतीव स्तनद्वयम् K. P.1; करवाणि चरणद्वयं सरसलसदलक्तकरागम् Gīt.1; Amaru.19; बालेन नक्तंसमयेन मुक्तं रौप्यं लसड्डिम्बमिवेन्दुबिम्बम् N.22.53 (v. l.). -2 To appear, arise, come to light. -3 To embrace. -4 To play, frolic about, skip about, dance. -4 To sound, resound.
      • लस् (to shine) → लसः (the shine, lustre) → अलसः (disgrace, disgraceful, lazy)→ आलस्यम् (laziness). So, laziness is disgraceful ! What an etymology !
        • Two forms of शिव’s dance are called as लास्य and ताण्डव, where लास्य is certainly more pleasant than ताण्डव
        • आलस्यम् may appeal to be pleasant, especially when subsequent to sorrow. But it is never graceful and hence never truly pleasant.
        • Retirement after busy life needs to be planned. It should not be आलस्यम्.
  • (9-2) दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् (भवति) ।
    • (9-2-1) The word दाक्ष्यम् can be deciphered in different ways
      • (9-2-1-1) धातुः दक्ष् – 1 Ā. (दक्षते) 1 To grow, increase. -2 To do, go or act quickly. -3 To hurt, kill. -4 To act conformably to another (P.). -5 To be competent or able; सुशंसो यश्च दक्षते Rv.7.16.6. -6 To go, move. -Caus. 1 To gladden; किंनु चित्रमधिवेदि भूपतिर्दक्षयन्द्विजगणान- पूयत Śi.14.35. -2 To make able or strong.
      • (9-2-1-2) दक्ष् → दक्षः → दाक्ष्यम् [दक्षस्य भावः ष्यञ्] 1 Cleverness, skill, fitness, dexterity, ability; Bg.18.43. -2 Probity, integrity, honesty. -3 Industry, activity; दाक्ष्येण हीनो धर्मयुक्तो न दान्तः Mb.12.292.23.
        • दक्ष a. [दक्ष्-कर्तरि अच्] 1 Able, competent, expert, clever, skilful; नाट्ये च दक्षा वयम् Ratn.1.6; मेरौ स्थिते दोग्धरि दोहदक्षे Ku.1.2; R.12.11. -2 Fit, suitable; दक्षेण सूत्रेण ससर्जिथाध्वरम् Bhāg.4.6.44. -3 Ready, careful, attentive, prompt; Y.1.76; रन्ध्रान्वेषणदक्षाणां द्विषामामिषतां ययौ R.12.11. -4 Honest, upright.
        • दक्षता is also दक्षस्य भावः and is often used in the sense of alertness, attentiveness
          • In military parades the leader orders “Attention !”. In शाखा-s of RSS the leader orders “संघ दक्ष”
        • दाक्षिण्यम् is also [दक्षिणस्य भावः ष्यञ्]
          • दक्षिण a. [दक्ष्-इनन् Uṇ 2.5.] 1 Able, skilful, dexterous, competent, clever; इत्यम्बरीषं नाभागिमन्वमोदन्त दक्षिणाः Mb.12.29.12. -2 Right (opp. वाम). -3 Situated on the right side. दक्षिणं परि, दक्षिणं कृ to place anyone on the right side as a mark of respect; ग्रहर्क्षताराः परियन्ति दक्षिणम् Bhāg.4.12.25. -4 South, southern; as in दक्षिणवायु, दक्षिणदिक्; आददे नातिशीतोष्णो नभस्वानिव दक्षिणः R. 4.8. -5 Situated to the south. -6 Sincere, straightforward, honest, impartial. -7 Pleasing, amiable. -8 Courteous, civil. -9 Compliant, submissive. -1 Dependent. -11Favourable; ‘दक्षिणः सरलावामपरच्छन्दानुवर्तिषु’ इति विश्वः; Ki.18.27.
      • (9-2-1-3) दक्ष् → दाक्षय् (दक्ष्-णिच् causative) → दाक्ष्य (ण्यत् adjective) → (पुं. दाक्ष्यः → तम्) Etymology (9-2-2) is given in Apte’s dictionary. This etymology (9-2-3) is mine. Etymology (9-2-2) presents दाक्ष्यम् as an abstract noun. Etymology (9-2-3) presents दाक्ष्यम् as an adjective.
    • (9-2-2) दुःखम् is both a noun and an adjective, often used adverbially
      • (9-2-2-1) दुःख a. [दुष्टानि खानि यस्मिन्, दुष्टं खनति खन्-ड, दुःख्-अच् वा Tv.] 1 Painful, disagreeable, unpleasant; सिंहानां निनदा दुःखाः श्रोतुं दुःखमतो वनम् Rām. -2 Difficult, uneasy.
      • (9-2-2-2) दुःखम् 1 Sorrow, grief, unhappiness, distress, pain, agony; सुखं हि दुःखान्यनुभूय शोभते Mk.1.1; यदेवोपनतं दुः- खात्सुखं तद्रसवत्तरम् V.3.21; so दुःखसुख, समदुःखसुख &c. -2 Trouble, difficulty; Ś. Til.12; अर्थानामर्जने दुःखमर्जितानां च रक्षणे । आये दुःखं व्यये दुःखं धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः ॥ Pt.1.163. (दुःखम् and दुःखेन are used as adverbs in the sense of ‘hardly’ ‘with difficulty’ ‘or trouble’ Ś.7.13. अव्यक्ता हि गतिर्दुःखं देहवद्भिरवाप्यते Bg.12.5; Ku.4.13; Pt.1.; R.19.49; H.1.158).
      • (9-2-2-3) In (9-2-2-1) one etymology is mentioned as दुःख्-अच् suggesting a धातुः दुःख् – 10 U. (दुःखयति-ते) To pain, afflict, distress.
      • (9-2-2-4) Thinking of the words सुख and दुःख, it comes to mind that सु and दुः are eminently prefixes and common factor is the letter ख. May be the letter ख is meaningful by itself, say ख = to experience. Hence दुःख = unpleasant experience and सुख = pleasant experience
        • ख also connotes आकाशतत्त्व among पञ्चमहाभूत-s
    • (9-2-3) सुखोदयम् = सुखस्य उदयः येन तत् = that which gives rise to happiness
    • (9-2-4) We should interpret दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् by putting together what all is detailed thru’ (9-2-1) .. (9-2-3). Two interpretations that come to mind are –
      • (9-2-4-1) For a दाक्ष्य sorrows or troubles are harbingers of happiness
      • (9-2-4-2) Sorrows or troubles borne with alertness will turn into happiness
  • (9-3) भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः (वा) दक्षे वसति
    • (9-3-1) Because the verb वसति is in singular, the subject words भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः relate with the verb optionally to each other. Hence I have put in वा the indeclinable for optionality.
    • (9-3-2) We should sort भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः into two sets –
      • (9-3-2-1) ह्रीः (modesty) धृतिः (forbearance) as virtues, which need to be cultivated by being दक्ष, alert, attentive, industrious
      • (9-3-2-2) भूतिः श्रीः कीर्तिः as results which will accrue from being दक्ष.
        • (9-3-2-2-1) भूति f. [भू-क्तिन्] 1 Being, existence. -2 Birth, production. -3 Well-being, welfare, happiness, prosperity; प्रजानामेव भूत्यर्थं स ताभ्यो बलिमग्रहीत् R.1.18; नरपतिकुलभूत्यै 2.75; स वो$स्तु भूत्यै भगवान् मुकुन्दः Vikr.1.2. -4 Success, good fortune. -5 Wealth, riches, fortune; विपत्प्रतीकारपरेण मङ्गलं निषेव्यते भूतिसमुत्सुकेन वा Ku.5.76. -6 Grandeur, dignity, majesty. -7 Ashes; भृतभूतिरहीनभोगभाक् Śi.16.71 (where भूति means ‘riches’ also); स्फुटोपमं भूतिसितेन शंभुना 1.4. -3 Decoration of elephants with coloured stripes; भक्तिच्छेदैरिव विरचितां भूतिमङ्गे गजस्य Me.19. -9 The superhuman power attainable by the practice of penance or magical rites; सूक्ष्मात् सूक्ष्मतमो$णीयान् शीघ्रत्वं लघिमागुणः । महिमाशेषपूज्यत्वात् प्राप्तिर्नाप्राप्यमस्य यत् ॥ प्राकाम्यस्य व्यापित्वादीशित्वं चेश्वरो यतः । वशित्वाद्वशिमा नाम योगिनः सप्तमो गुणः ॥ यत्रेच्छा स्थानमप्युक्तं यत्र कामावसायिता ॥ Mārk. P.4.31-33. -1 Fried meat. -11 The rutting of elephants.
        • (9-3-2-2-2) श्री f. [श्रि-क्विप् नि˚ Uṇ.2.57] 1 Wealth, riches, affluence, prosperity, plenty; अनिर्वेदः श्रियो मूलम् Rām.; साहसे श्रीः प्रतिवसति Mk.4 ‘fortune favours the brave’; कर्माव्यारभमाणं हि पुरुषं श्रीर्निषेवते Ms.9.3; Ki.7.28. -2 Royalty, majesty, royal wealth; श्रियः कुरूणामधिपस्य पालनीम् Ki.1.1. -3 Dignity, high position, state; श्री- लक्षण Ku.7.45 ‘the marks or insignia of greatness or dignity’; दुराराध्याः श्रियो राज्ञां दुरापा दुष्परिग्रहाः Pt.1.67; विद्युल्लेखाकनकरुचिरं श्रीवितानं ममाभ्रम् V.4.13. -4 Beauty, grace, splendour, lustre; (मुखं) कमलश्रियं दधौ Ku.5.21; 7.32; R.3.8. -5 Colour, aspect; तेषामाविरभूद् ब्रह्मा परि- म्लानमुखश्रियाम् Ku.2.2. -6 The goddess of wealth, Lak- ṣmī, the wife of Viṣṇu; आसीदियं दशरथस्य गृहे यथा श्रीः U.4.6; Ś.3.14; Śi.1.1. -7 Any virtue or excellence. -8 Decoration. -9 Intellect, understanding. -1 Super- human power. -11 The three objects of human exis- tence taken collectively (धर्म, अर्थ and काम). -12 The Sarala tree. -13 The Bilva tree.-14 Cloves. -15 A lotus. -16 The twelfth digit of the moon. -17 N. of Sarasvatī, (the goddess of speech). -18 Speech. -19 Fame, glory. -2 The three Vedas (वेदत्रयी); श्रिया विहीनैरधनैर्नास्तिकैः संप्रवर्तितम् Mb.12.1.2. (‘ऋचः सामानि यजूंषि । सा हि श्रीरमृता सताम्’ इति श्रुतेः । com.). -m. N. of one of the six Rāgas or musical modes. -a. Splendid, radiant, adorning. (The word श्री is often used as an honorific prefix to the names of deities and eminent persons; श्रीकृष्णः, श्रीरामः, श्रिवाल्मीकिः, श्रीजयदेवः; also celebrated works, generally of a sacred character; श्रीभागवत, श्रीरामायण &c.; it is also used as an auspicious sign at the commencement of letters, manuscripts &c; Māgha has used this word in the last stanza of each canto of his Śiśupālavadha, as Bhāravi has used लक्ष्मी).
        • कीर्तिः f. [कॄत्-क्तिन्] 1 Fame, renown, glory; इह कीर्तिमवाप्नोति Ms.2.9; वंशस्य कर्तारमनन्तकीर्तिम् R.2.64; स्रोतोमूर्त्या भुवि परिणतां रन्तिदेवस्य कीर्तिम् Me.47. For an interesting distinction between कीर्तिः and यशस् cf. खङ्गादिप्रभवा कीर्तिर्विद्यादिप्रभवं यशः -2 Favour, approbation. -3 Dirt, mud. -4 Extension, expansion. -5 Light, lustre, splendour. -6 Sound. -7 Mention, speech, report.
      • (9-3-2-3) भूतिः श्रीः कीर्तिः all connote prosperity and glory. To such extent they sound to be synonymous.
  • (9-4) (भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः (वा)) आलसे न वसति
  • (9-5) By comparison between (9-3) and (9-4) it is obvious that दक्ष is antonymous to  आलस. That is why I have put in (9-3-2-1) being दक्ष as being alert, attentive, industrious.
    • There is a सुभाषितम् which puts these two exactly as antonyms – आलस्यं हि मनुष्याणां शरीरस्थो महारिपुः | नास्त्युद्यमसमो बन्धुः कृत्वा यं नावसीदति ॥

(10) Actually I had started upon this compilation much before the previous lesson #123 on रूपं हरति जरा धैर्यमाशा | मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया | कामो ह्रियं शीलमनार्यसेवा | क्रोधः श्रियमहंकारस्तु सर्वम् || The words श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः (धैर्यम्) are common between both these lessons.

  • (10-1) In the previous lesson, there was mention of which vice affects which virtue. So virtues were also mentioned there, viz. रूपम्, धैर्यम्, प्राणाः, धर्मचर्या, ह्रीः, शीलम्, श्रीः.
  • (10-2) The second श्लोक here gives a single key दाक्ष्यम् to overcome all vices, rather, to insure oneself against all vices.
  • (10-3) संत रामदास (17th century) precept of श्रीशिवछत्रपती puts this beautifully in दासबोध – अखंड सावधान असावे | दुश्चित्त कदापि नसावे | अंतरी असो द्यावे | समाधान || – One should be alert all the time. Never have vicious thoughts. May there be peace internalized.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 123

Mon, 11/09/2015 - 20:01

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 123

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य त्रिविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२३) पाठः ।

There are many powerful words in Sanskrit. One such word is नीतिः. It is powerful, because there would be many compositions, which have नीतिः as the main import. Three such compositions come to mind –

(1) नीतिशतकम् by राजा भर्तृहरिः, It is a treasure-trove of good sayings सुभाषितानि. Many lessons in this blog dwelt on these सुभाषितानि.

(2) नीतिसूत्राणि by आचार्य चाणक्य, who distinguished himself In the annals of diplomacy, strategy and/or political wisdom as also administration and governance at large, He also composed aphorisms सूत्राणि which stand out as diktats on behaviour.

(3) विदुरनीतिः in प्रजागरपर्वम् under उद्योगपर्वम् in महाभारतम्.

In Apte’s dictionary नीतिः f. 1 Guidance, direction, management. -2 Conduct, manner of conducting oneself, behaviour, course of action. -3 propriety, decorum. -4 Policy, prudence, wisdom, right course; आर्जवं हि कुटिलेषु न नीतिः N.5.13; R.13.69; Ku.1.22. -5 A plan, contrivance, scheme; भूयः स्नेहविचेष्टितैर्मृगदृशो नीतस्य कोटिं पराम् Māl.6.3. -6 Politics, political science, statesmanship, political wisdom; आत्मोदयः परग्लानिर्द्वयं नीतिरितीयती Śi.2.3; दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम् Bg.1.38. -7 Righteousness, moral conduct, morality. -8 The science of morality, morals, ethics, moral philosophy; निन्दन्तु नीतिनिपुणा यदि वा स्तुवन्तु Bh.2.83. -9 Acquirement, acquisition. -10 Giving, offering, presenting. -11 Relation, support.

  • (3-1) By etymology नीतिः is abstract feminine noun from धातुः नी So the meanings of नीतिः are from those of धातुः नी
  • नी 1 U. (नयति-ते, निनाय-निन्ये, अनैषीत्-अनेष्ट, नेष्यति-ते, नेतुम्, नीत) One of the roots that govern two accusatives, see examples below) 1 To carry, lead, bring, convey, take, conduct; अजां ग्रामं नयति Sk; नय मां नवेन वसतिं पयोमुचा V.4.43. -2 To guide, direct, govern; मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः M.1.2. -3 To lead away to, carry or bring away; सीता लङ्कां नीता सुरारिणा Bk.6.49; R.12.13; Ms.6.88. -4 To carry off; Śānti.3.5. -5 To carry off for oneself (Ātm.). -6 To spend, or pass (as time); येनामन्दमरन्दे दलदरविन्दे दिनान्यनायिषत Bv.1.1; नीत्वा मासान् कतिचित् Me.2; संविष्टः कुशशयने निशां निनाय R.1.95. -7 To bring or reduce any person to any state or condition; तमपि तरलतामनयदनङ्गः K.143; नीतस्त्वया पञ्चताम् Ratn.3. 3; R.8.19. (In this sense the root is used with substantives much in the same way as कृ q. v.; e. g. दुःखं नी to reduce to misery; वशं नी to reduce to subjection, win over; अस्तं नी to cause to set; विनाशं नी to destroy; परितोषं नी to gratify, please; शूद्रतां-दासत्वं &c. नी to reduce to the state of a Śūdra, slave &c.; साक्ष्यं नी to admit as a witness; दण्डं नी to inflict punishment upon, to punish; पुनरुक्ततां नी to render superfluous; विक्रयं नी to sell; भस्मतां-भस्मसात् नी to reduce to ashes &c. -8 To ascertain, investigate, inquire into, settle, decide; छलं निरस्य भूतेन व्यवहारान्नयेन्नृपः Y.2.19; एवं शास्त्रेषु भिन्नेषु बहुधा नीयते क्रिया Mb. -9 To trace, track, find out; एतैर्लिङ्गैर्नयेत् सीमाम् Ms.8.252,256; यथा नयत्यसृक्पातैर्मृगस्य मृगयुः पदम् 8.44; Y.2.151. -10 To marry. -11 To exclude from. -12 (Ātm.) To instruct, give instruction in; शास्त्रे नयते Sk.

With these introductory remarks, I would like to take up for study following श्लोकः from विदुरनीतिः –

जरा हरति रूपं हि धैर्यमाशा

मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया |

कामो ह्रियं वृत्तमनार्यसेवा

क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वमेवाभिमानः ||

In the books of महाभारतम्, which I have with me, I find this श्लोकः quoted at two places –

  • (1) as श्लोकः 50 in उद्योगपर्वणि प्रजागरपर्वणि अध्याय 35
  • (2) as श्लोकः ८ in उद्योगपर्वणि प्रजागरपर्वणि अध्याय 37. There is a small पाठभेद. In (1) in line 3, the wording is शीलमनार्यसेवा, in place of वृत्तमनार्यसेवा in (2).

पदच्छेदैः –

जरा हरति रूपं हि धैर्यम् आशा

मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्याम् असूया |

कामः ह्रियं वृत्तम् (शीलम्) अनार्यसेवा

क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वम् एव अभिमानः ||

अन्वयार्थाश्च –

  1. जरा रूपं हरति | = Age affects (or takes away) beauty
  2. आशा धैर्यम् हि (हरति) | = Greed affects (or takes away) forbearance
  3. मृत्युः प्राणान् (हरति) | = Death affects (or takes away) life
  4. असूया धर्मचर्याम् (हरति) | = Envy affects (or takes away) balance
  5. कामः ह्रियं (हरति) | = Passion affects (or takes away) propriety
  6. अनार्यसेवा वृत्तम् (शीलम्) (हरति) | = Bad company affects (or takes away) personality
  7. क्रोधः श्रियं (हरति) | = Anger affects (or takes away) grace
  8. अभिमानः सर्वम् एव हरति | = Ego affects (or takes away) everything.

अध्ययनम् –

(1) I thought it good to follow a common SOV (Subject-Object-Verb) pattern for the अन्वय-s and a common SVO (Subject-Verb-Object) pattern for the English translations.

(2) The verb हरति is mentioned only once in the first line in the श्लोकः. But that is the verb which applies common in all sentences. I indulged in some deliberation to think of a single verb in English, which will fit all the sentences. I have concluded upon “हरति = affects (or takes away)”. One should appreciate the need for deliberation. हरति is लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् of धातुः हृ which is detailed with 14 meanings in Apte’s dictionary –

हृ – 1 U. (हरति-ते, जहार, जहे, अहार्षीत्, अहृत, हरिष्यति-ते, हर्तुम्, हृत; pass. ह्रियते) 1 To take, carry, convey, lead, (often used with two accusatives in this sense); अजां ग्रामं हरति ŚK.; संदेशं मे हर धनपतिक्रोधवश्लेषितस्य Me.7; Ms.4.74. -2 To carry off or away, take or draw to a distance; हरामि रामसौमित्री मृगो भूत्वा मृगद्युवौ Bk.5.47. -3 To take away, rob, plunder, steal; दुर्वृत्ता जारजन्मानो हरिष्यन्तीति शङ्कया Bv.4.45; R.3.39; Ku.2.47; Bk.2.39; Ms. 7.43. -4 To strip off, deprive of, despoil, take away; वृन्ताद्श्लथं हरति पुष्पमनोकहानाम् R.5.69; Bk.15.116; Ms.8. 334. -5 To take away, cure, destroy; उत्कण्ठां तां हरिष्यामि मेघलेखामिबानिलः Rām.7.4.19; तथापि हरते तापं लोकानामुन्नतो घनः Bv.1.39; R.15.24; Me.31. -6 To attract, captivate, win over, influence, subdue, enchant; चेतो न कस्य हरते गतिरङ्गनायाः Bv.2.157; ये भावा हृदयं हरन्ति 1.13; तवास्मि गीतरागेण हारिणा प्रसभं हृतः Ś.1.5; हरति मे हरिवाहनदिङ्मुखम् V.3.6; मृगया जहार चतुरेव कामिनी R.9.69;1.83; Ṛs. 6.21; इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः Bg.2.6;6.44; Ms.6.59. -7 To gain, acquire, obtain; ततो विंशं नृपो हरेत् Ms.8.391,153; Y.2.123; स हरतु सुभगपताकाम् Dk. -8To have, possess; अङ्गैः सुकुमारतरैः सा कुसुमानां श्रियं हरति Bv.2.163. -9 To surpass, eclipse; त्वां हरन्तीं श्रियं हरति Bk.5.71. -10 To marry; पित्रे न दद्याच्छुल्कं तु कन्यामृतुमतीं हरन् Ms.9.93. -11 To divide. -12 To cast, throw (as an arrow). -13 To accept, receive, inherit. -14 To offer.

(3) When deliberation was needed to conclude upon “हरति = affects”, deliberation was necessary for choosing the English words for every other Sanskrit word, since every Sanskrit word seems to have a number of shades of meaning. I have made my choices. Readers may think of theirs. The श्लोक is interesting primarily for the challenge it offers to make the choices of English words. That would be the challenge in translating the verse not only into English, but maybe, into any other language.

(4) I sensed some difficulty in smooth recitation of the श्लोक. The reason, I notice, is because the first line has 12 letters, whereas all the other three lines have 11 letters. I wonder, the first line can be fitted into the pattern of 11 letters by putting it as रूपं हरति जरा धैर्यमाशा. By that the prosodic analysis will be

रूपं हरति जरा धैर्यमाशा

(2-2 1)-(1-1 1)-(2 2-1)-2-2

त-न-त-ग-ग (

The prosodic analysis of other lines is –

मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया |

(2-2 2)-(2 2-1)-(2-2-1)-2-2

म-त-त-ग-ग (शालिनी)

कामो ह्रियं वृत्तमनार्यसेवा

(2-2 1)-(2 2-1)-(1-2-1)-2-2

त-त-ज-ग-ग (इन्द्रवज्रा)

क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वमेवाभिमानः

(2-2 1)-(2 2-1)-(2-2-1)-2-2

त-त-त-ग-ग

  • With different lines having different meters, it becomes an उपजातिछन्दस्. This is not uncommon for verses with 11 letters in each line.
  • There again it seems that verses with 11 letters become smoother for recitation, if the first letter is with weightage 2.

(5) There are 16 nouns in the eight sentences – 8 subjects and 8 objects. All of them can be said to be abstract nouns, since the definition of abstract noun is “.. a noun denoting an idea, quality, or state rather than a concrete object…”  Parallel Sanskrit terminology for ‘abstract noun’ should be भाववाचकं नाम We can hence say that this one is a भावमयं सुभाषितम्, appealing to the sensibilities.

(6) Since the abstract nouns are idea, quality or state, it should be interesting to check which noun is what. जरा is state, रूपम् is quality, आशा is idea, धैर्यम् is quality, मृत्युः state, प्राणाः state/quality धर्मचर्या quality, असूया is quality, कामः is quality, ह्रीः is idea, वृत्तम् is state अनार्यसेवा is quality, क्रोधः is state श्रीः is state सर्वम् is pronoun अभिमानः is quality. I was wanting to check, whether there is any pattern.

(7) The eight sentences are eight statements. Some of them fairly straightforward and do not need elaboration. But others do.

  • (7-1) जरा रूपं हरति is straightforward
  • (7-2) आशा धैर्यं हरति needs elaboration. Here one should interpret आशा as intense urge and धैर्यम् as forbearance or patience. Sai Baba of Shirdi advised his devotees to cultivate श्रद्धा (= faith) and सबूरी i.e. forbearance or patience.
  • (7-3) मृत्युः प्राणान् (हरति) is straightforward
  • (7-4) I have interpreted असूया धर्मचर्याम् (हरति) as Envy affects (or takes away) balance. It would be good to devote some study of the words असूया and धर्मचर्या.
    • असूया 1 Envy, intolerance, jealousy (of the happiness of others); क्रुधद्रुहेर्ष्यासूयार्थानां यं प्रति कोपः P.I.4.37;III.4.28;VIII.1.8. सासूयम् enviously. -2 Calumny, detraction (of the merits of others); असूया परगुणेषु दोषाविष्करणम् Sk. (= दोषारोपो गुणेष्वपि Ak.); Ms.7.48; R.4.23. -3 Anger, indignation; वधूरसूया- कुटिलं ददर्श R.6.82; सासूयमुक्ता सखी Ś.2.2.
    • Actually since न सूया इति असूया (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः) we should understand what सूया means.
      • Just as माया is from धातुः मा, सूया should be from धातुः सू
      • सू I. 2, 4 Ā. (सूते, सूयते, सूत) To bring forth, produce, beget, yield (fig. also); मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् Bg.9.1; असूत सा नागवधूपभोग्यम् Ku.1.2; कीर्तिं सूते दुष्कृतं या हिनस्ति U.5.31. -With प्र to bring forth, beget, produce. -II. 6 P. (सुवति) 1 To excite, incite, impel. -2 To remit (as debt).
    • Alternatively the derivation can be धातुः सू → ण्यत्-प्रत्ययेन सूय → तस्य स्त्रीलिङ्गम् सूया Since सू (= to beget), then सूय = may be brought forth. If what is सूय to other person, remains असूय to me, I become envious, I get overwhelmed by असूया.
    • In interpreting असूया धर्मचर्याम् (हरति) as Envy affects (or takes away) balance, I have interpreted धर्मचर्या as balance. I think it is a good interpretation.
  • (7-5) कामः ह्रियं (हरति) | = Passion affects (or takes away) propriety.
    • I have interpreted ह्रीः as propriety. In Apte’s dictionary ह्री f. 1 Shame; रतेरपि ह्रीपदमादधाना Ku.3.57; दारिद्र्याद् ह्रियमेति ह्रीपरिगतः प्रभ्रश्यते तेजसः Mk.1.14; R.4.8. -2 Bashfulness, modesty; ह्रीसन्नकण्ठी कथमप्युवाच Ku.7.85.
    • This brings to mind a line in मेघदूतम् – कामार्ता हि प्रकृतिकृपणाश्चेतनाचेतनेषु meaning कामार्त one, overwhelmed by passion becomes प्रकृतिकृपण weak in character and in turn becomes incapable of judging between चेतनाचेतनेषु who is capable and who is not capable.
    • There is another perception of being प्रकृतिकृपण weak in character in the midst of चेतनाचेतनेषु. In India, also in Muslim societies, kissing in public is considered as a matter of impropriety. I think that it should be so anywhere. Kissing involves intimacy. Intimacy between two persons ought to be a private matter. Those who kiss in public and get intimate with each other in public, become oblivious to how their intimacy will affect people around. Being unconcerned of how the public will get affected is not logical, social behaviour. It is improper. It is devoid of  ह्री i.e. Bashfulness, modesty.
  • (7-6) अनार्यसेवा वृत्तम् (शीलम्) (हरति) | = Bad company affects (or takes away) personality. This sentence certainly merits analysis and deliberation.
    • अनार्यसेवा =
      • न आर्यः इति अनार्यः (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
      • अनार्यस्य सेवा अनार्यसेवा (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
      • आर्यः a. [ऋ-ण्यत्] 1 Āryan, an inhabitant of आर्यावर्त, N. of the race migrated into India in Vedic times. -2 Worthy of an Ārya. -3 Worthy, venerable, respectable, honourable, noble, high; यदार्यमस्यामभिलाषि मे मनः Ś.1.22; R.2.33; so आर्यवेषः respectable dress; oft. used in theatrical language as an honorific adjective and a respectful mode of address; आर्यचाणक्यः, आर्या अरुन्धती &c.; आर्य revered or honoured Sir; आर्ये revered or honoured lady. The following rules are laid down for the use of आर्य in addressing persons:– (1) वाच्यौ नटीसूत्रधारावार्यनाम्ना परस्परम् । (2) वयस्येत्युत्तमैर्वाच्यो मध्यैरार्येति चाग्रजः । (3) (वक्तव्यो) अमात्य आर्येति चेतरैः । (4) स्वेच्छया नामभिर्विप्रैर्विप्र आर्येति चेतरैः । S. D.431. -4 Noble, fine, excellent. -र्यः 1 N. of the Hindu and Iranian people, as distinguished from अनार्य, दस्यु and दास; विजानीह्यार्यान्ये च दस्यवः Rv.1.51.8. -2 A man who is faithful to the religion and laws of his country; कर्तव्यमाचरन् कार्यमकर्तव्यमनाचरन् । तिष्ठति प्रकृताचारे स वा आर्य इति स्मृतः ॥ -3 N. of the first three castes (as opp. to शूद्र). -4 respectable or honourable man, esteemed person; वृत्तेन हि भवत्यार्यो न धनेन न विद्यया Mb.; परमार्यः परमां कृपां बभार Bu. Ch.5.6. -5 A man of noble birth. -6 A man of noble character. -7 A master, owner. -8 A preceptor; वैमानि- कार्यसमभूमा Viś. Guṇā.124; Mu.3.33.-9 A friend. -10 A Vaiśya. -11 A father-in-law (as in आर्यपुत्र). -12 A Buddha. -13 (With the Buddhists) A man who has thought on the four chief principles of Buddhism and lives according to them. -14 A son of Manu Sāvarṇa.
    • सेवा [सेव्-अ] 1 Service, servitude, dependence; attendance; सेवां लाघवकारिणीं कृतधियः स्थाने श्ववृत्तिं विदुः Mu. 3.14; हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या H.3.11. -2 Worship, homage, honouring. -3 Addiction or devotion to, fondness for. -4 Use, practice, employment, exercise. -5 Frequenting, resorting to. -6 Flattery, coaxing or flattering words; अलं सेवया मध्यस्थतां गृहीत्वा भण M.3.
    • The word सेवा is from धातुः सेव् 1 Ā. (सेवते, सेवित; caus. सेवयति-ते; desid. सिसेविषते; the स् of सेव् is generally changed to ष् after prepositions ending in इ such as नि, परि, वि) 1 To serve, wait or attend upon, honour, worship, obey; प्रायो भृत्यास्त्यजन्ति प्रचलितविभवं स्वामिनं सेवमानाः Mu.4.21; आचारपूतं पवनः सिषेवे R.2.13. ‘served or refreshed’; ऐश्वर्यादनपेतमीश्वरमयं लोको$र्थतः सेवते Mu.1.14. -2 To go after, pursue, follow. -3 To use, enjoy; किं सेव्यते सुमनसां मनसापि गन्धः कस्तूरिकाजननशक्तिभृता मृगेण R. G. -4 To enjoy carnally; केतकीं सेवसे हन्त कथं रोलम्ब निस्त्रपः Bv.1.118. -5 To attach or devote oneself to, attend to, cultivate, practice, perform; विद्वद्भिः सेवितः (धर्मः) Ms.2.1; त्वया मनोनिर्विषयार्थ- कामया यदेक एव प्रतिगृह्य सेव्यते Ku.5.38; R.17.49. -6 To resort to, betake oneself to, dwell in, frequent, inhabit; तप्तं वारि विहाय तीरनलिनीं कारण्डवः सेवते V.2.23; Pt.1.9. -7 To watch over, guard, protect.
    • The quotation हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या H.3.11 is similar to the phrase here अनार्यसेवा वृत्तम् (शीलम्) हरति. Internet search on हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या brings forth two examples/references
      • हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या कर्तव्यो महदाश्रयः । पयोऽपि शौण्डिकीहस्ते वारुणीत्यभिधीयते ॥
      • हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या कर्तव्यो महदाश्रयः । राममासाद्य लङ्कायार्लेभे राज्यं बिभीषणः ||
      • The same moral is quoted in मेघदूतम् – याञ्चा मोघा वरमधिगुणे नाधमे लब्धकामा
    • It is important to note that in the phrase  here अनार्यसेवा वृत्तम् (शीलम्) हरति meaning of अनार्य is not a racial reference.
    • In Apte’s dictionary, अनार्य a. Not respectable (not deserving to be styled आर्य), not polite or decent; vulgar; unworthy, vile, base, mean, wretched; शकुन्तलायामनार्यमाचरितं तेन राज्ञा Ś.4 the king has behaved basely or unworthily towards Śakuntalā; कदाचिदस्मिन्नप्यनार्यो$नार्यमाचरिष्यति Ve.4. न मां कामेष्वनार्येषु प्रचारयितुमर्हसि । Bu. ch.4.96. An ignoble person.
    • There is a good proverb in English “Man is known by the company he keeps”. If the company is bad, person’s image वृत्तम् (शीलम्) will certainly get tarnished.
    • I think, the word शीलम् is clearer in meaning than the word वृत्तम्.
      • वृत्त p. p. [वृत्-कर्तरि-क्त] 1 Lived, existed. -2 Occurred, happened. -3 Completed, finished. -4 Performed, done, acted. -5 Past, gone. -6 Round, circular; निवृत्त- वृत्तोरुपयोधरक्लमः Ki.8.3; विशालवक्षास्तनुवृत्तमध्यः R.6.32. -7 Dead, deceased; पत्यौ जीवति वृत्तायाः प्रजायास्तद्धनं भवेत् Ms.9.195; वृत्तं युद्धे शूरमाश्लिष्य काचित् Śi.18.6. -8 Firm, fixed. -9 Read through, studied; P.VII.2.26. -10 Derived from. -11 Famous. -12 Covered; स्वभावस्रोतसा वृत्तमुह्यते सततं जगत् Mb.12.235.13. -13 Turned. -14 Unim-paired (अप्रतिहत); महाभूतादि (व्यञ्जयन्) वृत्तौजाः प्रादुरासीत्तमोनुदः Ms.1.6. (See वृत्). -त्तः 1 A tortoise. -2 A kind of grass. -3 A round temple. -त्तम् 1 An event, occurrence. -2 History, account; वृत्तं रामस्य वाल्मीकेः कृतिस्तौ किन्नरस्वनौ R. 15.64. -3 News, tidings; समरवृत्तविबोधसमीया कुरुवरेण मुदा कृतयाचनः Veda-Vyāsāṣṭaka 6. -4 Practice, profession, mode of life, occupation; सतां वृत्तमनुष्ठिताः Ms.1.127; 7.122; Y.3.44. -5 Conduct, behaviour, manner, act, action; as in सद्वृत्त, दुर्वृत्त. -6 Good or virtuous conduct; एवं चलितवृत्तस्तु वृत्तशेषं न रक्षति Pt.4.28. -7 An established rule or usage, law, custom; observance of such rule or usage, duty; किमत्र चित्रं यदि कामसूर्भूर्वृत्ते स्थितस्याधिपतेः प्रजानाम् R.5.33. -8 A circle, circumference of a circle. -9 A metre in general, especially a metre regulated by the number of syllables it contains (opp. जाति); पद्यं चतुष्पदी तच्च वृत्तं जातिरिति द्विधा । वृत्तमक्षर- संख्यातं जातिर्मात्राकृता भवेत् । सममर्धसमं वृत्तं विषमं चेति तत् त्रिधा । Chand. M.; see App. -10 The epicycle. -11 Transformation, change into. -12 Appearance.
      • I could not get in Apte’s dictionary the word शीलम् or शील. But I got many examples of its usage, especially at the end of a compound such as
        • दुश्शील a. ill-mannered or ill behaved
        • also पुण्यशील a. of a virtuous disposition, inclined to pious acts, virtuous, pious, righteous.-श्लोक a. ‘well-spoken of’, or ‘auspicious to repeat or utter the name of’, of good fame; Dk.2.8.
  • (7-7) क्रोधः श्रियं (हरति) | = Anger affects (or takes away) grace. It has always been challenging for me to translate the word श्रियम् (द्वितीया, एकवचनम् of श्रीः). But I think in the given context श्रीः = grace is a good translation.
  • (7-8) अभिमानः सर्वम् एव हरति | = Ego affects (or takes away) everything. I think अहंकारः would have conveyed the meaning more accurately than अभिमानः I say this because अभिमानः is not always bad. Rather one should cultivate self-respect स्वाभिमान. If  अहंकारः would be a better word, would it fit into smooth recitation ? Presently the last line is क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वमेवाभिमानः Instead क्रोधः श्रियमहंकारो हि सर्वम् or क्रोधः श्रियमहंकारस्तु सर्वम्
    • अहंकार is quoted as the premium among vices in गीता.
      • अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं च संश्रिताः (16-18)
      • अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहः (18-53)

(8) Although there are eight sentences, रूपं हरति जरा and मृत्युः प्राणान् are such facts of life, that one can hardly do anything about them. The other six are related to six vices आशा, असूया, कामः, अनार्यसेवा, क्रोधः, अहंकारः The six vices are called as षड्रिपवः six enemies and are variously quoted such as काम-क्रोध-लोभ-दम्भ-मद-मत्सर or काम-क्रोध-दम्भ-मोह-मद-मत्सर For a comparative study, I may tabulate these as –

आशा असूया कामः अनार्यसेवा क्रोधः अहंकारः लोभः मत्सरः कामः दम्भः क्रोधः मदः मोहः मत्सरः कामः दम्भः क्रोधः मदः
  • One can agree that आशा, लोभः, मोहः are synonymous. असूया and मत्सरः are also synonymous. कामः and क्रोधः are same in all three styles.
  • There should not be much argument about considering अहंकारः and मदः to be considered synonymous.
  • By elimination, we are left with अनार्यसेवा and दम्भः to be taken as synonymous. Rather taking अनार्यसेवा and दम्भः as synonymous, adds an interesting shade to the meaning of the word अनार्यसेवा !
    • In the dictionary दम्भः [दम्भ्-घञ्] 1 Deceit, fraud, trickery; Ms.4.163. -2 Religious hypocrisy; Bg.16.4. -3 Arrogance. pride, ostentation. -4 Sin, wickedness.
    • In place of the second meaning given above as ‘religious hypocrisy’, I think a more general meaning as ‘hypocrisy’ is also appropriate.
    • Considering that the word अनार्यसेवा would include offensive behaviour, deceit, fraud, trickery, hypocrisy are certainly so.
    • दाम्भिक is derived from दम्भ In the dictionary दाम्भिक a. (-की f.) [दम्भेन चरति धर्मम्-ठक्] 1 Deceitful, hypocritical. -2 Proud, imperious. -3 Ostentatious, sanctimonious. -कः 1 A cheat. -2 A hypocrite.
    • दम्भ is also posing or pretending oneself to be one, what one is not. All actors do that. But they do not do so with any intention of cheating. When Ravana posed himself at सीताकुटी as a mendicant, it was दम्भ, it was अनार्यसेवा.

(9) With preferable words and with few of my modifications the सुभाषितम् would become – रूपं हरति जरा धैर्यमाशा | मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया | कामो ह्रियं शीलमनार्यसेवा | क्रोधः श्रियमहंकारस्तु सर्वम् || I am proposing my modifications with no sense of अहंकार. I am proposing these with humble recourse to  what is said in the श्लोक – पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वम् | न चापि काव्यं नवमित्यवद्यम् … (Everything is not good simply because it is old; nor a poem should be condemned simply because it is new; – Actually the श्लोक-s and hence the poetry is not mine. The two श्लोक-s are from विदुरनीति. My suggestions are just an attempt to see whether the recitation can be smoother.)

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 122

Thu, 07/16/2015 - 16:09

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 122

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य द्वाविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२२) पाठः ।

Pun is a very interesting literary ornament of any language. This cannot be more true for a language as Sanskrit. I came across the following one in a post by Dr. Subramanian Swamy on his Facebook page.

तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् |

तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् ||

When doing search on the internet on this verse, I came across some interesting mention at https://www.facebook.com/INDClub/posts/995595803792674 There it is said that “… In 1982, Gurupad K. Hegde wrote an entire book titled “Pun in Sanskrit Literature”. (published by Mysore College and has more than 300 examples. …”

Since both lines are identical, the pun or difference in meaning would come from splitting the words differently, i.e. by different पदच्छेद-s.

(1) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् = तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा अज्ञानदायकम्

(2) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् = तम् आखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा-ज्ञानदायकम्

With these two पदच्छेद-s, the syntax will also be different.

(1) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा अज्ञानदायकम् → राजेन्द्र अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रं मा भज |

(2) तम् आखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा-ज्ञानदायकम् → राजेन्द्र तं मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रं भज |

For deciphering the meanings, we need to focus mainly on four words अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रम् मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रम्

(1) अज्ञानदायकम् –

  • (1-1) न ज्ञानम् इति अज्ञानम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (1-2) दायकम् – दा-धातुतः ण्वुल्-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् यद्ददाति तद्दायकम्
  • (1-3) अज्ञानस्य दायकम् इति अज्ञानदायकम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (1-4) अज्ञानदायकम् = That which causes unintelligence

(2) तमाखुपत्रम् –

  • (2-1) तमाखोः पत्रम् इति तमाखुपत्रम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (2-2) तमाखोः – “तमाखु” (= tobacco) इति नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (2-3) पत्रम् – “पत्र” (= leaf) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (2-4) तमाखुपत्रम् = tobacco-leaf

(3) मा-ज्ञानदायकम् – माज्ञानदायक-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • (3-1) मायाः ज्ञानम् इति माज्ञानम् (पञ्चमी-तत्पुरुषः अथवा षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (3-2) माज्ञानस्य दायकः माज्ञानदायकः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (3-3) मायाः – मा (= Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (3-4) माज्ञानदायकः =
    • (3-4-1) One who provides knowledge of or about (षष्ठी) मा i.e. Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati
    • (3-4-2) One, who provides knowledge (as available from (पञ्चमी) मा i.e. Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati

(4) आखुपत्रम् – आखुपत्र-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • (4-1) आखुः पत्रं यस्य सः आखुपत्रः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • (4-2) आखुः = a mouse
  • (4-3) पत्रम् = vehicle
  • (4-4) आखुपत्रः = one, who has a mouse as his vehicle i.e. गणेशः

(5) The सुभाषितम् is said to have the context of an incident between a king and his well-wishing minister.

  • The king had become addicted to chewing tobacco-leaf. The minister knew that that is not good for the king. So, he said to the king राजेन्द्र अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रं मा भज Do not chew the tobacco-leaf, which causes loss of intelligence or which brings to you a blemish of being unintelligent
  • The king agreed, but asked, “What can I do ?” The minister suggested राजेन्द्र तं मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रं भज Engage yourself in singing the praise of Ganesh, who provides knowledge.

(6) It was possible for the minister to use the same words, but convey two different meanings, because Sanskrit affords great freedom from syntax.

(7) The two different meanings would get more appropriately conveyed by difference in intonation.

  • In the first instance तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् would have the word तमाखुपत्रं being said in one continuous utterance.
  • In the second instance the same word तमाखुपत्रं would rather be pronounced as तम् आखुपत्रं with clear split of the संधि.

(8) This brings forth some significance of Vedic mantras often written with diacritic marks, called as स्वरांकनम् In the present case,

  • for the first instance the तमाखुपत्रं may rather have a short vertical line, superscript between the letters मा and खु, rather, after the letter मा, indicating some extended pronunciation of मा. So the word would be written as तमा|खुपत्रं
  • for the second instance apart from clear split as तम् आखुपत्रं, there could be an underscore below the letter त suggesting a little stress on this letter, which will also help the split pronunciation. So it may rather be written as म् आखुपत्रं.

(9) Even when writing माज्ञानदायकम्

  • for the first instance, where it is to be interpreted as संधि of मा + अज्ञानदायकम् one may write it with an अवग्रह (ऽ) hence as माऽज्ञानदायकम्
  • for the second instance, where it is intended to be a compound word, one would write it as a single word माज्ञानदायकम्.
  • Note, संधि is compulsory when composing a compound word. In a sentence, it is optional. This is very succinctly clarified in a verse संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः | नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते ||

(10) Using स्वरांकनम् would rob the verse of the intended pun. Using the अवग्रह would also rob the pun from the write-up, though the pronunciation would be the same.

(11) Use of स्वरांकनम् or of अवग्रह then is a matter of discretion विवक्षा. When pun is intended, the discretion विवक्षा should rather be not to use them.

(12) Statements of philosophical, eternal truths would have no pun, no double meaning, only one meaning. Hence स्वरांकनम् is very important for such statements as in Vedic literature. स्वरांकनम् is related to pronunciation, related to correct pronunciation, and that is how Vedic literature is said to have been passed on and preserved down thousands of years, we must acknowledge the significance of this oral tradition that we have the Vedic literature till date even though great libraries of Nalanda and Takshshila were burnt down, where, they say, the embers were burning for nearly four weeks (so huge was the store of knowledge !)

(13) Knowledge acquired should be retained in the mind and in the memory. That is the essence of the oral tradition. God has provided human mind with incalculable amount of memory storage, that too with great retrievability. ऋषि-s and मुनि-s had realized that and put a great faith in that and very thoughtfully devised the teacher-disciple scheme of education (गुरु-शिष्य-परंपरा), rather than the present day textbook scheme of education.

(14) Coming back to the verse, most charming part is that two statements, grammatically opposite of each other, one in the affirmative and the other its negative, तमाखुपत्रं मा भज and तमाखुपत्रं भज are both valid !

(15) The verb भज is also interesting. The धातु is, भज् having क्त-कृदन्त as भक्त. This धातु भज् has as many as 20+ shades of meaning as detailed in Apte’s dictionary.

  • भज् I. 1 U. (भजति-ते but usually Atm. only; बभाज, भेजे, अभाक्षीत्, अभक्त, भक्ष्यति-ते, भक्त) 1 (a) To share, distribute, divide; भजेरन् पैतृकं रिक्थम् Ms.9.14; न तत्पुत्रै- र्भजेत् सार्धम् 29,119. (b) To assign, allot, apportion; गायत्रीमग्नये$भजत् Ait. Br. -2 To obtain for oneself, share in, partake of; पित्र्यं वा भजते शीलम् Ms.1.59. -3 To accept, receive; चामुण्डे भगवति मन्त्रसाधनादावुद्दिष्टामुपनिहितां भजस्व पूजाम् Māl.5.25. -4 (a) To resort to, betake oneself to, have recourse to; शिलातलं भेजे K.179; मातर्लक्ष्मि भजस्व कंचिदपरम् Bh.3.64; न कश्चिद्वर्णानामपथमप- कृष्टो$पि भजते Ś.5.1; Bv.1.83; R.17.28. (b) To practise, follow, cultivate, observe; तृष्णां छिन्धि भज क्षमाम् Bh.2.77; भेजे धर्ममनातुरः R.1.21; Mu.3.1. -5 To enjoy, possess, have, suffer, experience, entertain; विधुरपि भजतेतरां कलङ्कम् Bv.1.74; न भेजिरे भीमविषेण भीतिम् Bh.2.8; व्यक्तिं भजन्त्यापगाः Ś.7.8; अभितप्तमयो$पि मार्दवं भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु R.8.43; Māl.3.9; U.1.35. -6 To wait or attend upon, serve; (दोग्ध्रीं) भेजे भुजोच्छिन्नरिपुर्निषण्णाम् R.2.23; Pt.1.181; Mk.1.32. -7 To adore, honour, worship (as a god). -8 To choose, select, prefer, accept; सन्तः परीक्ष्यान्यतरद्भजन्ते M.1.2. -9 To enjoy carnally; वसोर्वीर्योत्पन्नामभजत मुनिर्मत्स्यतनयाम् Pt.4.5. -1 To be attached or devoted to; आसन्नमेव नृपतिर्भजते मनुष्यं विद्याविहीनमकुलीनमसंस्कृतं वा Pt.1.35. -11 To take possession of. -12 To fall to the lot of any one. -13 To grant, bestow. -14 To supply, furnish (Ved.). -15 To favour; ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तांस्तथैव भजाम्यहम् Bg.4.11. -16 To decide in favour of, declare for. -17 To love, court (affection). -18 To apply oneself to, be engaged in. -19 To cook, dress (food). -20 To employ, engage. (The meanings of this root are variously modified according to the noun with which it is connected:– e. g. निद्रां भज् to go to sleep; मूर्छां भज् to swoon; भावं भज् to show love for &c. &c.). -Caus. 1 To divide. -2 To put to flight, pursue. -3 To cook, dress. -II. 1.U. (भाजयति-ते, regarded by some as the caus. of भज् I) 1 To cook. -2 To give.
  • Almost each of the 20+ meanings can be applied in the interpretation of the verse. Does not that make the verse such a multifaceted pum ?
    • Especially I think in तमाखुपत्रं मा भज the meaning “Do not become subservient to it” Is not habit of eating तमाखुपत्रं compelling, that one becomes slave of that habit ?
    • The poet seems to have used the verb भज very pleadingly when saying तमाखुपत्रं मा भज. He is not just saying “do not chew the tobacco”. The minister does not want the king to become a slave of that bad habit, which is as good as losing one’s discretionary intelligence. That is what bad habits are अज्ञानदायक. They rob you of your discretionary intelligence.
    • The second line suggests, rather recommends a noble engagement, a perfect antidote to bad habits.

(16) The verse is not just a sage advice given by a minister to his king. It is a caution and advice to all of us to desist from such dangerous things as tobacco. That is why the verse is a सुभाषितम् !

शुभमस्तु !!

-o-O-o


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 122

Thu, 07/16/2015 - 16:09

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 122

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य द्वाविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२२) पाठः ।

Pun is a very interesting literary ornament of any language. This cannot be more true for a language as Sanskrit. I came across the following one in a post by Dr. Subramanian Swamy on his Facebook page.

तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् |

तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् ||

When doing search on the internet on this verse, I came across some interesting mention at https://www.facebook.com/INDClub/posts/995595803792674 There it is said that “… In 1982, Gurupad K. Hegde wrote an entire book titled “Pun in Sanskrit Literature”. (published by Mysore College and has more than 300 examples. …”

Since both lines are identical, the pun or difference in meaning would come from splitting the words differently, i.e. by different पदच्छेद-s.

(1) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् = तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा अज्ञानदायकम्

(2) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् = तम् आखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा-ज्ञानदायकम्

With these two पदच्छेद-s, the syntax will also be different.

(1) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा अज्ञानदायकम् → राजेन्द्र अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रं मा भज |

(2) तम् आखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा-ज्ञानदायकम् → राजेन्द्र तं मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रं भज |

For deciphering the meanings, we need to focus mainly on four words अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रम् मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रम्

(1) अज्ञानदायकम् –

  • (1-1) न ज्ञानम् इति अज्ञानम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (1-2) दायकम् – दा-धातुतः ण्वुल्-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् यद्ददाति तद्दायकम्
  • (1-3) अज्ञानस्य दायकम् इति अज्ञानदायकम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (1-4) अज्ञानदायकम् = That which causes unintelligence

(2) तमाखुपत्रम् –

  • (2-1) तमाखोः पत्रम् इति तमाखुपत्रम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (2-2) तमाखोः – “तमाखु” (= tobacco) इति नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (2-3) पत्रम् – “पत्र” (= leaf) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (2-4) तमाखुपत्रम् = tobacco-leaf

(3) मा-ज्ञानदायकम् – माज्ञानदायक-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • (3-1) मायाः ज्ञानम् इति माज्ञानम् (पञ्चमी-तत्पुरुषः अथवा षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (3-2) माज्ञानस्य दायकः माज्ञानदायकः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (3-3) मायाः – मा (= Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (3-4) माज्ञानदायकः =
    • (3-4-1) One who provides knowledge of or about (षष्ठी) मा i.e. Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati
    • (3-4-2) One, who provides knowledge (as available from (पञ्चमी) मा i.e. Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati

(4) आखुपत्रम् – आखुपत्र-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • (4-1) आखुः पत्रं यस्य सः आखुपत्रः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • (4-2) आखुः = a mouse
  • (4-3) पत्रम् = vehicle
  • (4-4) आखुपत्रः = one, who has a mouse as his vehicle i.e. गणेशः

(5) The सुभाषितम् is said to have the context of an incident between a king and his well-wishing minister.

  • The king had become addicted to chewing tobacco-leaf. The minister knew that that is not good for the king. So, he said to the king राजेन्द्र अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रं मा भज Do not chew the tobacco-leaf, which causes loss of intelligence or which brings to you a blemish of being unintelligent
  • The king agreed, but asked, “What can I do ?” The minister suggested राजेन्द्र तं मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रं भज Engage yourself in singing the praise of Ganesh, who provides knowledge.

(6) It was possible for the minister to use the same words, but convey two different meanings, because Sanskrit affords great freedom from syntax.

(7) The two different meanings would get more appropriately conveyed by difference in intonation.

  • In the first instance तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् would have the word तमाखुपत्रं being said in one continuous utterance.
  • In the second instance the same word तमाखुपत्रं would rather be pronounced as तम् आखुपत्रं with clear split of the संधि.

(8) This brings forth some significance of Vedic mantras often written with diacritic marks, called as स्वरांकनम् In the present case,

  • for the first instance the तमाखुपत्रं may rather have a short vertical line, superscript between the letters मा and खु, rather, after the letter मा, indicating some extended pronunciation of मा. So the word would be written as तमा|खुपत्रं
  • for the second instance apart from clear split as तम् आखुपत्रं, there could be an underscore below the letter त suggesting a little stress on this letter, which will also help the split pronunciation. So it may rather be written as म् आखुपत्रं.

(9) Even when writing माज्ञानदायकम्

  • for the first instance, where it is to be interpreted as संधि of मा + अज्ञानदायकम् one may write it with an अवग्रह (ऽ) hence as माऽज्ञानदायकम्
  • for the second instance, where it is intended to be a compound word, one would write it as a single word माज्ञानदायकम्.
  • Note, संधि is compulsory when composing a compound word. In a sentence, it is optional. This is very succinctly clarified in a verse संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः | नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते ||

(10) Using स्वरांकनम् would rob the verse of the intended pun. Using the अवग्रह would also rob the pun from the write-up, though the pronunciation would be the same.

(11) Use of स्वरांकनम् or of अवग्रह then is a matter of discretion विवक्षा. When pun is intended, the discretion विवक्षा should rather be not to use them.

(12) Statements of philosophical, eternal truths would have no pun, no double meaning, only one meaning. Hence स्वरांकनम् is very important for such statements as in Vedic literature. स्वरांकनम् is related to pronunciation, related to correct pronunciation, and that is how Vedic literature is said to have been passed on and preserved down thousands of years, we must acknowledge the significance of this oral tradition that we have the Vedic literature till date even though great libraries of Nalanda and Takshshila were burnt down, where, they say, the embers were burning for nearly four weeks (so huge was the store of knowledge !)

(13) Knowledge acquired should be retained in the mind and in the memory. That is the essence of the oral tradition. God has provided human mind with incalculable amount of memory storage, that too with great retrievability. ऋषि-s and मुनि-s had realized that and put a great faith in that and very thoughtfully devised the teacher-disciple scheme of education (गुरु-शिष्य-परंपरा), rather than the present day textbook scheme of education.

(14) Coming back to the verse, most charming part is that two statements, grammatically opposite of each other, one in the affirmative and the other its negative, तमाखुपत्रं मा भज and तमाखुपत्रं भज are both valid !

(15) The verb भज is also interesting. The धातु is, भज् having क्त-कृदन्त as भक्त. This धातु भज् has as many as 20+ shades of meaning as detailed in Apte’s dictionary.

  • भज् I. 1 U. (भजति-ते but usually Atm. only; बभाज, भेजे, अभाक्षीत्, अभक्त, भक्ष्यति-ते, भक्त) 1 (a) To share, distribute, divide; भजेरन् पैतृकं रिक्थम् Ms.9.14; न तत्पुत्रै- र्भजेत् सार्धम् 29,119. (b) To assign, allot, apportion; गायत्रीमग्नये$भजत् Ait. Br. -2 To obtain for oneself, share in, partake of; पित्र्यं वा भजते शीलम् Ms.1.59. -3 To accept, receive; चामुण्डे भगवति मन्त्रसाधनादावुद्दिष्टामुपनिहितां भजस्व पूजाम् Māl.5.25. -4 (a) To resort to, betake oneself to, have recourse to; शिलातलं भेजे K.179; मातर्लक्ष्मि भजस्व कंचिदपरम् Bh.3.64; न कश्चिद्वर्णानामपथमप- कृष्टो$पि भजते Ś.5.1; Bv.1.83; R.17.28. (b) To practise, follow, cultivate, observe; तृष्णां छिन्धि भज क्षमाम् Bh.2.77; भेजे धर्ममनातुरः R.1.21; Mu.3.1. -5 To enjoy, possess, have, suffer, experience, entertain; विधुरपि भजतेतरां कलङ्कम् Bv.1.74; न भेजिरे भीमविषेण भीतिम् Bh.2.8; व्यक्तिं भजन्त्यापगाः Ś.7.8; अभितप्तमयो$पि मार्दवं भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु R.8.43; Māl.3.9; U.1.35. -6 To wait or attend upon, serve; (दोग्ध्रीं) भेजे भुजोच्छिन्नरिपुर्निषण्णाम् R.2.23; Pt.1.181; Mk.1.32. -7 To adore, honour, worship (as a god). -8 To choose, select, prefer, accept; सन्तः परीक्ष्यान्यतरद्भजन्ते M.1.2. -9 To enjoy carnally; वसोर्वीर्योत्पन्नामभजत मुनिर्मत्स्यतनयाम् Pt.4.5. -1 To be attached or devoted to; आसन्नमेव नृपतिर्भजते मनुष्यं विद्याविहीनमकुलीनमसंस्कृतं वा Pt.1.35. -11 To take possession of. -12 To fall to the lot of any one. -13 To grant, bestow. -14 To supply, furnish (Ved.). -15 To favour; ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तांस्तथैव भजाम्यहम् Bg.4.11. -16 To decide in favour of, declare for. -17 To love, court (affection). -18 To apply oneself to, be engaged in. -19 To cook, dress (food). -20 To employ, engage. (The meanings of this root are variously modified according to the noun with which it is connected:– e. g. निद्रां भज् to go to sleep; मूर्छां भज् to swoon; भावं भज् to show love for &c. &c.). -Caus. 1 To divide. -2 To put to flight, pursue. -3 To cook, dress. -II. 1.U. (भाजयति-ते, regarded by some as the caus. of भज् I) 1 To cook. -2 To give.
  • Almost each of the 20+ meanings can be applied in the interpretation of the verse. Does not that make the verse such a multifaceted pum ?
    • Especially I think in तमाखुपत्रं मा भज the meaning “Do not become subservient to it” Is not habit of eating तमाखुपत्रं compelling, that one becomes slave of that habit ?
    • The poet seems to have used the verb भज very pleadingly when saying तमाखुपत्रं मा भज. He is not just saying “do not chew the tobacco”. The minister does not want the king to become a slave of that bad habit, which is as good as losing one’s discretionary intelligence. That is what bad habits are अज्ञानदायक. They rob you of your discretionary intelligence.
    • The second line suggests, rather recommends a noble engagement, a perfect antidote to bad habits.

(16) The verse is not just a sage advice given by a minister to his king. It is a caution and advice to all of us to desist from such dangerous things as tobacco. That is why the verse is a सुभाषितम् !

शुभमस्तु !!

-o-O-o


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 121

Mon, 06/08/2015 - 00:40

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 121

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एकविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२१) पाठः ।

In the previous lesson, we saw how verses in Sanskrit had mathematics encoded in them. Here is another style of encoding of numbers.

भास्कराचार्य well-known Indian mathematician and astronomer lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was also well-versed in Sanskrit prosody, so much so, that he recorded his year of birth and the year of his composing his book सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी in a verse –

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमयेऽभवन्ममोत्पत्तिः ।

रसगुणवर्षेण मया सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

Whereas in the verse in the previous lesson, numbers were encoded by letters, in this verse numbers are encoded by words.

रस = 6, Note, रस means ‘taste’. Tastes are six, Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter, Pungent, and Astringent.

गुण = 3 Note, गुण means ‘characteristics’, which are three सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्

पूर्ण = 0 Note, पूर्ण means ‘complete’. पूर्ण is connoted to mean zero, because zero makes the set of numbers complete.

मही = 1 Note, मही means ‘earth’. Earth is only one.

To decipher the verse by the usual sequence –

(1) पदच्छेदैः

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये अभवत् मम उत्पत्तिः ।

रसगुणवर्षेण मया सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

(2) शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि

(2-1) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये This is a compound word having 8 component words viz. रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही, सम, शक, नृप and समय. There have to be विग्रह-s, the statements to detail interrelation among the component words.

  • (2-1-1) रसः च गुणः च पूर्णं च मही च एतेषां द्वन्द्वेन रसगुणपूर्णमह्यः (इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः)
    • The words रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही connote numbers as noted above.
    • Since numbers have digits, values of which increase leftward by increasing power of 10, (starting from 0-th power of 10 at the unit’s place), numerical values of रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही have to be taken leftwards. So Sanskrit rule for placing numbers by their digital value is अङ्कानां वामतो गतिः
    • So the year connoted by रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही when read leftwards becomes 1036.
  • (2-1-2) रसगुणपूर्णमहीभिः समः रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) means ‘equal to रसगुणपूर्णमही’
  • (2-1-3) शकनृपसमयः =
    • शकः येन (कृतः) सः नृपः शकनृपः (बहुव्रीहिः) = King who started counting of time
    • शकनृपेण (प्रचालितः) समयः शकनृपसमयः (मध्यमपदलोपी) = time (actually the year), the counting was started by the king. This refers to King Shalivahan, who started the system of counting of time, wherein every year is called as a शक or as शालिवाहनशक. This was about 78 AD. So year of शालिवाहनशक is approximately 78 years less than the Christian. Presently in 2015, from 21st March to be precise, शालिवाहनशक is 1937
  • (2-1-4) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमः शकनृपसमयः इति रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमयः (कर्मधारयः)
  • (2-1-5) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये = In शालिवाहनशक 1036, i.e. in (1036 + 78 =) 1114 AD

(2-2) अभवत् – भू (1 प.) इति धातुः | भू सत्तायाम् (= to be, to become, to happen) तस्य लङ्-लकारे (अनद्यतनभूते) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

(2-3) मम – अस्मद् (= pronoun of first person उत्तमपुरुष) इति सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-4) उत्पत्तिः – उत् + पत् (1 प.) इति धातुः | तस्मात् क्तिच्-प्रत्ययेन स्त्रीलिङ्गी संज्ञा | तस्याः प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-5) रसगुणवर्षेण – This again is a compound word, having 3 component words – रस, गुण and वर्ष.

  • (2-5-1) रसः च गुणः च रसगुणौ (इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः)
  • (2-5-2) रसगुणाभ्यां वर्षम् यस्य सः रसगुणवर्षः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • (2-5-3) From the encoding detailed at (2-1-1), रसगुणवर्षः = one, who is 36 years old

(2-6) मया – अस्मद् (= pronoun of first person उत्तमपुरुष) इति सर्वनाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-7) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी – This compound word has 4 component words – सिद्ध्, अन्त, शिरस् and मणिः

  • (2-7-1) सिद्धः अन्तः यस्मिन् सः सिद्धान्तः (बहुव्रीहिः)
    • सिद्धः – सिध् (4 प.) इति धातुः | षिधु संराद्धौ (= to be accomplished, to be attained, to be fulfilled) | तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तम् कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “सिद्ध्” | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • अन्तः = end, the ultimate, the truth, aim, goal, objective, what is unarguable
    • सिद्धान्तः = Statement in which unarguable truth is accomplished, a definitive statement
  • (2-7-2) शिरसि मणिः शिरोमणिः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • शिरसि – शिरस् (= head) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • मणिः – a jewel
  • (2-7-3) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी – सिद्धान्तैः शिरोमणिः इव (अयं ग्रन्थः) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी
    • Book, which has become like a jewel (in the crown) by virtue of definitive statements.
    • Probably भास्कराचार्य named his work as सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी, with the idea that सिद्धान्त-s should be worn on the head (in the head ?) as adorably as a jewel.
    • By this token the compound word सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी can as well be deciphered as
  • (2-7-4) सिद्धान्तानां (समुच्चयः) शिरोमणिः इव यस्य सः सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी (Note, here प्रातिपदिकम् to be taken as सिद्धान्तशिरोमणिन् The suffix इन् connotes (सिद्धान्तशिरोमणिः) अस्य अस्ति इति one who owns it. So, everyone who masters सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी becomes a सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी !

(2-8) रचितः – रच् (10 उ.) इति धातुः | रच प्रतियत्ने (= to compose, to arrange, to devise) तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तम् कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “रचित” | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(3) Overall Meaning – I was born in the शालिवाहनशक 1036 and I composed सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी when I was 36 years old.

(4) चतुष्पादात्मकं वृत्तविश्लेषणम् Meter of the verse by study of its four quarters –

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसम –

१-१-१-१-२-१-१-२-१-१ = १२ मात्राः

शकनृपसमयेऽभवन्ममोत्पत्तिः ।

१-१-१-१-१-१-२ १-२-१-२-२-२ = १८ मात्राः

रसगुणवर्षेण मया

१-१-१-१-२-२-१ १-२ = १२ मात्राः

सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

२-२-१-१-२-१-२ १-१-२ = १५ मात्राः

This is आर्यावृत्तम्. Note –

यस्याः पादे प्रथमे द्वादश मात्रास्तथा तृतीयेऽपि |

अष्टादश द्वितीये पञ्चदश चतुर्थके आर्या ||

(5) टिप्पण्यः Notes

(5-1) One is left to wonder what treasure of knowledge is left codified in which all Sanskrit literature.

  • We studied in the previous lesson how a single verse is as good a praise of both श्रीकृष्ण and शिव and also a value of pie to 32 digits.
  • There is a verse which is a solution to such moves of the rook on a chessboard, that one starts on a particular square and returns to the same square.
  • Dr. Sampadanand Mishra compiled a book “The Wonder that is Sanskrit” ISBN 81-7060-182-7 (Sri Aurobindo Society).

(5-2) The book सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी itself has four parts – Part (1) लीलावती covers Arithmetic and Geometry. Part (2) बीजगणितम् covers Algebra. Parts (3) ग्रहगणिताध्यायः and (4) गोलाध्यायः cover calculations related to the astronomy, i.e. motions and relative motions of planets, etc.

  • (5-2-1) It is said that सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी was the text-book of mathematics all across India for nearly 700 years, say, until Indian education system was overhauled by British educationists like Macaulay. One can get some interesting reading about this at http://www.historydiscussion.net/articles/spreading-of-western-education-during-british-rule/2065
  • It comes to mind that if सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी was the text-book of mathematics all across India for nearly 700 years, there must be great value there. I wish I shall be able to deal with at least Parts (1) and (2) at https://ganitabhyas.wordpress.com/
  • If भास्कराचार्य intended that everyone who masters सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी becomes a सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी, may it so happen !

शुभमस्तु !!!

-o-O-o-

 


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 121

Mon, 06/08/2015 - 00:40

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 121

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एकविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२१) पाठः ।

In the previous lesson, we saw how verses in Sanskrit had mathematics encoded in them. Here is another style of encoding of numbers.

भास्कराचार्य well-known Indian mathematician and astronomer lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was also well-versed in Sanskrit prosody, so much so, that he recorded his year of birth and the year of his composing his book सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी in a verse –

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमयेऽभवन्ममोत्पत्तिः ।

रसगुणवर्षेण मया सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

Whereas in the verse in the previous lesson, numbers were encoded by letters, in this verse numbers are encoded by words.

रस = 6, Note, रस means ‘taste’. Tastes are six, Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter, Pungent, and Astringent.

गुण = 3 Note, गुण means ‘characteristics’, which are three सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्

पूर्ण = 0 Note, पूर्ण means ‘complete’. पूर्ण is connoted to mean zero, because zero makes the set of numbers complete.

मही = 1 Note, मही means ‘earth’. Earth is only one.

To decipher the verse by the usual sequence –

(1) पदच्छेदैः

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये अभवत् मम उत्पत्तिः ।

रसगुणवर्षेण मया सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

(2) शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि

(2-1) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये This is a compound word having 8 component words viz. रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही, सम, शक, नृप and समय. There have to be विग्रह-s, the statements to detail interrelation among the component words.

  • (2-1-1) रसः च गुणः च पूर्णं च मही च एतेषां द्वन्द्वेन रसगुणपूर्णमह्यः (इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः)
    • The words रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही connote numbers as noted above.
    • Since numbers have digits, values of which increase leftward by increasing power of 10, (starting from 0-th power of 10 at the unit’s place), numerical values of रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही have to be taken leftwards. So Sanskrit rule for placing numbers by their digital value is अङ्कानां वामतो गतिः
    • So the year connoted by रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही when read leftwards becomes 1036.
  • (2-1-2) रसगुणपूर्णमहीभिः समः रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) means ‘equal to रसगुणपूर्णमही’
  • (2-1-3) शकनृपसमयः =
    • शकः येन (कृतः) सः नृपः शकनृपः (बहुव्रीहिः) = King who started counting of time
    • शकनृपेण (प्रचालितः) समयः शकनृपसमयः (मध्यमपदलोपी) = time (actually the year), the counting was started by the king. This refers to King Shalivahan, who started the system of counting of time, wherein every year is called as a शक or as शालिवाहनशक. This was about 78 AD. So year of शालिवाहनशक is approximately 78 years less than the Christian. Presently in 2015, from 21st March to be precise, शालिवाहनशक is 1937
  • (2-1-4) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमः शकनृपसमयः इति रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमयः (कर्मधारयः)
  • (2-1-5) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये = In शालिवाहनशक 1036, i.e. in (1036 + 78 =) 1114 AD

(2-2) अभवत् – भू (1 प.) इति धातुः | भू सत्तायाम् (= to be, to become, to happen) तस्य लङ्-लकारे (अनद्यतनभूते) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

(2-3) मम – अस्मद् (= pronoun of first person उत्तमपुरुष) इति सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-4) उत्पत्तिः – उत् + पत् (1 प.) इति धातुः | तस्मात् क्तिच्-प्रत्ययेन स्त्रीलिङ्गी संज्ञा | तस्याः प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-5) रसगुणवर्षेण – This again is a compound word, having 3 component words – रस, गुण and वर्ष.

  • (2-5-1) रसः च गुणः च रसगुणौ (इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः)
  • (2-5-2) रसगुणाभ्यां वर्षम् यस्य सः रसगुणवर्षः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • (2-5-3) From the encoding detailed at (2-1-1), रसगुणवर्षः = one, who is 36 years old

(2-6) मया – अस्मद् (= pronoun of first person उत्तमपुरुष) इति सर्वनाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-7) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी – This compound word has 4 component words – सिद्ध्, अन्त, शिरस् and मणिः

  • (2-7-1) सिद्धः अन्तः यस्मिन् सः सिद्धान्तः (बहुव्रीहिः)
    • सिद्धः – सिध् (4 प.) इति धातुः | षिधु संराद्धौ (= to be accomplished, to be attained, to be fulfilled) | तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तम् कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “सिद्ध्” | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • अन्तः = end, the ultimate, the truth, aim, goal, objective, what is unarguable
    • सिद्धान्तः = Statement in which unarguable truth is accomplished, a definitive statement
  • (2-7-2) शिरसि मणिः शिरोमणिः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • शिरसि – शिरस् (= head) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • मणिः – a jewel
  • (2-7-3) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी – सिद्धान्तैः शिरोमणिः इव (अयं ग्रन्थः) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी
    • Book, which has become like a jewel (in the crown) by virtue of definitive statements.
    • Probably भास्कराचार्य named his work as सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी, with the idea that सिद्धान्त-s should be worn on the head (in the head ?) as adorably as a jewel.
    • By this token the compound word सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी can as well be deciphered as
  • (2-7-4) सिद्धान्तानां (समुच्चयः) शिरोमणिः इव यस्य सः सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी (Note, here प्रातिपदिकम् to be taken as सिद्धान्तशिरोमणिन् The suffix इन् connotes (सिद्धान्तशिरोमणिः) अस्य अस्ति इति one who owns it. So, everyone who masters सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी becomes a सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी !

(2-8) रचितः – रच् (10 उ.) इति धातुः | रच प्रतियत्ने (= to compose, to arrange, to devise) तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तम् कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “रचित” | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(3) Overall Meaning – I was born in the शालिवाहनशक 1036 and I composed सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी when I was 36 years old.

(4) चतुष्पादात्मकं वृत्तविश्लेषणम् Meter of the verse by study of its four quarters –

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसम –

१-१-१-१-२-१-१-२-१-१ = १२ मात्राः

शकनृपसमयेऽभवन्ममोत्पत्तिः ।

१-१-१-१-१-१-२ १-२-१-२-२-२ = १८ मात्राः

रसगुणवर्षेण मया

१-१-१-१-२-२-१ १-२ = १२ मात्राः

सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

२-२-१-१-२-१-२ १-१-२ = १५ मात्राः

This is आर्यावृत्तम्. Note –

यस्याः पादे प्रथमे द्वादश मात्रास्तथा तृतीयेऽपि |

अष्टादश द्वितीये पञ्चदश चतुर्थके आर्या ||

(5) टिप्पण्यः Notes

(5-1) One is left to wonder what treasure of knowledge is left codified in which all Sanskrit literature.

  • We studied in the previous lesson how a single verse is as good a praise of both श्रीकृष्ण and शिव and also a value of pie to 32 digits.
  • There is a verse which is a solution to such moves of the rook on a chessboard, that one starts on a particular square and returns to the same square.
  • Dr. Sampadanand Mishra compiled a book “The Wonder that is Sanskrit” ISBN 81-7060-182-7 (Sri Aurobindo Society).

(5-2) The book सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी itself has four parts – Part (1) लीलावती covers Arithmetic and Geometry. Part (2) बीजगणितम् covers Algebra. Parts (3) ग्रहगणिताध्यायः and (4) गोलाध्यायः cover calculations related to the astronomy, i.e. motions and relative motions of planets, etc.

  • (5-2-1) It is said that सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी was the text-book of mathematics all across India for nearly 700 years, say, until Indian education system was overhauled by British educationists like Macaulay. One can get some interesting reading about this at http://www.historydiscussion.net/articles/spreading-of-western-education-during-british-rule/2065
  • It comes to mind that if सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी was the text-book of mathematics all across India for nearly 700 years, there must be great value there. I wish I shall be able to deal with at least Parts (1) and (2) at https://ganitabhyas.wordpress.com/
  • If भास्कराचार्य intended that everyone who masters सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी becomes a सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी, may it so happen !

शुभमस्तु !!!

-o-O-o-

 


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 120

Sun, 01/04/2015 - 00:57

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 120

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य विंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२०) पाठः ।

In the Appendix in a book on Vedic Mathematics, I came across the following श्लोक. By being in a book on mathematics, the श्लोक certainly has mathematical connotation. Before getting into that, let us have a look at the श्लोक.

गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग |

खलजीवितखाताव गलहालारसंधर ||

The word गोपी at the beginning suggests reference to Lord krishna. The last word गलहालारसंधर (गल = throat or neck हालारसंधर → धर= having , wearing हालारस = poison, hence गलहालारसंधर = wearing a snake around his neck) suggests Lord Shiva. So, the श्लोक is a prayer to Lord Krishna and to Lord Shiva. Can we attempt deciphering the complete meaning(s) in our usual style ?

Before that, however, let me quote the explanation by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः, which he posted on March 17, 2011, at the forum https://groups.google.com/forum/#!msg/samskrita/pWNFDE7apiw/PqpLP9G9aO4J

Before proceeding it ought to be noted that the version adopted by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः reads गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गशोदधिसंधिग in place of गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग. With this difference in the version, explanation by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः reads as -

कृष्णपक्षे (Considering that the deity is Lord Krishna) -

गोपीभाग्य = गोपीनां गोपस्त्रीणां भाग्य ।

मधुव्रात = मधुदैत्यस्य व्याध नाशक ।

शृङ्गशो दधिसन्धिग = शृङ्गेण (शृङ्गेण कृतेन) अभिषेकेन दधिसन्धिं प्राप्त दधिलिप्त ।

अथवा

मधुव्रातशृङ्गश = क्षीरसमूहशिखरे शेते इति ।

उदधिसन्धिग = समुद्रमन्थनकाले कूर्मात्मनोदधिं प्राप्त ।

खलजीवितखात = खलानां जीवितानि खातानि येन , खलजीवितेभ्यः खनित्रमिवेति वा ।

गलहालारसन्धर = गले हालारसं यस्य तं सर्पं कालियं धरतीति ।

अव = रक्ष ।

शिवपक्षे (Considering that the deity is Lord Shiva) -

गोपीभाग्य = गोप्या जगद्रक्षिकाया उमाया भाग्य ।

मधुव्रातशृङ्गश = मधु क्षीरं तस्य व्रातस्समूहः तत्सन्निभे धवले शृङ्गे कैलासशिखरे शेते इति मधुव्रातशृङ्गश ।

उदधिसन्धिग = समुद्रमन्थनकाले । तत्रैव मोहिन्या मोहितोऽयमभवदिति प्रसिद्धम् ।

खलजीवितखात = खलानां जीवितानि खातानि येन , खलजीवितेभ्यः खनित्रमिवेति वा ।

गलहालारसन्धर = गले हालारसं धारयतीति गलहालारसन्धर ।

अथवा

गलस्थितविषे रसं स्नेहं धारयतीति । अत एव न तत्त्यक्तमद्यावधि ।

अथवा

गलहालान्सर्पान्रसेन धारयतीति ।

अव = रक्ष ।

We need not think that above explanation by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः preempts all analysis. Rather, it gives enough of good hints for proceeding.

First of all, all words in the श्लोक – गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग, खलजीवितखाताव गलहालारसंधर end with अ. This ending is typical of सम्बोधन-प्रथमा विभक्ति एकवचनम् of अकारान्त पुँल्लिङ्गी words. If this is so, which is the verb ? श्रीमल्ललितालालितः has pointed out that the verb is अव = रक्ष.

This guides us to  take अव as a distinct word, contained in खलजीवितखाताव to be split as खलजीवितखात + अव

But then there are different पदच्छेद-s of the long compilation of 16 letters in the first line of the श्लोक, गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गशोदधिसंधिग written as a single word. But as detailed by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः, this can be split variously.

Under कृष्णपक्षे (Considering that the deity is Lord Krishna) the splitting is done as गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गशोदधिसंधिग =

  • गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रात शृङ्गशो (i.e.शृङ्गशः) दधिसंधिग or
  • गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रातशृङ्गश उदधिसंधिग

Under शिवपक्षे (Considering that the deity is Lord Shiva) the splitting is done as

गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गशोदधिसंधिग = गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रातशृङ्गश उदधिसंधिग This splitting is same as the second splitting under कृष्णपक्षे. But the meaning is different, when considering that the deity is Lord Shiva.

However if the version in the book “Vedic Mathematics” is to be considered, the splitting would be still different.

If गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग is to be split as गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रात शृङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग, one may think that शृङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग should itself be split as शृङ्गिश उदधिसंधिग. There is a small problem in splitting it like this. The problem is that शृङ्गिश should rather be शृङ्गीश which lends itself to be शृङ्गी + ईश (or शृङ्गि + ईश = शृङ्गीश). शृङ्गी or शृङ्गि means one, who has horn(s). The root word is शृङ्गिन्.

Anyway, शिवः is शृङ्गीश because he has the bull नन्दी as his career. कृष्ण is also शृङ्गीश because he was a cowherd.

The पदच्छेद-s of the second version would then be -

गोपी-भाग्य मधु-व्रात शृङ्गीश उदधिसंधिग |

खल-जीवित-खात अव गल-हालारसं-धर |

To proceed sequentially, first, as usual analysis of specific words विशिष्टानां शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि -

१) गोपीभाग्य  – “गोपीभाग्य” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य सम्बोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • गां पालयति इति गोपः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) | स्त्रीलिङ्गेन गोपी |
  • गोप्याः भाग्यम् येन सः गोपीभाग्यः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • भाग्यम् – a. [भज्-ण्यत् कुत्वम्] 1 To be divided, divisible. -2 Entitled to a share. -3 Forming a part. -4 Subject to fractional deduction. -5 Lucky, fortunate. -ग्यम् 1 Fate, destiny, luck, fortune; स्त्रियश्चरित्रं पुरुषस्य भाग्यं देवो न जानाति कुतो मनुष्यः Subhāṣ; oft. in pl.; सा निन्दन्ती स्वानि भाग्यानि बाला Ś.5.3. -2 Good fortune or luck; R.3.13. -3 Prosperity, affluence; भाग्येष्वनुत्सेकिनी Ś.4.18. -4 Happiness, welfare. (भाग्येन fortunately, happily)
  • गोपीभाग्यः = (कृष्णपक्षे) गोपीनां गोपस्त्रीणां भाग्यम् अनेन इति गोपीभाग्यः | Note, here गोपी is explained as गोपस्त्री. Fate and fortune of many गोपी-s was linked with कृष्ण. Hence कृष्ण is गोपीभाग्यः. In a war, many गोपी-s became widows, some 16000 of them. कृष्ण married them all and redeemed their honor.
  • गोपीभाग्यः = (शिवपक्षे) गोप्याः जगद्रक्षिकायाः उमायाः भाग्यम् अनेन इति गोपीभाग्यः । Note, here गोप्याः has been explained as जगद्रक्षिकायाः उमायाः. The consideration is that the world जगत् is a cow गो. उमा is जगद्रक्षिका hence गोपी. Her fortune is linked with शिव. Hence शिव is गोपीभाग्यः.

२) मधु-व्रात -

  • मधु = a. (-धु or -ध्वी f.) [मन्यत इति मधु, मन्-उ नस्य धः Uṇ.1.18) Sweet, pleasant, agreeable, delightful; आपापयति गोविन्दपादपद्मासवं मधु Bhāg.1.18.12; त्वया सह निवत्स्यामि वनेषु मधुगन्धिषु U.2.18. -f. N. of a plant (जीवा, जीवन्ती). -n. -(धु) 1 Honey; एतास्ता मधुनो धाराश्च्योतन्ति सविषास्त्वयि U.3.34; मधु तिष्ठति जिह्वाग्रे हृदये तु हलाहलम्. -2 The juice or nectar of flowers; मधु द्विरेफः कुसुमैकपात्रे पपौ प्रियां स्वामनुवर्तमानः Ku.3.36; देहि मुखकमलमधुपानम् Gīt.1. -3 A sweet intoxicating drink, wine, spirituous liquor; विनयन्ते स्म तद्योधा मधुभिर्विजयश्रमम् R.4.65; Ṛs. 1.3. -4 Water. -5 Sugar. -6 Sweetness. -7 Anything sweet. -8 Ved. Soma juice. -9 Milk or anything produced from milk (Ved.). -1 A beehive; केचित्- पीत्वापविध्यन्ति मधूनि मधुपिङ्गलाः Rām.5.62.1. -11 Beewax; Ms.1.88. -m. (धुः) 1 The spring or vernal season; मधुरया मधुबोधितमाधवी Śi.6.2; क्व नु ते हृदयंगमः सखा कुसुमायोजितकार्मुको मधुः Ku.4.24,25;3.1,3. -2 The month of Chaitra; भास्करस्य मधुमाधवाविव R.11.7; मासे मधौ मधुरकोकिलभृङ्गनादै रामा हरन्ति हृदयं प्रसभं नराणाम् Ṛs.6. 25. -3 N. of a demon killed by Viṣṇu. -4 N. of another demon, father of Rāvaṇa and killed by Śatrughna. -5 The Aśoka tree. -6 N. of king Kārtavīrya.
  • व्रात -
  • This word is not detailed in Apte’s dictionary
  • At  http://spokensanskrit.de/index.php?tinput=vrAta&direction=SE&script=HK&link=yes&beginning= one gets meanings of व्रात = assemblage, guild, association, swarm, multitude, flock, troop, group
  • Hence मधु-व्रात = मधुनः व्रातः or मधूनां व्रातः = (one who is) assemblage of all things pleasant and sweet.
  • One finds this word मधु-व्रात having been interpreted as one, who killed demon मधु. Well, मधु certainly is name of a demon. But the meaning of व्रात does not fit in here.

Apart from deciphering the words गोपीभाग्य and मधुव्रात separately, there can be an option to decipher them together, i.e. by considering गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रात as one single compound word.

१ तथा २) गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रात = “गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रात” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य सम्बोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • मधु इव गोपीभाग्यम् इति गोपीभाग्यमधु (कर्मधारयः) अथवा
  • गोपीभाग्यमेव मधु इति गोपीभाग्यमधु (कर्मधारयः)
  • गोपीभाग्यमधूनां व्रातः इति गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातः = One, who connotes a horde of sweetnesses (pleasantries) of good fortune of गोपी(s).
  • कृष्ण or शिव can be गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातः for us also if we do devotion to them as ardently as the गोपी(s).

As discussed above the next phrase शृङ्गशोदधिसंधिग or शृङ्गीशोदधिसंधिग needs to be deciphered for different options, viz.

  • शृङ्गशो दधिसंधिग i.e. शृङ्गशः दधिसंधिग
  • (मधुव्रात)-शृङ्गश उदधिसंधिग – Here the word शृङ्गश has been compounded with मधुव्रात as मधुव्रातशृङ्गश
  • शृङ्गीश उदधिसंधिग

Proceeding one by one

३ अ) शृङ्गशः = शृङ्ग + शः where शः (शस्)  is a suffix, meaning “by means of”, “in the manner of” or simply “by”, as a substitute of तृतीया विभक्ति.

  • आपटेवर्यस्य शब्दकोषे – शस् 1 A technical name for the termination of the acc. plural. -2 A Taddhita affix forming adverbs from nouns, especially from numerals; as द्विशः, शतशः, बहुशः &c.
  • शृङ्गम् – (आपटेवर्यस्य शब्दकोषे) – [शॄ-गन् पृषो˚ मुम् ह्रस्वश्च Uṇ.1.123] 1 A horn; वन्यैरिदानीं महिषैस्तदम्भः शृङ्गाहतं क्रोशति दीर्घिकाणाम् R.16.13; गाहन्तां महिषां निपानसलिलं शृङ्गैर्मुहुस्ताडितम् Ś.2.6. -2 The top or summit of a mountain; अद्रेः शृङ्गं हरति पवनः किंस्विदित्युन्मुखीभिः Me.14,54.; Ki.5.42; R.13.26. -3 The top of a building, turret. -4 Elevation, height; रक्षो- लोकस्य सर्वस्य कः शृङ्गं छेत्तुमिच्छति Rām.3.31.43. -5 Lordship, sovereignty, supremacy, eminence; शृङ्गं स दृप्तविनयाधिकृतः परेषामत्युच्छ्रितं न ममृषे न तु दीर्धमायुः R.9.62 (where the word means a ‘horn’ also). -6 A cusp or horn of the moon. -7 Any peak, point or projection in general. -8 A horn (of a buffalo &c.) used for blowing. -9 A syringe; वर्णोदकैः काञ्चनशृङ्गमुक्तैः R.16.7. -10 Excess of love, rising of desire. -11 A mark, sign. -12 A lotus. -13 A fountain of water. -14 Pride, self- respect; अवाप्य पृथिवीं कृत्स्नां न ते शृङ्गमवर्धत Mb.3.3.1 (com. शृङ्गं प्रभुत्वाभिमानः). -15 The stick (काण्ड) of an arrow with a horn-like knob; शृङ्गमग्निर्बभूवास्य भल्लः सोमो विशांपते Mb.8.34.18. -16 A particular military array; Mb.6. -17 The female breast.
  • शृङ्गशः = As detailed by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः, शृङ्गशः = शृङ्गेण (शृङ्गेण कृतेन). Taking clue from शृङ्गम् = 10 Excess of love, rising of desire, we can interpret शृङ्गशः = heartily.

३ आ ) (मधुव्रात)शृङ्गश = श्रीमल्ललितालालितः detailed this as मधु क्षीरं तस्य व्रातस्समूहः तत्सन्निभे धवले शृङ्गे कैलासशिखरे शेते इति मधुव्रातशृङ्गश ।

  • मधु = क्षीरं is correct (see above, meaning of मधु -9 Milk or anything produced from milk (Ved.).
  • मधुव्रातशृङ्गश इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य संबोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • मधुनः व्रातः इति मधुव्रातः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • मधुव्रातसमं शृङ्गम् मधुव्रातशृङ्गम् (उपमान-पूर्वपद-कर्मधारयः)
    • मधुव्रातशृङ्गे शेते इति मधुव्रातशृङ्गश (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः)
    • In deciphering मधुव्रातशृङ्गम् as मधुव्रातसमं शृङ्गम् the consideration has been मधुव्रातसमं = धवलम् \
    • In deciphering मधुव्रातशृङ्गश as मधुव्रातशृङ्गे शेते the letter श is connoted to be standing for शेते. One wonders whether there are any other examples of श standing for शेते.
    • मधुव्रातशृङ्ग is further interpreted to imply tops of Kailas mountain. In turn मधुव्रातशृङ्ग is interpreted to suggest Shiva, who rests on Kailas mountain.
    • शेते = शी (2 आ.) इति धातुः | तस्य लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |
    • आपटेवर्यस्य शब्दकोशे – शी 2 Ā. (शेते, शयित; pass. शय्यते; desid. (शिशयिषते) 1 To lie, lie down, recline, rest; इतश्च शरणार्थिनः शिखरिणां गणाः शेरते Bh.2.76. -2 To sleep (fig. also); किं निःशङ्कं शेषे शेषे वयसः समागतो मृत्युः । अथवा सुखं शयीथा निकटे जागर्ति जाह्नवी जननी Bv.4.3; Bh.3.79; Ku.5.12. -3 To rest, repose. -Caus. (शाययति-ते) -1 To cause to sleep or lie down; पार्श्वे शायय रावणम् Bk.8.83. -2 To allow to rest or repose.
  • शृङ्गीश = “शृङ्गीश” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य संबोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • शृङ्गस्य ईशः इति शृङ्गीशः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) अथवा
    • शृङ्गिणः ईशः इति शृङ्गीशः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • ईशः – आपटेवर्यस्य शब्दकोशे – ईश a. [ईश्-क] 1 Owning, possessing, sharing, master or lord of; see below. -2 One who is com- pletely master of anything. -3 Capable of (with gen.) -4 Powerful, supreme. -शः 1 A lord, master; with gen. or in comp.; कथंचिदीशा मनसां बभूवुः Ku.3.34 with great difficulty controlled (were masters of) their minds; so वागीश, सुरेश &c. -2 A husband. -3 A Rudra. -4 The number 11 (derived from the eleven Rudras). -5 N. of Śiva (as regent of the north-east quarter. -6 The Supreme god (परमेश्वर); व्यक्ताव्यक्तं भरते विश्वमीश- मीड्यम् Śevt. Up.1.8; प्रसादये त्वामहमीशमीड्यम् Bg.11.44. श्रीवत्सधामापररात्र ईशः Bhāg.6.8.22.
    • अत्र ईश् इति धातुः | आपटेवर्यस्य शब्दकोशे – ईश् 2 Ā. (ईष्टे, ईशाञ्चक्रे, ऐशिष्ट, ईशिता, ईशितुम्, ईशित) 1 To rule, be master of, govern, command (with gen.); नायं गात्राणामीष्टे K.312 v.l.; अर्थानामीशिषे त्वं वयमपि च गिरा- मीश्महे यावदर्थम् Bh.3.3; sometimes with acc.; इमाँल्लोका- नीशत ईशनीभिः Śvet. Up.3.1 (also used in the Veda with gen. of an infinitive or loc. of an abstract noun). -2 To be able, have power; expressed by ‘can'; माधुर्यमीष्टे हरिणान् ग्रहीतुम् R.18.13,14.38; कमिवेशते रमयितुं न गुणाः Ki.6.24; U.7.4; Śi.1.38; Māl.1.13. -3 To act like a master, allow. -4 To own, possess. -5 To belong to.
    • शृङ्गीश = Lord of mountain. OR Lord of those having horns.
      • Because of the episode of Govardhan mountain, Krishna merits the adoration शृङ्गीश = Lord of mountain. Because of his abode in Kailash Shiva is well-acknowledged शृङ्गीश = Lord of mountains
      • As Gopala, Krishna merits the adoration शृङ्गीश = Lord of those having horns. Being master of Nandi, Shiva is certainly शृङ्गीश = Lord of those having horns.

In शृङ्गशोदधिसंधिग or शृङ्गीशोदधिसंधिग there are the parts दधिसंधिग or उदधिसंधिग. Let us study them sequentially.

४ अ) दधिसंधिग = “दधिसंधिग” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य संबोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • दधिना (सह) सन्धिः इति दधिसन्धिः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • दधिसन्धिं गच्छति इति दधिसन्धिगः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • दधिना – दधि इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • दधि n. [दध्-इन्] 1 Coagulated milk, thick sour milk; क्षीरं दधिभावेन परिणमते Ś.B; दध्योदनः &c. -2 Turpentine. -3 A garment
  • दध् 1 Ā. (दधते) 1 To hold. -2 To have, possess. -3 To give, present.
  • सन्धिम् – संधि-इति पुँल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च | संधिः 1 Union, junction, combination, connection; संधये सरला सूची वक्रा छेदाय कर्तरी Subhāṣ.; Me.6. -2 A compact, an agreement. -3 Alliance, league, friend- ship, peace, treaty of peace (one of the six expedients to be used in foreign politics); कति प्रकाराः संधीनां भवन्ति H.4; (the several kinds are described in H.4.16- 125); शत्रुणा न हि संदध्यात् सुश्लिष्टेनापि संधिना H.1.85. -4 A joint, articulation (of the body); तुरगानुधावनकाण्डितसंधेः Ś.2. -5 A fold (of a garment). -6 A breach, hole, chasm. -7 Especially a mine, chasm or opening made by thieves in a wall or underneath a building; संधिं छित्त्वा तु ये चौर्यं रात्रौ कुर्वन्ति तस्कराः Ms.9.276; वृक्षवाटिका- परिसरे संधिं कृत्वा प्रविष्टोऽस्मि मध्यमकम् Mk.3. -8 Separation, division. -9 Euphony, euphonic junction or coalition (in gram.) -1 An interval, a pause. -11 A critical juncture. -12 An opportune moment. -13 A period at the expiration of each Yuga or age; त्रेताद्वापरयोः संधौ Mb.1.2.3. -14 A division or joint (in a drama); (they are five; see S. D.33-332); तौ संधिषु व्यञ्जितवृत्तिभेदम् Ku.7.91. -15 The vulva. -16 Distillation. -17 Land etc. donated for the worship of temple deities etc. (cf. Dr. Raghavan’s note on वृत्तिसंन्धिप्रतिपादकः Cholachampū p.1 “संधिः देवपूजार्थमतिसृष्टं तादृशं भूम्यादिकं संधिपदस्य द्रविडदेवालयशिलाशासनेषु तादृशेऽर्थे व्यवहारदर्शनात् ।”). -18 Contrivance, management; तस्य सावरणदृष्टसंधयः काम्यवस्तुषु नवेषु संगिनः R.19.16. -19 Twilight. -2 A seam. -21 The connecting link of a perpendicular (in mensuration). -22 The common side of double triangle.
  • संधा 3 U. 1 To join, bring togethr, unite, combine, put together, compound, mix; यानि उदकेन संधीयन्ते तानि भक्षणीयानि Kull. -2 (a) To treat with, form friendship or alliance with, make peace with; शंत्रुणा न हि संदध्यात् सुश्लिष्टेनापि संधिना H.1.88; Chāṇ.19; Kām.9.41. (b) To unite in friendship, reconcile, make a friend of; सकृद्दुष्टमपीष्टं यः पुनः संघातुमिच्छति Pt.2. 33. -3 To fix upon, direct towards; संदधे दृशमुदग्रतारकाम् R.11.69. -4 To fit to or place upon the bow (as a missile, arrow &c.); धनुष्यमोघं समधत्त बाणम् Ku.3.66; R.3.53;12.97. -5 To produce, cause; पर्याप्तं मयि रमणीय- डामरत्वं संधत्ते गगनतलप्रयाणवेगः Māl.5.3; संधत्ते भृशमरतिं हि सद्वियोगः Ki.5.51. -6 To hold out against, be a match for; शतमेको$पि संधत्ते प्राकारस्थो धनुर्धरः Pt.1.229. -7 To mend, repair, heal. -8 To inflict upon. -9 To grasp, support, take hold of. -1 To grant, yield. -11 To make good, atone for. -12 To contract, close up. -13 To approach, come near. -14 To prepare, make, com- pose. -15 To assist, aid. -16 To comprehend, conceive. -17 To possess, have. -18 To perform, do; स्वलीलया संदधतेऽव्ययात्मने Bhāg.7.8.41; वाङ्मात्रेणापि साहाय्यं मित्रादन्यो न संदधे Pt.2.12. -19 To employ, make use of, apply to use.
  • दधिसंधिग = one, who gets in contact (smeared) with the curds

४ आ) उदधिसंधिग = “उदधिसंधिग” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य संबोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • उदधिना (सह) सन्धिः इति उदधिसन्धिः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • उदधिसन्धिं गच्छति इति उदधिसन्धिगः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • उदधिना – उदधि इति पुँल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • उदधि – उदधिः See under 2. उदन्. → 2. उदन् n. [उन्द्-कनिन् P.VI.1.63] Water (usually occurring in compounds either at the beginning or at the end, and as an optional substitute for उदक after the acc. dual. It has no forms for the first five inflections. In comp. it drops its न्); e. g. उदधि, अच्छोद, क्षीरोद &c.  -धिः [उदकानि धीयन्तेऽत्र धा-कि उदादेशः] 1 the receptacle of waters, ocean; उदधेरिव निम्नगाशतेष्वभवन्नास्य विमानना क्वचित् R.8.8. -2 a cloud. -3 a lake, any large reservoir of water. -4 a water-jar. -5 a symbolical expression for the number 4 or 7. ˚कन्या, तनया, सुता Lakṣmī, the daughter of the ocean (produced from the ocean among the 14 jewels). ˚क्रमः, -क्राः m. a voyager, mariner. ˚मलः 1 cuttle-fish-bone. -2 the foam of the ocean. ˚मेखला or ˚वस्त्रा the earth (girdled by the ocean, sea-girt). ˚राजः the king of waters, i. e. the chief ocean. ˚संभवम् sea-salt. ˚सुता N. of Lakṣmī; and of Dvārakā, the capital of Kṛiṣṇa (said to have been reclaimed from the ocean).
  • धिः (At the end of comp. only) A receptacle store, reservoir &c.; as in उदधि, इषुधि, वारिधि, जलधि &c.
  • धि I. 6 P. (धियति) T hold, have, possess. -With सम् to make peace, treat with; cf. संधा -II. (or धिन्व्) 5 P. (धिनोति) To please, delight; satisfy; पश्यन्ति चात्मरूपं तदपि विलुलितस्रग्धरेयं धिनोति Gīt.12; धिनोति नास्माञ्जलजेन पूजा त्वयान्वहं तन्वि वितन्यमाना N.8.97; U.5.27; Ki.1.22.
  • संधिग already detailed.
  • उदधिसंधिग = One, who is connected with the ocean.
    • कृष्णपक्षे (Considering that the deity is Lord Krishna) The connection with कृष्ण is explained by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः as समुद्रमन्थनकाले कूर्मात्मनोदधिं प्राप्त. This seems to be a protracted interpretation, since कूर्म was an incarnation of VishNu, so was कृष्ण.
    • In शिवपक्षे the explanation given is  समुद्रमन्थनकाले । तत्रैव मोहिन्या मोहितोऽयमभवदिति प्रसिद्धम् which refers to Shiva having been enchanted by Mohinee. I think more emphatic reference of Shiva’s connection with ocean during churning of the ocean is of his having swallowed the poison.

५) खलजीवितखात – This is deciphered by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः as खलानां जीवितानि खातानि येन , खलजीवितेभ्यः खनित्रमिवेति वा ।

  • खलजीवितखात इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य संबोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • खलस्य जीवितम् इति खलजीवितम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • खलजीवितं खातम् येन सः खलजीवितखातः (बहुव्रीहिः) |
  • खलस्य – खल-इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • खलः लम् [खल्-अच्] 1 A threshing floor; खले न पर्षान् प्रति हन्मि भूरि Rv.1.48.7; Ms.11.17,115; Y.2.282. -2 Earth, soil. -3 Place, site; Bhāg.5.26.14. -4 A heap of dust. -5 Sediment, dregs, deposit of oil &c; दत्ते खले नु निखिलं खलु येन दुग्धम् Pt.2.53. -6 A mill. -7 A contest, battle. -लः 1 A wicked or mischievous person, a villain; (also a.) low, mischievous, base, villainous, inferior, mean; सर्पः क्रूरः खलः क्रूरः सर्पात् क्रूरतरः खलः । मन्त्रौषधि- वशः सर्पः खलः केन निवार्यते ॥ Chān.26; विषधरतो$प्यतिवि- षमः खल इति न मृषा वदन्ति विद्वांसः । यदयं नकुलद्वेषी सकुलद्वेषी पुनः पिशुनः ॥ Vās.; cf. Bv.1.76,78,91,98; पीडनं बहुधान्यस्य …… करोति यः । खलानां तु वरं ग्रामाद्बहिरेव निवेशनम् ॥ Subhaṣ. Mark the pun on the words खल and बहुधान्यस्य. -2 The sun. -3 The thorn-apple. [खलीकृ means (1) ‘to crush'; (2) ‘to hurt or injure'; (3) ‘to ill-treat, scorn'; परोक्षे खलीकृतो$यं द्यूतकारः Mk.2.] -
  • जीवितम् – जीवित p. p. [जीव् कर्तरि क्त] 1 Living, existent, alive; R.12.75. -2 Returned to life, revived. -3 Animated, enlivened. -4 Lived through (as a period). -तम् 1 Life, existence; त्वं जीवितं त्वमसि मे हृदयं द्वितीयम् U.3.26; कन्येयं कुलजीवितम् Ku.6.63; Me.83; नाभिनन्देत मरणं नाभिनन्देत जीवितम् Ms.6.45;7.111. -2 Duration of life. -3 Livelihood. -4 A living being.
  • अत्र जीव्-इति धातुः | जीव् 1 P. (जीवति, जीवित) 1 To live, be alive; यस्मिञ् जीवति जीवन्ति बहवः सो$त्र जीवति Pt.1.23; मा जीवन् यः परावज्ञादुःखदग्धो$पि जीवति Śi.2.45; Ms.2.235. -2 To revive, come to life. -3 To live by, subsist on, make a livelihood by (with instr,); सत्यानृतं तु वाणिज्यं तेन चैवापि जीव्यते Ms.4.6; विपणेन च जीवन्तः 3.152,162; 11.26; sometimes used with a cognate accusative in this sense; अजिह्मामशठां शुद्धां जीवेद् ब्राह्मणजीविकाम् Ms.4.11. -4 (Fig.) To live or prey upon, depend upon as one’s source of existence (with loc.); चौराः प्रमत्ते जीवन्ति व्याधितेषु चिकित्सकाः । प्रमदाः कामयानेषु यजमानेषु याचकाः ॥ राजा विवदमानेषु नित्यं मूर्खेषु पण्डिताः Mb. -Caus. 1 To restore to life. -2 To nourish, nurture, bring up.
  • खात p. p. 1 Dug up, excavated, bored; तुभ्यं खाता अवता अद्रिदुग्धा Rv.4.5.3; कीट˚ …शुल्कस्य कीटखातस्य वह्नि- दग्धस्य सर्वतः । तरोरप्यूषरस्थस्य वरं जन्म न चार्थिनः ॥ Pt.2.89. -2 Torn, rent. -तम् 1 An excavation. -2 A hole. -3 A ditch, moat; पतति कदाचिन्नभसः खाते Pt.5.29. -4 An oblong pond. -5 A cavern. -6 Digging a hole. -ता An artificial pond.
  • अत्र खन्-इति धातुः | खन् 1 U. (खनति-ते, खात; pass. खन्यते or खायते) To dig up, delve, excavate; खनन्नाखुबिलं सिंहः Pt.3.17; Ms. 2.218; Ṛs.1.17. -2 To dig into the earth, bury.

६) अव – अव् इति धातुः | तस्य लोटे (आज्ञार्थे) मध्यमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • अव् 1 P. [अवति, आव, आवीत्, अविष्यति, अवितुम्, अवित or ऊत] 1 To protect, defend; सह नाववतु Tait 2.1.1. यमवता- मवतां च धुरि स्थितः R.9.1; प्रत्यक्षाभिः प्रपन्नस्तनुभिरवतु वस्ता- भिरष्टाभिरीशः Ś.1.1. -2 To please, satisfy, give pleasure to; do good to; विक्रमसेन मामवति नाजिते त्वयि R.11.75; न मामवति सद्वीपा रत्नसूरपि मेदिनी. 1.65. -3 To like, wish, desire, love. -4 To favour, promote, animate. (In the Dhātu- pāṭha several other meanings are assigned to this root, but they are very rarely used in classical literature; e. g. गति, कान्ति, अवगम, प्रवेश, श्रवण, स्वाम्यर्थ or सामर्थ्य, याचन, क्रिया, दीप्ति, अवाप्ति, ग्रहण, व्याप्ति,आलिङ्गन, हिंसा, आदान, दहन, भाव, भाग, and वृद्धि). -Caus. To consume, devour. -With अनु to encourage, inspire. -उद् 1 to regard, attend to. -2 to wait for. -3 to promote, impel. -उप 1 to cherish, behave friendly towards. -2 to encourage. -सम् 1 to satisfy, satiate. -2 to protect, maintain. [cf. L. aveo].

७) गलहालारसंधर – श्रीमल्ललितालालितः has explained this as

  • (कृष्णपक्षे) गले हालारसं यस्य तं सर्पं कालियं धरतीति ।
  • (शिवपक्षे) गले हालारसं धारयतीति | Here हालारसं = विषम्
  • गलहालारसंधर-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य संबोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • In this compound word, there are four component words गल, हाला, रसं and धर.
  • गल – गलः [गल्-भक्षणे बा˚ करणे अच्] 1 The throat, neck; शितिना गलेन विलसन्मरीचिना Ki.12.23; न गरलं गले कस्तूरीयम्; cf. अजागलस्तन; Bh.1.64; Amaru.88. -2 The resin of the Śāla tree. -3 A kind of musical instrument. -4 A rope. -5 A kind of fish. -6 A large kind of grass (बृहत्काश).
    • अत्र गल्-इति धातुः | गल् 1 P. (गलति, -जगाल, अगालीत्, गलितुम्, गलित) 1 To drop, drip, ooze, trickle; जलमिव गलत्युपदिष्टम् K.13; अच्छकपोलमूलगलितैः (अश्रुभिः) Amaru.29,96; Bv.2.21; R.19.22. -2 To drop or fall down; शरदमच्छगलद्वस- नोपमा Śi.6.42;9.75; प्रतोदा जगलुः Bk.14.99;17.87. गलद्धम्मिल्ल Gīt.2; R.7.1; Me.46. -3 To vanish, disappear, pass away, be removed; गलति मध्यरात्रे Dk.; शैशवेन सह गलति गुरुजनस्नेहः K.289; विद्यां प्रमादगलिता- मिव चिन्तयामि Ch. P.1; Bh.2.44; Bk.5.43; R.3.7. -4 To eat, swallow (connected with गॄ). -Caus. or 1 U. (p. p. गलित) 1 To pour out. -2 To filter, strain. -3 To flow (Ā.). -4 To fuse, liquefy, dissolve, melt. -With निस् to ooze or flow out, trickle down; निर्गलिताम्बुगर्भं शरद्घनं नार्दति चातको$पि R.5.17. -पर्या to drop down; Bk.2.4.
  • हाल (ला) हलम् 1 A sort of deadly poison produced at the churning of the ocean; (being of a very viru- lent character it began to burn up everything when it was swallowed by the god Śiva); अहमेव गुरुः सुदारुणानामिति हालाहल मास्म तात दृप्यः । ननु सन्ति भवादृशानि भूयो भुवने$स्मिन् वचनानि दुर्जनानाम् Subhāṣ.; हालाहलं न विषं विषं रमा Subhāṣ. -2 (Hence) A deadly poison or poison in general; हालाहलं खलु पिपासति कौतुकेन Bv.1.95;2.73; मधु तिष्ठति वाचि योषितां हृदये हालहलं महद्विषम् Pt.1.188. (Also written हलाहल or हालहाल).
  • रसः [रस्-अच्] 1 Sap, juice (of trees); इक्षुरसः, कुसुमरसः &c. -2 A liquid, fluid; यष्टव्यं पशुभिर्मुख्यैरथो बीजै रसैरिति Mb.14.91.21; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र Ku.1.7. -3 Water; सहस्रगुणमुत्स्रष्टुमादत्ते हि रसं रविः R.1.18; Bv.2.144. -4 Liquor, drink; Ms.2.177. -5 A draught, potion. -6 Taste, flavour, relish (fig. also) (considered in Vaiś. phil. as one of the 24 gunas; the rasas are six; कटु, अम्ल, मधुर, लवण, तिक्त and कषाय); परायत्तः प्रीतेः कथ- मिव रसं वेत्तु पुरुषः Mu.3.4; U.2.2. -7 A sauce, condi- ment, -8 An object of taste; मनो बबन्धान्यरसान् विलङ्ध्य सा R.3.4. -9 Taste or inclination for a thing, liking, desire; रसवर्जं रसो$प्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते Bg.2.59; इष्टे वस्तुन्युपचितरसाः प्रेमराशीभवन्ति Me.114. -1 Love, affec- tion; जरसा यस्मिन्नहार्यो रसः U.1.39; प्रसरति रसो निर्वृतिघनः 6.11 ‘feeling of love'; रसादृते V.2.21; Ku. 3.37. -11 Pleasure, delight, happiness; चिरात्सुतस्पर्श- रसज्ञतां ययौ R.3.26. -12 Charm, interest, elegance, beauty. -13 Pathos, emotion, feeling. -14 (In poetic compositions) A sentiment; नवरसरुचिरां निर्मितिमादधती भारती कवेर्जयति; K. P.1. (The rasas are usually eight :– शृङ्गारहास्यकरुणरौद्रवीरभयानकाः । बीभत्साद्भुतसंज्ञौ चेत्यष्टौ नाट्ये रसाः स्मृताः ॥ but sometimes शान्तरस is added; thus making the total number 9; निर्वेदस्थायिभावो$स्ति शान्तो$पि नवमो रसः K. P.4; sometimes a tenth, वात्सल्यरस, is also added. Rasas are more or less a necessary factor of every poetic composition, but, according to Viśvanātha, they constitute the very essence of poetry; वाक्यं रसात्मकं काव्यम् S. D.3.). -15 Essence, pith, best part; ब्रह्म तेजोमयं शुक्रं यस्य सर्वमिदं रसःMb.12.24.9. -16 A con- stituent fluid of the body. -17 Semen virile. -18 Mer- cury. -19 A poison, poisonous drink; as in तीक्ष्णरस- दायिनः; रसविधानकौशलैः Dk.2.8. -2 Any mineral metallic salt. -21 Juice of the sugar-cane. -22 Milk. -23 Melted butter. -24 Nectar; मयः कूपरसे$क्षिपत् Bhāg.7.1.59-6. -25 Soup, broth. -26 A symbolical expression for the number ‘six’. -27 Green onion. -28 Myrrh. -29 Gold. -3 A metal in a state of fusion. -31 See रसातल; अनेन नूनं वेदानां कृतमाहरणं रसात् Mb.12.347.67. -32 The tongue (as the organ of taste); वाण्यां च छन्दांसि रसे जलेशम् Bhāg.8.2.27; जितं सर्वं जिते रसे 11.8.21. -33 (With Vaiṣṇavas.) Dispo- sition of the heart or mind (the five Rasas are शान्ति, दास्य, सख्य, वात्सल्य and माधुर्य).
    • अत्र रस्-इति धातुः | रस् I. 1 P. (रसति, रसित) 1 To roar, yell, cry out, scream; करिव वन्यः परुषं ररास R.16.78; Śi.3.41. -2 To sound, make a noise, tinkle, jingle &c.; राजन्योपनिमन्त्रणाय रसति स्फीतं यशोदुन्दुभिः Ve.1.25; रसतां निर्भरं नूपुराणाम् Ratn.1.19; रसतु रसनापि तव घनजघनमण्डले Gīt.1. -3 To resound, reverberate. -4 To sing. -5 Ved. To praise. -II. 1 U. (रसयति-ते, रसित) 1 To taste, relish; रसती रसना रसान् Mb.12.285.19; मृद्वीका रसिता Bv.4.13; Śi. 1.27; Mv.7.3. -2 To feel, perceive. -3 To love.
    • Word रसम् can be interpreted adverbially also, to mean ‘with love’ or lovingly.
  • धर – अत्र धृ-इति धातुः | धृ I. 6 Ā. (Supposed by some to be a passive form of धृ); (ध्रियते, धृत) 1 To be or exist, live, continue to live, survive; आर्यपुत्र ध्रिये एषा ध्रिये U.3; ध्रियते यावदेको$पि रिपु- स्तावत्कुतः सुखम् Śi.2.35;15.89; नष्टा शरीरैः क्रतुभिर्धरन्ते Pt.1. -2 To be maintained or preserved, remain, continue; सुरतश्रमसंभृतो मुखे ध्रियते स्वेदलवोद्गमो$पि ते R.8.51; Ku.4.18. -3 To resolve upon. -II. 1. P., 1 U. (धरति, usually धारयति-ते, धृत, धारित) 1 To hold, bear, carry; भुजङ्गमपि कोपितं शिरसि पुष्पवद्धारयेत् Bh.2.4; वैणवीं धारयेद्यष्टिं सोदकं च कमण्डलुम् Ms.4.36; Bk.17.54; V.4.36. -2 To hold or bear up, maintain, support, sustain; अभिनवजलधरसुन्दर धृतमन्दर…… Gīt.1.2.7; यथा सर्वाणि भूतानि धरा धारयते समम् Ms.9.311; Pt.1.126; प्रातःकुन्दप्रसवशिथिलं जीवितं धारयेथाः Me.115; चिरमात्मना धृताम् R.3.35; U.3.29. -3 To hold in one’s possession, possess, have, keep; या संस्कृता धार्यते Bh.2.19. -4 To assume, take (as a form, disguise &c.); केशव धृतसूकररूप Gīt.1.1.4; धारयति कोकनदरूपम् 1.4. -5 To wear, put on, use (clothes, ornaments &c.); श्रितकमलाकुचमण्डल धृत- कुण्डल ए Gīt.1.2.1. -6 To hold in check, curb, restrain, stop, detain; त्वया हि धर्मो विधृतः कृत्स्नं धारयते जगत् Mb.1. 63.5; दधार द्रोणमायान्तं वेलेव सरितां पतिम् Mb.7.16.21. -7 To fix upon, direct towards; (with dat. or loc.) ब्राह्मण्ये धृतमानसः, मनो दध्रे राजसूयाय &c. -8 To suffer, undergo. -9 To assign anything to any person, allot, assign. -1 To owe anything to a person (with dat.; rarely gen. of person, 1 only in this sense); वृक्षसेचने द्वे धारयसि मे Ś.1; तस्मै तस्य वा धनं धारयति &c. -11 To hold, contain. -12 To observe, practise. -13 To cite, quote. -14 To keep, retain (in one’s service). -15 To preserve, maintain. -16 To seize, lay hold of. -17 To hold out or on, endure. -18 To fix, place, deposit. -19 To intend in mind; स यद्यदेवासृजत तत्तदत्तुमध्रियत Bṛi. Up.1.2.5. (The senses of this root may be variously modified according to the noun with which it is connected; e. g. मनसा धृ to bear in mind, remember; शिरसा, मूर्ध्नि धृ to bear on the head, respect highly; अन्तरे धृ to pledge, deposit any- thing as surety; समये धृ to bring to terms or agreement; दण्डं धृ to punish, chastise, use force; जीवितम्, प्राणान्, गात्रम्, शरीरम्, देहम् &c. धृ to continue to live, main- tain the soul &c.; preserve the vital spirits; व्रतं धृ to observe a vow; इत्थं व्रतं धारयतः प्रजार्थम् R.2.25; तुलया धृ to hold in a balance, weigh &c.; मनः, मतिम्, चित्तम्, बुद्धिम् धृ to bend the mind to a thing, fix the mind upon, think of, resolve upon; गर्भं धृ to become pregnant, conceive; धारणां धृ to practise concentration or self- control &c.)
  • Proceeding with deciphering the compound word गलहालारसंधरः
    • गले हाला इति गलहाला (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • गलहालायाः रसम् इति गलहालारसम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • गलहालारसं धरति इति गलहालारसंधरः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः of अलुक्-type)
  • Alternatively
    • रसेण धरति इति रसंधरः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः)
    • हालां रसंधरः इति हालारसंधरः (द्वितीया-तत्पुरुषः)
    • गले हालारसंधरः इति गलहालारसंधरः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) इति शिवः
  • Yet another option –
    • हाला एव रसः हालारसः (कर्मधारयः)
    • हालारसं धरति इति हालारसंधरः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः of अलुक्-type) इति सर्पः
    • हालारसंधरः गले यस्य सः गलहालारसंधरः (बहुव्रीहिः) इति शिवः
  • Fourth option
    • हाला एव रसः हालारसः (कर्मधारयः)
    • हालारसं धरति इति हालारसंधरः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः of अलुक्-type) इति सर्पः
    • हालारसंधरः (कालिया-सर्पः) गलेन (धृतः) येन सः गलहालारसंधरः (बहुव्रीहिः) इति कृष्णः

अन्वयाः – With all this analysis and detailing we can now put the verse into a syntax, where also there will be options.

  • (भोः) गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रात, शृङ्गीश, उदधिसन्धिग, खलजीवितखात, गलहालारसंधर (अस्मान्) अव
  • (भोः) गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रात, शृङ्गीश, उदधिसन्धिग, खलजीवितखात, गलहालारसंधर (अस्मान्) अव
  • (भोः) गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रातशृङ्गश, उदधिसन्धिग, खलजीवितखात, गलहालारसंधर (अस्मान्) अव
  • (भोः) गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रात, शृङ्गशः दधिसन्धिग, खलजीवितखात, गलहालारसंधर (अस्मान्) अव
  • There could be more permutations.

Since there are many meanings of each word, number of meanings will be many more than the number of syntactic permutations also.

But the most interesting aspect of this verse is way it codifies the value of pi (π), the ratio of circumference and diameter of a circle. Every letter of the verse is a value, which is defined by, what is known as कटपयादि-सूत्रम्. Note, कटपयादि means taking क, ट, प, य as आदि-s, i.e. taking these as the starting number, i.e. number 1. The complete कटपयादि-सूत्रम् is कादिनव, टादिनव, पादिपंचक, याद्यष्टक, क्षश्-शून्यम्.  This will be best understood by following table.

१ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९ ० क ख ग घ ङ च छ ज झ क्ष ट ठ ड ढ ण त थ द ध प फ ब भ म य र ल व श ष स ह

It can be noted that numbers १ to ५ has four options each. Numbers ६,  ७ and ८ have three options each, number ९ has two options and number ० has just one code, the letter क्ष.

Now let us see how we get the value of pi (π) by evaluating every letter of the verse using the above code or using कटपयादि-सूत्रम्.

गो पी भा ग्य म धु व्रा त शृ ङ्ग शो द धि सं धि ग ३ १ ४ १ ५ ९ २* ६ ५ ३ ६ ८ ९ ७ ९ ३ ख ल जी वि त खा ता व ग ल हा ला र सं ध र २ ३ ८ ४ ६ २ ६ ४ ३ ३ ८ ३ २ ७ ९ २

Note, व्रा = २* because,  व्रा = व् + र् + आ. Here व् is not completed by a vowel. र्  is completed by the vowel आ. Implicit in कटपयादि-सूत्रम् is to consider values of only those consonants, which are completed by a vowel. By the same logic, ग्य the third letter gets its value as १, from the value of the completed consonant य. In शृ, the consonant is श, completed by vowel ऋ. Hence value of शृ is ५.

One may wonder why the composer would have thought it good to compose a verse to codify the value of pi (π), that too, accurate to 32 digits. Only one logic comes to my mind is that to calculate accurately values of perimeters of orbits of planets, one would need value of pi (π), as accurate as possible. If a and b are major and minor axes of an ellipse, its perimeter is π.a.b. Since values of a and b are large, any inaccuracy in the value of π will magnify the error.

Sanskrit mathematicians have been not only expert mathematicians, they were quite at ease even in composing verses, so much so that complete mathematical treatise सिद्धान्तशिरोमणिः by भास्कराचार्य is 1000-odd verses, that too in different meters.

It is being realised that many mathematical formulas, which were invented by Pythagoras and the like were known to Sanskrit mathematicians centuries before. Even today the scientists and mathematicians of the world can be saved lot of trouble of reinventing, if Sanskrit literature would be researched to explore what secrets have been codified there. Recently in around 1965, a book Vedic Mathematics came forth based on some 16 aphorisms decoded by जगद्गुरु श्री भारती-कृष्ण-तीर्थ of शाङ्करमठ, जगन्नाथपुरी. As mentioned in the beginning, the verse studied here is from an appendix in this book only.

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 119

Wed, 11/19/2014 - 22:19

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 119

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एकोनविंशत्यधिकशततमः (११९) पाठः ।

 

In Sanskrit literature one vast treasure is of literature comprising aphorisms सूत्राणि. Maybe commonly known among such सूत्रवाङ्मय are योगसूत्राणि of पातञ्जलिमुनि, ब्रह्मसूत्राणि said to have been composed by बादरायणव्यासमुनि and of course entire grammar of Sanskrit compiled in some 4000 सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनिमुनि.

 

But the foremost question would be what is a सूत्र ? There is a good definition of a सूत्रम्, in a श्लोक in वायुपुराण -

स्वल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद्विश्वतोमुखम् |

अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः ||

पदच्छेदैः -

 सु-अल्प-अक्षरं असंदिग्धं सारवत्‌ विश्वतः-मुखम्‌।

अस्तोभं अन्-अवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदः विदुः॥

शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि -

  1. स्वल्पाक्षरम् – “स्वल्पाक्षर” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य (अत्र) द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • सुष्ठु अल्पम् इति स्वल्पम् (उपपद-कर्मधारय)
  • स्वल्पानि अक्षराणि यस्मिन् तत् स्वल्पाक्षरम् (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • अल्पानि – अल्प-इति विशेषणम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा/द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
    • अल्प a. [अल्-प] 1 Trifling, unimportant, insignificant (opp. महत् or गुरु); अल्पविद्यः Ms.11.36. -2 Small, little, minute, scanty (opp. बहु)
    • अल्प = little → स्वल्प = minimal
  • अक्षराणि – अक्षर-इति विशेषणम् | प्रायः नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम अपि | तस्य प्रथमा/द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
    • न क्षरः यस्य तत् इति अक्षरम् (नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः)
    • क्षरः – क्षर् 1 प. इति धातुः | क्षर सञ्चलने (To move, to melt away, to perish) | तस्मात् क्षर्-अच् एवं विशेषणम् |
      • क्षर a. [क्षरति स्यन्दते मुञ्चति वा, क्षर्-अच्] 1 Melting away. -2 Movable. -3 Perishable
    • अक्षराणि = letters, syllables
  • स्वल्पाक्षरम् = having minimal number of letters
  1. असंदिग्धम् -
  • न संदिग्धम् इति असंदिग्धम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • संदिग्धम् -
    • सम् + दिह् (2 प.) इति धातुः |
    • दिह् (2 प.) – देग्धि, दिग्धे, दिग्ध; desid. दिधिक्षति
    • दिह उपचये (1 To anoint, smear, plaster, spread over; स चन्दनोशीरमृणाल- दिग्धः BK.3.21, अदिहंश्चन्दनैः शुभैः 17.54. -2 To soil, defile, pollute; अस्रदिग्धं पदम् R.16.15) |
  • असंदिग्धम् = clear, non-confusing
  1. सारवत्‌
  • सारवत्‌ = सार + वत्‌
  • सार = सारः
    • सार a. [सृ-घम्, सार्-अच् वा]
    • सार - सृ 1, 3 P. (सरित, ससर्ति, also धावति; ससार, असार्षीत्, असरत्, सरिष्यति, सर्तुम्, सृत) 1 To go, move, proceed 6 To flow. -7 To cross, traverse
    • सार् -
    • सारः = 1 Essential. -2 Best, highest, most excellent; Summary, epitome, compendium
  • वत्‌ = suffix denoting “containing”
  • सारवत् = containing the essential, summary 1 Substantial. -2 Fertile. -3 Having sap. -4 Solid, firm.
  1. विश्वतोमुखम् =
  • विश्वतोमुखम् = विश्वतः + मुखम् इति अलुक्-समासः
  • विश्वतोमुखम् = मुखं विश्वतः यथा भवेत्तथा (अव्ययीभावः) अथवा विश्वतः मुखं यस्य तत् (बहुव्रीहिः) |
  • विश्वतः = विश्व + तः
    • विश्व इति सर्वनाम pron. a. [विश्-व Uṇ.1.151] 1 All, whole, entire, universal; स सर्वनामा स च विश्वरूपः Bhāg.6.4.28. -2 Every, every one. -3 All-pervading, omnipresent
    • तः – पञ्चम्यै विभक्त्यै पर्यायी प्रत्ययः
  • मुखम् – [खन् अच् डित् धातोः पूर्वं मुट् च cf. Uṇ.5.2] 1 The mouth (fig. also) -9 A direction, quarter; as in अन्तर्मुख
  • विश्वतोमुखम् = unto the universe, universal, omnipresent
  1. अस्तोभम् -
  • न स्तोभः यस्य तत् अस्तोभम् (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • स्तोभः – [स्तुभ्-घञ्] 1 Stopping, obstructing. -2 A stop, pause
  • स्तुभ् I. 1 P (स्तोभति) 1 To praise. -2 To celebrate, extol, worship. -II. 1. Ā (स्तोभते) 1 To stop, suppress. -2 To paralyse, benumb, stupefy.
  • अस्तोभम् = non-stoppable, eternal
  1. अनवद्यम् -
  • अनवद्यम् = अन् + अवद्यम्
  • न वद्यम् इति अवद्यम् ((नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • न अवद्यम् इति अनवद्यम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • वद्यम् – वद् इति धातुः | तस्य यत्-प्रत्ययेन कर्मणि-विध्यर्थवाचकं विशेषणम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा/द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • वद् 1 P. (वदति, but Ātm. in certain senses and with certain prepositions; see below; उवाद, अवादीत्, वदिष्यति, व दितुम्, उदित; pass. उद्यते desid. विवदिषति) 1 To say, speak utter, address, speak to -2 To announce, tell, communicate, inform; यो गोत्रादि वदति स्वयम्. -3 To speak of, describe; आश्चर्यवद्वदति तथैव चान्यः Bg.2.29. -4 To lay down, state; श्रुतिस्मृत्युदितं धर्ममनुतिष्ठन् हि मानवः Ms.2.9;4.14.
  • वद्यम् = speakable → अवद्यम् = unspeakable → अनवद्यम् = not unspeakable, hence speakable, worth quoting
  1. सूत्रम् -
  • सूत्रम् – [सूत्र्-अच्] 1 A thread, string, line, cord -7 A short rule or precept, an aphorism. -8 A short or concise technical sentence used as a memorial rule; it is thus defined:– स्वल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद् विश्वतोमुखम् । अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः. -9 Any work or manual containing such aphoristic rules; e. g. मानवकल्पसूत्र, आपस्तम्बसूत्र, गृह्यसूत्र &c. -1 A rule, canon, decree (in law).
  • सूत्र् (10 U) इति धातुः | सूत्र वेष्टने | विमोचने इत्यन्ये |
  1. सूत्रविदः – सूत्रवित्/द् इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
  • सूत्रं वेत्ति इति सूत्रवित्/द् (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः)
  • सूत्रवित्/द् = one who is knowledgeable of aphorism(s)
  1. विदुः – विद् (2 प.) धातुः | विद ज्ञाने | तस्य लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |
  • विद् I. 2 P. (वेत्ति or वेद, विवेद-विदांचकार, अवेदीत्, वेत्स्यति, वेत्तुम्, विदित; desid. विविदिषति) 1 To know, understand, learn, find out, ascertain, discover; न चैतद्विमः कतरन्नो गरीयो यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः Bg.2.5; तं मोहान्धः कथमय- ममुं वेत्तु देवं पुराणम् Ve.1.23;3.39; Ś.5.27; R.3.43; Bg.4.34;18.1. -2 To feel, experience; परायत्तः प्रीतेः कथमिव रसं वेत्ति पुरुषः Mu.3.4. -3 To look upon, regard, consider, know or take to be; य एनं वेत्ति हन्तारम् Bg.2. 19; विद्धि व्याधिव्यालग्रस्तं लोकं शोकहतं च समस्तम् Moha M.5; Bg.2.17; Ms.1.33; Ku.6.3.

टिप्पण्यः Notes -

  1. This श्लोक defines six qualifications, by verification of which, a statement can be called as an aphorism सूत्रम्.
  2. In a way, this श्लोक lays down six criteria for composing aphorisms.
  3. While सूत्रम् is a statement with minimal number of letters, it summarises a deep, eternally valid meaning of universal applicability.
  4. Apart from योगसूत्राणि of पातञ्जलिमुनि and ब्रह्मसूत्राणि, mentioned by me in the introduction, in the dictionary meaning of the word सूत्रम् at (7) above, there is mention of मानवकल्पसूत्र, आपस्तम्बसूत्र, गृह्यसूत्र &c.
  5. One of the qualifications of a सूत्रम् is that it is असंदिग्धम् = clear, non-confusing. But most सूत्रम् prompt सूत्रवित्/द् persons, persons, who are knowledgeable of aphorism(s) to explain them by their commentaries. Typically commentaries on सूत्र-s are known as भाष्य-s, or वृत्ति-s.
  • One famous भाष्य on ब्रह्मसूत्र-s is शाङ्करभाष्य by श्रीमदादिशङ्कराचार्य.
  • Likewise a famous भाष्य on अष्टाध्यायी of पाणिनिमुनि is व्याकरणमहाभाष्यम् by पातञ्जलिमुनि. It is not known whether पातञ्जलिमुनि who authored व्याकरणमहाभाष्यम् is the same पातञ्जलिमुनि who authored योगसूत्राणि
  • One famous वृत्ति on अष्टाध्यायी of पाणिनिमुनि is काशिकावृत्ति. This वृत्ति in many ways is said to supplement अष्टाध्यायी by additional सूत्र-s and does not limit itself to commenting on सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी.
  • Possibly, अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनिमुनि is not as easy to understand, as one would have liked it to be. Some simplification was lent by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, by rearranging सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी by different topics of Sanskrit grammar.
  1. Certainly every सूत्रग्रन्थ is worthy of dedicated study, which may span even the entire lifetime of the student, especially because the सूत्रग्रन्थ-s delineate universal, eternal truths, which transcend all bindings of this religion or that. पातञ्जलिमुनि’s योगसूत्राणि stand out as an eminent example. Even here, teachers of योग are often seen to teach only योगासन-s. But पातञ्जलिमुनि’s योगसूत्राणि detail eight-fold path, of which the आसन-s become, by simple arithmetic, only one-eighth. First सूत्र in योगसूत्राणि actually focuses on training oneself to have control on one’s mind योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः | Just nine letters ! But how well they summarise an eternal universal truth !
  2. May study of सूत्रग्रन्थ-s spread awareness and knowledge of eternal universal truths and in turn guide all human conduct towards eternal, universal good, eternally, universally.

 

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

 


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 118

Sun, 09/28/2014 - 06:42

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 118

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य अष्टादशाधिकशततमः (११८) पाठः ।

The following beautiful श्लोक was mentioned by Mr. Avinash Varna in response to a question about मृगजवाक्षमयेव posted at the Samskrita Google-group by a person having his email ID “jbardisban”.

मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु निरायतपूर्वकाया
निष्कम्पचामरशिखा निभृतोर्ध्वकर्णाः ।
आत्मोद्धतैरपि रजोभिरलङ्घनीया
धावन्त्यमी मृगजवाक्षमयेव रथ्याः ॥ ८ ॥

Mr. Varna also gave the context that the श्लोक presents a beautiful description of the speed of दुष्यन्त’s horses, as they pursue कृष्णसार (कालिदासस्य अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तले प्रथमोऽङ्कः) ।

(१) पदच्छेदैः -

There are विसर्ग-संधि-s at the endings of first and third lines. It is hence better to write the verse in two lines, to bring forth the पदच्छेद-s properly.

मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु निरायतपूर्वकायाः निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः निभृत-ऊर्ध्व-कर्णाः ।
आत्म-उद्धतैः अपि रजोभिः अलङ्घनीयाः धावन्ति अमी मृग-जव-अक्षमया इव रथ्याः ॥

(२) सामासिक-शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि - Since we have been doing word-by-word analysis all along, now it should be alright to focus mainly on compound words.

(२-१) निरायतपूर्वकायाः =

  • निरायता (निर् + आयता) = न आयता (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • पूर्वं निरायता निरायतपूर्वा (कर्मधारयः)
  • निरायतपूर्वा काया यस्य सः निरायतपूर्वकायः (बहुव्रीहिः) –> ते निरायतपूर्वकायाः (अश्वाः)

(२-२) निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः

  • चामरस्य शिखाः इति चामरशिखाः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • निष्कम्पाः – निर्गतः कम्पः याभ्यः ताः निष्कम्पाः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • निष्कम्पाः चामरशिखाः येषां ते निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः (अश्वाः)

(२-३) निभृतोर्ध्वकर्णाः

  • निभृतौ ऊर्ध्वम् निभृतोर्ध्वौ (कर्मधारयः)
  • निभृतोर्ध्वौ कर्णौ यस्य सः निभृतोर्ध्वकर्णः (बहुव्रीहिः) –> ते निभृतोर्ध्वकर्णाः (अश्वाः)

(२-४) आत्मोद्धतैः

  • आत्मना उद्धतः इति आत्मोद्धतः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) –> तैः (रजोभिः)

(२-५) अलङ्घनीयाः

  • न लङ्घनीयाः इति अलङ्घनीयाः (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)

(२-६) मृगजवाक्षमया

  • मृगस्य जवः इति मृगजवः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • न क्षमा इति अक्षमा (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • मृगजवेऽपि अक्षमा मृगजवाक्षमा (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • तद्विधया क्षमया इति मृगजवाक्षमया
  • Ability of speed, which cannot be matched by deers
  • It comes to mind that the word can as well be मृगजवक्षमया
    • मृगस्य जवः इति मृगजवः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • मृगजवस्य (इव) क्षमा मृगजवक्षमा (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • Ability of speed, which is similar to that of deer

(३) अन्वयानुवादौ (Syntax and translation) -

मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु निरायतपूर्वकायाः निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः निभृत-ऊर्ध्व-कर्णाः ।
आत्म-उद्धतैः अपि रजोभिः अलङ्घनीयाः धावन्ति अमी मृग-जव-अक्षमया इव रथ्याः ॥

मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु निरायतपूर्वकायाः निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः निभृत-ऊर्ध्व-कर्णाः आत्म-उद्धतैः अपि रजोभिः अलङ्घनीयाः अमी रथ्याः मृग-जव-अक्षमया इव धावन्ति ।
Now that the reins are left loose, these horses of this chariot, whose bodies are already relaxed, are so running with the speed of the deer (OR with the speed, which cannot be matched (even) by deers) that their plumes have become straight, their ears pricked up and dust raised by them is left behind (the dust cannot catch up with them).

(४) वृत्त-विश्लेषणम्

मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु निरायतपूर्वकायाः (१४ अक्षराणि) (२-२-१) (२-१-१) (१-२-१)-(१-२-१)-२-२ इति मात्राः । त-भ-ज-ज-ग-ग गणाः

वृत्तलक्षणम् – उक्ता वसन्ततिलका तभजाः जगौ गः (५) टिप्पण्यः (Notes) -

5-1) In this श्लोक, कालिदास presents a picture-perfect description of the high-speed horses of दुष्यन्त’s chariot. This underscores how a good poet would have keen observation.

5-2)  At http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sha/sha05.htm one gets the translation of this श्लोक by Arthur W. Ryder (1914) as -

The lines hang loose; the steeds unreined
Dart forward with a will.
Their ears are pricked; their necks are strained;
Their plumes lie straight and still.
They leave the rising dust behind;
They seem to float upon the wind.

Here, the line, “.. lines hang loose; the steeds unreined ..” seems to miss the correct interpretation of निरायतपूर्वकायाः, i.e. whose bodies are already relaxed. Maybe, the words “with a will” in the line “.. Dart forward with a will ..” imply translation of निरायतपूर्वकायाः

An expert charioteer would make sure that the horses are relaxed, before they are reined to a chariot. So the word निरायतपूर्वकायाः very much brings forth the essential expertise of a charioteer, that he must know his horses very well and he knows how to get them in the right mood.

5-3) The words मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु also brings forth that an expert charioteer would have the confidence that the horses would be under control, even when driving the chariot at speed would need letting the reins loose.

Since the words मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु connote the सति-सप्तमी construct, which is a special construct in Sanskrit, I thought it good to translate this as “Now that the reins are left loose, ..”

5-4) It appeals to be a good discretion of कालिदास to compose this verse in वसन्ततिलका-meter, which has a rhythm, similar to the rhythm of tapping of hoofs of the horses.

5-5) In अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तलम् in this श्लोक, the charioteer is seeking दुष्यन्त’s appreciation of how the horses are running. The sight of the horses is so charming that even a charioteer became poetic. That is the poetic skill of कालिदास, to put this verse as being said by a charioteer. That subtle ! Simply great !!

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

 

 


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 117

Thu, 06/05/2014 - 12:03

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 117

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य सप्तदशाधिकशततमः (११७) पाठः ।

 

When I went to our study circle, a couple of days back, Mr. Takale had put up following सुभाषितम् on the black board.

 

यस्य षष्ठी चतुर्थी च विहस्य च विहाय च ।

अहं कथं द्वितीया स्यात् द्वितीया स्यामहं कथम् ।।

 

There is only one संधि – स्यामहम् = स्याम् अहम्

 

So on splitting the conjugation the verse would read -

यस्य षष्ठी चतुर्थी च विहस्य च विहाय च ।

अहं कथं द्वितीया स्यात् द्वितीया स्याम् अहम् कथम् ।।

 

There are no compound words. There are no very complex or difficult words either. To go by word-by-word meaning -

 

यस्य = of whom

षष्ठी = the sixth one (feminine)

चतुर्थी = the fourth one (feminine)

च = and

विहस्य = after laughing

विहाय = after forsaking

च = and

अहं = I, myself

कथं = how, how come

द्वितीया = the second one (feminine)

स्यात् = (she) may become

द्वितीया = the second one (feminine)

स्याम् = (I) may become

अहम् = I, myself

कथम् = how, how come

 

There is very obvious grammatical difficulty to identify subject words for the two verbs स्यात् and स्याम्.

  • The pronoun अहम् in प्रथमा विभक्ति, एकवचनम् comes twice but has a good match only with स्याम्, not at all with स्यात्.
  • The word द्वितीया is also twice, is in प्रथमा विभक्ति, एकवचनम् but has a good match only with स्यात्, not at all with स्याम्.
  • If one अहम् (out of two) is matched with स्याम्, and one द्वितीया out of two is matched with स्यात्, the intrigue remains about what to do with the extra अहम् and extra द्वितीया.

 

So the सुभाषितम् started sounding challenging and intriguing to set it in proper syntax अन्वय. Understanding the meaning can be attempted only after getting the syntax proper. I hence requested Mr. Takale to please explain.

 

He said, one needs to know the background, sort of a story or incident. It is something like this -

 

There were two friends.

  • द्वे मित्रे आस्ताम् |

 

One was wise but poor.

  • एकः विद्वान् परन्तु दरिद्रः |

 

He had a daughter, who was also smart, intelligent and was also beautiful

  • विदुषः पुत्री अपि विदुषी आसीत् सौन्दर्यवती च ।

 

The other person, was rich but had no intellectual acclaim.

  • अन्यः धनिकः | तथापि न कापि तस्य विद्वत्ता |

 

He had a son, who also had no wisdom of letters.

  • आसीद्धनिकस्य पुत्रः | सः तु अक्षरशत्रुः ।

 

The rich person caught the fancy to have his wise but poor friend’s daughter as his daughter-in-law.

  • धनिकस्य मनस्यागच्छत् यत् दरिद्रस्य विदुषः मित्रस्य विदुषी सौन्दर्यवती पुत्री तस्य स्नुषा भवेदिति ।

 

He did make the proposal to the poor wise man.

  • धनिकेन विद्वांसं प्रति तद्विधः प्रस्तावोऽपि प्रस्तुतः ।

 

Poor wise man knew that his daughter will not be happy by marrying the dim-witted son of his rich but uneducated friend.

  • विदुषा तु ज्ञातं यत् तस्य विदुषी पुत्री सुखिनी न भवेत् तेन धनिकस्य विद्याविहीनेन पुत्रेण सह विवाहेन |

 

But he was also worried of saying no to his rich friend’s proposal.

  • तथापि सः चिन्तितोऽपि कथं तस्य धनिकमित्रस्य प्रस्तावः नकारणीयः इति |

 

On knowing her father’s anxiety, she said there was a simple way out.

  • पितुः चिन्तां ज्ञात्वा पुत्र्या पिता समाहितः यदस्ति एकः सरलः उपायः |

 

Can you tell uncle, that I have a simple condition for accepting the proposal ?

  • किं न श्रेष्ठी ज्ञाप्यते यत् अस्ति मम किञ्चित् सरलं गतिकम् प्रस्तावं स्वीकर्तुमिति ?

 

I am stuck up at deciphering the meaning of a simple verse.

  • अहं एकस्य श्लोकस्य अर्थस्य विवरणे अवगुण्ठितास्मि |

 

If the son can help me, I can consider the proposal.

  • यदि सः धनिकपुत्रः श्लोकस्य अर्थस्य विवरणे मम सहाय्यं करोति तर्हि विचारणीयः खलु प्रस्तावः मया |

 

Actually she composed a verse herself. This was the verse.

  • सत्येन तु तया स्वयमेव रचितः श्लोकः | अयमेव सः श्लोकः |

 

To decipher the meaning, one needs to understand and make explicit some implicit words.

 

यस्य विहस्य(शब्दे) षष्ठी च विहाय(शब्दे) चतुर्थी च (भवति) ।

  • One for whom word विहस्य is of sixth case and word विहाय is of fourth case

कथं अहं(शब्दे) द्वितीया च स्यात् ?

  • How can the word अहं (ever) be of second case ?

कथम् अहम् (तस्य) द्वितीया स्याम्

  • How can I be a wife of such person ?
  • Note, alternate meaning of द्वितीया is wife.

 

Is it not interesting that a dim-witted may think word विहस्य is of sixth case and word विहाय is of fourth case, simply because they have suffix-like endings of स्य and अय as in देवस्य and देवाय ?

 

A dim-witted may as well think the word अहम् to be of second case, simply because the word has suffix-like ending of म् as in देवम् ! He may even think the word कथम् to be of second case !!

 

It is also interesting to think how and why alternate meaning of द्वितीया is wife. Meaning of द्वितीया is not just “second” as in द्वितीयोऽध्यायः. The word also means “next (to)”. A lady “next to” a person would be his wife. That is how the word द्वितीया has this alternate meaning of द्वितीया = wife.

 

There seems to be some smartness even in selecting for the verse the words विहस्य and विहाय maybe, to suggest that a smart lady will give a wry smile when succeeding in  forsaking a dim-witted.

 

  • विदुषी विद्याविहीनं विहस्य विहाय च तिष्ठेत् !
  • Wow ! Some onomatopoeia of letter वि 5 times !
    • पञ्चवारस्य वि-वर्णस्य कश्चिदनुप्रासः खलु !

 

Learning Sanskrit and Sanskrit-verses can sharpen wit and help overcome piquant situations !!

 

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 116

Thu, 01/09/2014 - 01:31

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 116

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य षोडशाधिकशततमः (११६) पाठः ।

Everyone gets to know the गायत्रीमन्त्र. I too have known it. But its meaning is not always very clear, especially by the grammar of every word and the meaning based on the grammar. So, this is an attempt rather an indulgence to learn the Sanskrit of the गायत्रीमन्त्र.

ॐ भूर्भुवः स्वः तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् |

पदच्छेदैः – ॐ भूः भुवः स्वः तत्-सवितुः वरेण्यं भर्गः देवस्य धीमहि धियः यः नः प्रचोदयात् |

अन्वयेन – ॐ धीमहि, यः भूः भुवः स्वः तत्-सवितुः देवस्य वरेण्यं भर्गः नः धियः प्रचोदयात् |

शब्दशः विश्लेषणम् -

  1. ॐ = invocation

  2. धीमहि =

    1. धी 4 Ā (धीयते) 1 To disregard, disrespect. -2 To propitiate. -3 To hold, contain. -4 To accomplish, fulfil.

    2. प्रायः धी-धातोः विधिलिङ्-लकारे उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचने आर्षरूपम् |

    3. Let us meditate

  3. यः = यत्-सर्वनाम | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  4. भूः =

    1. भूः f. [भू-क्विप्] 1 The earth (opp. अन्तरीक्ष or स्वर्ग); दिवं मरुत्वानिव भोक्ष्यते भुवम् R.3.4;18.4; Me.18; मत्तेभ- कुम्भदलने भुवि सन्ति शूराः । -2 Earth as one of the nine substances. -3 The universe, globe. -4 Ground, floor; मणिभयभुवः (प्रासादाः) Me.66. -5 Land, landed property. -6 A place, site, region, plot of ground; काननभुवि, उपवनभुवि &c. -7 Matter, subject-matter. -8 A symbo- lical expression for the number ‘one’. -9 The base of a geometrical figure. -1 A sacrificial fire. -11 The act of becoming, arising. -12 The first of the three Vyāhṛitis or mystic syllables (भूः, भुवः, स्वः) –representing the earth–repeated by every Brāhmaṇa at the commencement of his daily Sandhyā.

  5. भुवः =

    1. भुवः Ved. 1 Fire. -2 The earth (भुवोलोक). -3 The air, atmosphere (भुवस्).

  6. स्वः =

    1. सुवरिति वा एतास्तिस्रो व्याहृतयः T. Up.1.5.1; वेदत्रयान्निरदुहद्भूर्भुवःस्वरितीति च Ms.2.76; according to some they are seven in number as भूः, भुवः, स्वः, महः, जनः, तपः, and सत्यम्.

  7. तत्-सवितुः =

    1. तत्सवितुः = तस्य सवितुः

    2. तत्सवितृ-इति सामासिकं नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    3. सः सविता इति “तत्सवितृ” (कर्मधारयः) |

  8. देवस्य = “देव”-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  9. वरेण्यम् =

    1. वृ-इति धातुः | तस्मात् अनीयर्-प्रत्ययेन “वरणीय”-इति विशेषणम् | वरेण्यम् इति प्रायः आर्षरूपम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    2. वृ I. 1, 5, 9 U. (वरति-ते, वृणोति-वृणुते, वृणाति-वृणीते, वृत; pass. व्रीयते) 1 To choose, select as a boon; वृतं तेनेदमेव प्राक् Ku.2.56; ववार रामस्य वनप्रयाणम् Bk.3.6. -2 To choose for oneself (Ātm.); वृणते हि विमृश्यकारिणं गुणलुब्धाः स्वयमेव संपदः Ki.2.3; यदेव वब्रे तदपश्यदाहृतम् R.3.6. -3 To choose in marriage, woo, court; अयोनिजां राजसुतां वरीतुम् Mv.3.28; A. R.3.42. -4 To beg, solicit, ask for. -5 To cover, conceal, hide, screen, envelop; मेघैर्वृतश्चन्द्रमाः Mk.5.14. -5 To surround, encompass; वृतस्त्वं पात्रेसमितैः खट्वा$$रूढः प्रमादवान् Bk.5.1; U.4.18; R.12.61. -7 To ward off, keep away, restrain, check. -8 To hinder, oppose, obstruct. -9 To love, adore. -Caus. (वारयति-ते) 1 To cover, conceal. -2 To avert from (with abl.). -3 To prevent, ward off, restrain, sup- press, check, hinder; शक्यो वारयितुं जलेन हुतभुक् Bh.2. 11. -Desid. (वुवूर्षति-ते, विवरिषति-ते; विवरीषति-ते) To wish to choose. -II. 1 U. (वरयति-ते) 1 To choose, select; वरं वरयते कन्या माता वित्तं पिता श्रुतम् Pt.4.68. -2 To choose in marriage. -3 To ask for, beg, solicit, (with two acc.); तां त्वां संवरणस्यार्थे वरयामि विभावसो Mb.; शैलेन्द्रं वरयामासुर्गङ्गां त्रिपथगां नदीम् Rām.

    3. वरेण्य a. [वृ-एन्य Uṇ.3.98] 1 To be wished for, desirable, eligible; अनेन चेदिच्छसि गृह्यमाणं पाणिं वरेण्येन R.6.24. -2 (Hence) Best, most excellent, pre-eminent, most worthy or distingushed, chief; वेधा विधाय पुनरुक्तमिवन्दुबिम्बं दूरीकरोति न कथं विदुषां वरेण्यः Bv.2.158; तत् सवितुर्वरेण्य भर्गो देवस्य धीमही Rv.3.62.1; R.6.24,84. Bk.1.4; Ku.7.9; A. Rām.2.6.62. -ण्यः A particular class of deceased ancestors. -ण्यम् Saffron.

  10. भर्गः -

    1. भर्गस् इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    2. भर्गस् n. Radiance, Iustre; देवस्य भर्गो मनसेदं जजान Bhāg.5.7.14; ऊँ तत् सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि Gāyatrīmantra, Rv.3.62.1.

  11. नः – अस्मद्-इति उत्तमपुरुषवाचकं सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

  12. धियः

    1. धीः [ध्यै भावे क्विप् संप्रसारणं च] 1 (a) Intellect, understanding; धियः समग्रैः स गुणैरुदारधीः R.3.3; cf. कुधी, सुधी &c. धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् Gāyatrimantra; तत्राज्ञानं धिया नश्येदाभासात्तु घटः स्फुरेत् Vedāntasāra. (b) Mind; दुष्टधी wicked-minded; स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत Bg.2.54; R.3.3. -2 Idea, imagination, fancy, conception; न धियां पथि वर्तसे Ku.6.22; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.136. -3 A thought, intention, purpose, propensity; इमामहं वेद न तावकीं धियम् Ki.1.37. -4 Devotion, prayer. -5 A sacrifice. -6 Knowledge, science. -7 (in Horoscope) The fifth house from the लग्न.

    2. धी-इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

    1. प्रचोदयात् -
      1. प्रचुद्-इति धातुः (प्र-इति उपसर्गेण सहितः) | तस्य आशीर्लिङ्-लकारे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

        1. Dr. H. N. Bhat has noted in his comment that प्रचोदयात् is not आशीर्लिङ्-लकार.

        2. I had checked up at http://tdil-dc.in/san/skt_gen/generators.html# and found that the रूपम् of चुद् in आशीर्लिङ्-लकारे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् is given as चोदयिषीष्ट/चोद्यात्. I had hence thought that प्रचोदयात् is an आर्षरूपम्.

        3. Dr. Bhat considers it to be लेट्-लकार. This लकार is anyway to be found only in Vedas (लेट् वेदे). By that consideration also it becomes an आर्षरूपम्. But I do not know whether in Vedas, as a लकार, लेट्-लकार has the sense of आशीर्लिङ्.

        4. The रूपम् प्रचोदयात् sounds similar to many आशीर्लिङ्-रूपाणि such as ब्रूयात्, भूयात्, कुर्यात् etc.

अन्वयार्थः Overall meaning as per the syntax -

ॐ धीमहि, यः भूः भुवः स्वः तत्-सवितुः देवस्य वरेण्यं भर्गः नः धियः प्रचोदयात् =

ॐ = In all serenity

धीमहि = Let us meditate or pray (that)

तत्-सवितुः देवस्य of that God Sun

  • यः भूः भुवः स्वः = who is (and pervades) this earth, the environment above it and the heavens OR

  • यः भूः भुवः स्वः = who is consummation of all the three mystic syllables

वरेण्यं भर्गः = (His) most benevolent radiance (lustre)

प्रचोदयात् = may (प्र = ever and vigorous and energetic) motivate, may enlighten

नः धियः = our intellects

टिप्पण्यः Notes -

  1. When exploring the words भूः भुवः स्वः, I have noted from Apte’s on-line dictionary, the mention, “.. एतास्तिस्रो व्याहृतयः (from तैत्तिरीय उपनिषत्) ..”, but further on, “.. according to some they are seven in number as भूः, भुवः, स्वः, महः, जनः, तपः, and सत्यम् ..”. This brings to mind a possibility that the seven व्याहृति-s may actually be referring to seven levels of atmosphere above earth. In modern sciences, different names such as troposhere, stratosphere, etc. are given to layers of atmosphere above earth as can be seen in the picture below. Interestingly, these are also seven in number !

  2. This मन्त्र is known as गायत्रीमन्त्रः There are many such मन्त्र-s or prayers which have some common features and words. Some गायत्रीमन्त्र-s illustrated at http://www.speakingtree.in/spiritual-slideshow/seekers/faith-and-rituals/content-233849/47042 are -

    1. गणेशगायत्री – एकदंताय विद्महे, वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि, तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात् ।। महाकर्णाय विद्महे, वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि, तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात्।। गजाननाय विद्महे, वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि, तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात्।।

    2. ब्रह्म-गायत्री – ॐ वेदात्मने विद्महे, हिरण्यगर्भाय धीमहि, तन्नो ब्रह्म प्रचोदयात् ।। ओं चतुर्मुखाय विद्महे, कमण्डलु धाराय धीमहि, तन्नो ब्रह्म प्रचोदयात् ।। ॐ परमेश्वराय विद्महे, परतत्वाय धीमहि, तन्नो ब्रह्म प्रचोदयात् ।।

    3. शिव-गायत्री – ॐ तत्पुरुषाय विद्महे, महादेवाय धीमहि, तन्नो रुद्र: प्रचोदयात् ।।

    4. विष्णु-गायत्री ॐ त्रैलोक्य-मोहनाय विद्महे काम-देवाय धीमहि तन्नो विष्णुः प्रचोदयात् ।।

    5. नारायण-गायत्री – ॐ नारायणाय विद्महे वासुदेवाय धीमहि तन्नो विष्णुः प्रचोदयात्। ।।

    6. कृष्ण-गायत्री – ॐ देवकीनन्दनाय विद्महे, वासुदेवाय धीमहि, तन्न: कृष्ण: प्रचोदयात् ।।

    7. सूर्य-गायत्री – ॐ आदित्याय विद्महे मार्तण्डाय धीमहि तन्नः सूर्यः प्रचोदयात् ।।

    8. देवी-गायत्री – महादेव्यै विद्महे दुर्गायै धीमहि तन्नो देवी प्रचोदयात् ।।

    9. अन्नपूर्णा-गायत्री – ॐ भगवत्यै च विद्महे, महेश्वर्यै च धीमहि, तन्नो पूर्णा प्रचोदयात् ।।

    10. हनुमान्-गायत्री – ॐ आञ्जनेयाय विद्महे, वायुपुत्राय धीमहि, तन्नो हनुमान् प्रचोदयात् ।। ॐ वायुपुत्राय विद्महे, रामदूताय धीमहि, तन्नो हनुमान् प्रचोदयात् ।।

    11. Even there is साई-गायत्री – ॐ शिरडीवासाय विद्महे सच्चिदानन्दाय धीमहि तन्नो साई प्रचोदयात् ।।

  3. Some meter can be seen to be applicable to all गायत्रीमन्त्र-s. Possibly the name of the meter itself is गायत्रीच्छन्दस्. The meter typically has three lines, each of eight letters as in एकदंताय विद्महे | वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि | तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात् ।। First line ends in विद्महे, second in धीमहि, and the third one in प्रचोदयात् ।।

    1. This गणेश-गायत्री is a part of श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षम् where there is a mention of the name of the meter as निचृद्-गायत्रीच्छन्दः

    2. It may also be noted that for the deity to whom the prayer is offered by the verbs विद्महे and धीमहि the case used is the fourth case संप्रदानकारकविभक्ति (चतुर्थी विभक्ति). Basic understanding of the use of this विभक्ति seems to be that the prayer is “offered”. It is for the deity to accept the prayer or not.

  4. The गायत्रीमन्त्र – ॐ भूर्भुवः स्वः तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् | is of course the most famous. It is hence known as गायत्रीमहामन्त्रः It can also be noted that its deity is God Sun. Any person of any faith should be able to derive strength and inspiration from this गायत्रीमहामन्त्रः, because the deity Sun ought to be respectable, regardless of faith and hence for all.

  5. Motivation or enlightenment obtained from the deity Sun can never be untoward or unwarranted motivation. It will be the most appropriate and the most energetic motivation. This prayer seeks only such energetic motivation.

  6. The verb धीमहि is First person plural. “Let us meditate”. That pronoun “us” is very inviting, all-encompassing, universal, at all times, eternal.

  7. The reference of this गायत्रीमहामन्त्रः is quoted as Rv 3-62-1. So it is from ऋग्वेद. Certainly such great, universal and eternally valid thought of Vedic philosophy will sustain and will enlighten the world anytime, anywhere. It has sustained over thousands of years and would sustain for many more thousands of years !

  8. Humanity will always need such solemn and sublime, blissful and energetic, thoughts and prayers at all times.

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 115

Fri, 11/01/2013 - 10:45

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 115

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य पञ्चाधिकशततमः (११५) पाठः ।

कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्

Commenting on my previous Lesson No. 113, on आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः Shri. Shrinivas Tilak suggested that this quote कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् also merits a study.

It does. One common aspect in both these quotes is the word विश्व. This word in these and many other quotes in वेद-s more than establish that वेद-s always focused on Universal good. To think of वेद-s as scriptures of Hindus will hence be a narrow-minded view and will prevent universal benefit that can certainly happen from the wisdom advocated in the वेद-s .

In his extended comment Shri. Shrinivas Tilak also clarified …

कृण्वन्तो विश्वं आर्यम् occurs in Rigveda

  1. at 3:30.6 in a sukta composed by Vishvamitra. It is one of the six of his Sampat suktas. Here an appeal is made to Indra to render the entire cosmos ‘arya.’

  2. It also occurs at 9:63.5 in the Somasukta where an appeal is made to Soma to render the entire cosmos ‘Arya.’

As has been mentioned by Shri. Shrinivas Tilak the point to be dealt with is the interpretation of the word आर्य.

Since I have set the style of word-by-word analysis for posts at this blog, I should of course do that.

This quote is even shorter than the previous one. Just two words.

By पदच्छेद

कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् = कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम्

So, now it becomes three words कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम्.

Going into word-by-word analysis

(1) कृण्वन्तः =

it is noted – (अ) धातुपाठसूच्याम् -

  1. कृ | भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८ ||

  2. कृ | स्वा० अनिट् उ० | कृञ् हिंसायाम् ५. ७ ||

  3. कृ | त० अनिट् उ० | डुकृञ् करणे ८. १० ||

    • Study there was limited to कृ | त० अनिट् उ० | डुकृञ् करणे ८. १० because it was only this, which was relevant there.

    • However here, study of

      • कृ | भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८ and/or of

      • कृ | स्वा० अनिट् उ० | कृञ् हिंसायाम् ५. ७

      • becomes necessary, because the word here is कृण्वन्तः

    • Grammar of कृण्वन्तः is -कृञ् (कृ) धातुः | तस्मात् शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् कृण्वन् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

      • The धातुः  for कृण्वन् is कृञ्, not the धातुः डुकृञ्. because शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् from धातुः डुकृञ् is कुर्वन्, not कृण्वन्.

  • It is smartness of पाणिनि to give different name to the same धातु, when it is in another गण. By that we can clearly say कृण्वन् is from कृञ् and कुर्वन् is from डुकृञ्

  • Although धातुपाठसूची enlists the धातु as भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८, this is not so detailed in बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः

  • In Apte’s dictionary also only 5 U. and 8 U. are mentioned and meaning of 5U. conforms to कृञ् हिंसायाम् as can be seen from this image –

  • The dilemma is

    • The meaning कृञ् हिंसायाम् does not at all fit the context of the quote under study.

    • कृञ् करणे is mentioned only in धातुपाठसूची obtained from http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_sa/dhatupathaindex_sa.html.

    • Simple way to resolve the matter is to consider that कृण्वन्तः is Vedic usage in place of कुर्वन्तः with meaning identical to classical usage कुर्वन्तः

(2) विश्वं – विश्व is a pronoun in Sanskrit ! See in गणपाठ -

  • सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि १.१.२७

    • सर्वादि। सर्व। विश्व। उभ। उभय। डतर। डतम। अन्य। अन्यतर। इतर। त्वत्। त्व। नेम। सम। सिम।

  • विश्व being a सर्वनाम really prompts a question what is a सर्वनाम ?

    • As a compound word it can have a derivation विग्रहवाक्य – सर्वस्य नाम इति सर्वनाम (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

  • Here विश्वं = “विश्व” (= ) इति सर्वनाम | प्रायः नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोशे -

    • विश्व (विश्-व उणादि 1-151)

      • उणादि 1-151 अशूप्रुषिलटिकणिखटिविशिभ्यः क्वन्

    • धातुः विश् धातुपाठसूच्याम् – विश् | तु० अनिट् प० | विश प्रवेशने ६. १६०

(3) आर्यम् -

  • Etymology given in Apte’s dictionary is ऋ-ण्यत्

    • So, it is from धातुः ऋ.

    • ण्यत् (य) = a termination प्रत्यय of potential passive participle as in कार्य, हास्य

  • धातुः ऋ, धातुपाठसूच्याम् -

    • ऋ | भ्वा० अनिट् प० | ऋ गतिप्रापणयोः १. १०८६ ||

    • ऋ | जु० अनिट् प० | ऋ- [गतौ]३. १७ ||

    • ऋ | स्वा० सेट् प० | ऋ [हिंसायाम्][इत्येके]५. ३८ |

  • बृहद्धातुरूपावल्याम् – (१) तत्र धातुकोशे -

      • Interesting to note – अर्यः स्वामिवैश्ययोः | आर्यो ब्राह्मणः |

    • (२) धातुरूपावल्याम् -

* *
    • Here also see  -

      • footnote for अर्यः १० स्वामी वैश्यो वा

      • footnote for आर्यः ११ स्वामिवैश्याभ्यामन्यत्र

  • Basically अर्य / आर्य is from धातुः ऋ and is similar to कार्य from कृ.

  • धातुः ऋ and आर्य are detailed in Apte’s dictionary as follows -

* *

With all above details simple word by word meaning of कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम् becomes -

कृण्वन्तः = those, making

विश्वं = the whole world

आर्यम् = noble

कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम् = those, making the whole world noble

The phrase does not have an explicit subject and predicate.

Considering the context explained by Shri. Shrinivas Tilak, as a prayer to इन्द्र and सोम respectively, subject and predicate become explicit by adding भवन्तु

Note -

भवन्तु = भू इति धातुः | तस्य आज्ञार्थे (लोटि) प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

भवन्तु is प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्.

For this verb, there are options for कर्तृपदं as – ते, ताः, तानि and भवन्तः.

  • ते, ताः, तानि = They

  • भवन्तः = You (plural of respectful second person masculine pronoun भवान्)

Being a prayer, the कर्तृपदं should be भवन्तः = You

भवन्तु = May you be

भवन्तः i.e. इन्द्र or सोम connote the Supreme Powers. By कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् we pray to them “… May you be those, making the whole world noble ..”.

When reading the quote independently, there can be another option to make the subject and predicate explicit by adding भवेम (= Let us all be)

Note -

भवेम = भू इति धातुः | तस्य विध्यर्थे उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

अन्वयः – विश्वं आर्यम् कृण्वन्तः भवेम

भवेम is already उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्. Hence कर्तृपदं is वयम् only.

With this, the meaning of कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् becomes “… Lets us all be those, making the whole world noble ..”.

The basic concept is of whole world noble विश्वमार्यम् ! means nothing ignoble, no negativity of any type, any time, anywhere !

Whole world noble, has to of course include oneself and include everyone else, even every other being.

  • Hindu Gods and Goddesses have been caricatured to be congenial to all sorts of creatures, even venomous cobra, worn around the neck by शिव, The gigantic serpent शेष being the couch for विष्णु. Mouse a rodent being the carrier of गणेश, Maybe, this is all symbolism. If it is symbolism, all the more the reason to delve deeper and understand the meaningfulness of all this symbolism.

विश्वमार्यम् means no negativity. Negativity of human character has been delineated, with mention six enemies षड्रिपु-s, which make the character negative – काम, क्रोध, लोभ, मोह, मद, मत्सर

काम = desire

क्रोध = anger

लोभ = greed

मोह = distraction, fallibility

मद = ego

मत्सर = jealousy

For विश्वमार्यम् to come true, cleansing of character has to begin with oneself !

The word आर्य has been associated also with the Aryan tribe or race, which is said to have descended from the Arctic region and spread around the world, one stream moving into Europe, another into Arabian Gulf and yet another into Indian subcontinent across the हिन्दुकुश ranges.

  • Lokmanya Tilak is said to have concluded it to be so, in his book Orion or Arctic Home in the Vedas

  • Based on similar hypothesis, Adolf Hitler is said to have adopted स्वस्तिक (unfortunately in anticlockwise direction) on the shoulders of his military uniform.

  • I think, Shah of Iran, who was made to flee Iran, had, in the long array of his regal titles, one title as आर्यमिहिर

But such meaning of आर्य, being the name of a tribe or race, does not fit to the context of कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्, being a prayer to इन्द्र and सोम respectively.

One must go by the nobler meaning, obtaining from grammar and etymology, that आर्य is ऋ-ण्यत् an adjective derived from ऋ and meaning noble.

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 114

Sat, 10/05/2013 - 08:08

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 114

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य चतुर्दशाधिकशततमः (११४) पाठः ।

There is a verse to be studied in this lesson also. But before coming to the verse, let me give a background. I was led to it by a statement in the “Introduction” paragraph in a book.

I came across a book by श्रीशङ्करशास्त्री मारुलकर basically a commentary on श्रीकौण्डभट्टविरचितः वैयाकरणभूषणसारः (published by आनन्दाश्रम, Pune, 1957)

In the “Introduction”, the author makes a statement प्रतिपाद्यविषयदृष्ट्या व्याकरणग्रन्थाः द्विधा विभज्यन्ते शब्दग्रन्थाः अर्थग्रन्थाश्च suggesting that works on grammar can be classified into two types according to the theme or focus of delineation -

  1. शब्दग्रन्थाः = those dealing in linguistics, phonetics, philology, etymology, formation of words, &c.

    1. पाणिनि’s अष्टाध्यायी is eminently of this type

  2. अर्थग्रन्थाः = those dealing in meanings and interpretations

    1. पाणिनि’s धातुपाठः, पाणिनिशिक्षा is better considered of this type, since it gives meanings of धातु-s also. However

      1. धातूनां गणशः प्रस्तुतीकरणम् Listing of धातु-s by their गण, includes the विकरण-aspect, which has, at its basis, the concept of formation of words

    2. All commentaries on अष्टाध्यायी are interpretative in their spirit. So, they are अर्थग्रन्थाः. These would include

      1. व्याकरणमहाभाष्य of पातञ्जलि

      2. सिद्धान्तकौमुदी of भट्टोजी दीक्षित

    3. Dictionaries शब्दकोशाः are basically interpretative, but do touch upon

      1. details of etymology,

        1. the word-formation aspect, giving typical forms in लटि प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम्, क्त-कृदन्तम्, णिचि &c

      2. meanings with different prefixes उपसर्गैः

      3. meanings of different compound words सामासिकाः

      4. निघण्टु, अमरकोशः are more thesaurus’ than dictionaries, are primarily interpretative but, with the declaration in अमरकोश, of the intent of the composition, as नामलिङ्गानुशासनम् “unto the discipline of nouns and their genders”. Obviously, there is very much, such शब्द concept also.

The “introduction” begins with a श्लोक, selected from कालिदास’s रघुवंशम् The श्लोक is basically an invocation, but fits well, being significant and relevant to the above statement regarding two – शब्द and अर्थ – approaches of works of grammar. The श्लोक is -

वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये |

जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ||

By पदच्छेद-s

वाक्-अर्थौ इव संपृक्तौ वाक्-अर्थ-प्रतिपत्तये |

जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ||

विश्लेषणम् of grammar and meanings of words in this श्लोक.

(1) वागर्थौ = वाक् च अर्थः च इति वागर्थौ | समाहारद्वंद्वः |

वाक् = वाच् (speech, formation of words) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम |

  - तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

वाच् (वच्-क्विप् दीर्घोऽसंप्रसारणं च)

  वच्-क्विप् = a feminine noun derived from धातुः वच्

अर्थः = अर्थ (meaning, purpose, intent) इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम |

(2) इव (= ) इति अव्ययम् |

(3) संपृक्तौ = सं + पृच् इति धातुः | तस्य रुधादेः (7 प) क्त-कृदन्तम् पृक्त |

    रु० सेट् प० | पृची सम्पर्के (पृच् = to unite) ७. २५ |

    संपृक्त (= intimately united) इति विशेषणम् |

 - अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः द्विवचनं च |

(4) वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये =

वाक् च अर्थः च इति वागर्थौ | समाहारद्वंद्वः |

तयोः प्रतिपत्तिः वागर्थप्रतिपत्तिः | षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः |

प्रतिपत्तिः = right knowledge

वागर्थप्रतिपत्तिः = right knowledge of words and their meanings

तस्य चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(5) जगतः – जगत् (= world, universe) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम |

तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(6) पितरौ – माता च पिता च इति पितरौ | एकशेषद्वंद्वः |

पितरौ = parents

अत्र द्वितीया विभक्तिः द्विवचनं च |

(7) वन्दे – वन्द् इति धातुः | भ्वा० (१) सेट् आ० |

वदि अभिवादनस्तुत्योः | वन्द् = to pay obeisance, to pray, to eulogize, to pay obeisance and pray

    तस्य वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

(8) पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ – पार्वती च परमेश्वरः च इति पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ | इतरेतर-द्वंद्वः |

    पार्वती – पर्वतस्य इयं इति पार्वती |

      - पर्वतः अचलः, पार्वती = अचला, निश्चितार्था

 - निश्चितार्था – she had three incarnations. In all three incarnations   she preferred शिव to be her concert.

    परमेश्वरः – परमः ईश्वरः इति परमेश्वरः | कर्मधारयः |

       - परमः – परम-इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा वि, एकवचनं च |

         - परम (परं परत्वं माति क)

        परम = परतम ?

        परम = The best, nothing better than this,

          पर → परतर → परतम (परम)

मत्तः परतरं नान्यत् किञ्चिदस्ति धनञ्जय (गीता 7-7)

          पर = the other, different म = not

 परम = one, that is not different (from oneself)

       - ईश्वरः – ईशानां (ईषाणां) वरः | षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः |

        ईशानाम् (ईषाणां) -

          - ईश = ईश्-क | ईश्-धातुतः विशेषणम् | प्रायः पुंल्लिङ्गि नामापि |

 - तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

 - ईश् अ० (२) सेट् आ० | ईश ऐश्वर्ये ईश् = to be glorious, to command

 - ईशः = one who commands gloriously

वरः – वर इति विशेषणम् |

 - वर (वृ कर्मणि अप्) | वृ-धातुतः कर्मणिप्रयोगान्वितं विशेषणम् |

 - वर = preferable, outstanding, excellent

  - ईश्वरः = Excellent among ईश-s

  - परमेश्वरः = Supreme ईश्वर

By paraphrasing अन्वयेन -

(अहं) वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ जगतः पितरौ पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये वन्दे |

I pay obeisances to and pray

the duet of Supreme ईश्वर and पार्वती (who connotes epitome of steadfastness),

who are also parents of this world (and the universe),

who are as intimately united as words and intents are,

for right knowledge of words to convey only the right intents.

टिप्पण्यः Notes -

(1) Hinduism has number of Gods and Goddesses. It is poetic charm of Kalidasa to have chosen पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ for paying obeisance to, in this verse. He wants to plead for वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये. Between वाक् and अर्थ, वाक् is feminine, अर्थ is masculine. Between पार्वती and परमेश्वर, पार्वती is feminine, परमेश्वर is masculine.

(2) पार्वती and परमेश्वर are never two. अर्धनारीनटेश्वर form of शिव is the most charming, most enchanting form. In this form पार्वती and परमेश्वर are संपृक्तौ intimately united.

(3) वाक् and अर्थ also are possibly never two. One may think that वाक् is the manifestation of अर्थ. But Indian philosophy is very clear that वाक् has four stages or four options of manifestation – परा, पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा and वैखरी. The अर्थ aspect, the aspect of intent or thought is implicit in all the four options of its manifestation as वाक्. So, between वाक् and अर्थ, there is no question of which comes occurs first. They are संपृक्तौ intimately united. It is only such deep perception, which can explain Kalidasa saying वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ.

(4) This brings to mind another famous quote, that of भवभूती in उत्तररामचरितम्

लौकिकानां हि साधूनामर्थं वागनुवर्तते ।

ऋषीणां पुनराद्यानां वाचमर्थोऽनुधावति ॥१-१०॥

It is said that रामायणम् as composed by वाल्मिकी had such compulsive force of idealism, that God thought it fit to incarnate and enact, lend अर्थः, bring meaningfulness, give manifestation to, not to leave it to be regarded as a fiction or fancy to  वाच् of वाल्मिकी, composed by him in his रामायणम्.

(5) Kalidasa’s invocation was to seek वागर्थप्रतिपत्तिः i.e. right knowledge of words and their meanings. Words can have different meanings. The meaning can become different even by change in accent. No poet would like meanings to become widely distorted from his own intent. But Kalidasa was well aware, पिण्डे पिण्डे मतिर्भिन्ना “Many people, many minds”. No poet or author has any control on different interpretations by different people. The best option was to pray to the Supreme, that may there be no distortions.

(6) संपृक्तौ वागर्थौ brings to mind a सुभाषितम् -

यथा चित्तं तथा वाचो यथा वाचस्तथा क्रियाः ।

चित्ते वाचि क्रियायाञ्च साधूनामेकरूपता ॥

Unity in thoughts, words and deeds is the hallmark of gentlemen. That can be so, only when वाक् and अर्थ are संपृक्त

(7) What deep philosophical thought and also practical wisdom are presented even in an invocation !

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 113

Tue, 09/10/2013 - 10:49

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 113

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य त्रयोदशाधिकशततमः (११३) पाठः ।

आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः

This is the shortest quote I am putting forth. But some interesting background about the prompt to take this up.

 

I reached my daughter’s new place yesterday night. She told me, “internet will be installed tomorrow.”

 

I slept over digesting that ! And got this prompt to present this study of आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः

 

Readers may wonder what the connection is between “internet to be installed” and this quote आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (ऋग्वेदः १-८९-१)

 

I hope this study will bring forth that.

 

Before going into the study, let me also appraise that I came to first read the quotation some 50+ years back, when in the public library at our hometown, I used to read Bhavan’s Journal. I read the quote on the cover page itself, since it is the quote adopted by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan as its guiding quote. Bhavan’s English translation of the quote is also given आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides.

 

Frankly, I am intrigued by this translation. That is another reason for this study.

 

पदच्छेदैः

आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः = आ नः भद्राः क्रतवः यन्तु विश्वतः |

I am intrigued because of a few questions -

 

First question -

the verb is यन्तु  - How come then translation mentions “may come” ?

Inquiring on this, I am told that the verb to be considered is आयन्तु. I am told that in Vedic texts one would often find the उपसर्ग (here आ) separated from the verb and put it at the beginning.

 

But I do not think that doing so is to be taken as a rule. It may be an option. Then we have two options to analyze for the verb – यन्तु and आयन्तु

Second question -

Does not interpretation of विश्वतः become different, depending upon the verb being यन्तु or आयन्तु and are not both interpretations valid ?

Third question -

Is grammar of नः to be taken as second case plural or sixth case plural and again are not both interpretations valid ?

 

As can be appreciated, all the three questions are not just questions of grammar but also of the syntax and then the interpretations. Two syntaxes seem possible.

  1. भद्राः क्रतवः नः विश्वतः आयन्तु = Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides.

  2. नः भद्राः क्रतवः विश्वतः यन्तु = Let our noble thoughts spread across the universe.

May I tabulate a comparative study of these two optional interpretations -

 

Sr. No.

Interpretation of

In Option 1

In Option 2

1

prefix of verb यन्तु hence verb is to be taken as आयन्तु

An invocation at the beginning

An indeclinable

2

नः

= to us,

second case plural of pronoun अस्मद्

= our,

sixth case plural of pronoun अस्मद्

3

यन्तु

The verb is आयन्तु, but the prefix आ is separated and taken to the beginning of the sentence

आयन्तु = may come

The verb is यन्तु = may go to, may  spread

4

विश्वतः

= from all sides

suffix तः = from (fifth case)

= across the universe

suffix तः = unto, at (seventh case)

 

Study of Grammar and meaning of आ and of suffix तः merit detailing.

 

From detailing obtaining in Apte’s dictionary as below, आ is both

  1. an independent word,

    1. an indeclinable स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् (पाणिनि १।१।३६) and

    2. From the different meanings given, meaning of ‘आ = verily’ appeals to me very much. This meaning fits beautifully as invocation at the beginning of a ऋच् of ऋग्वेद

  2. a prefix – In उपसर्गवृत्तिः posted at संस्कृतव्याकरणस्य अध्ययनम् as many as 27 different meanings are given for prefix आ

 

* *

 

In काशिनाथ शास्त्री अभ्यंकर’s Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar आ as follows -

 

* *

Suffix तः also has different meanings, primarily from different cases inherent in its usages -

  1. fifth case, ‘from’ e.g. ग्रामतः आगतः (= came from town)

  2. third case, ‘with’ or ‘by’ e.g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते = वृत्तेन न व्यथते = is not disturbed by the news.

  3. sixth, ‘of’ e,g. देवाः अर्जुनतः अभवन् = देवाः अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् = Gods came to the side of Arjuna or

  4. seventh case ‘at, in” e.g. अग्रतः तिष्ठ = stand in front

 

Meaning of तः is detailed in काशिनाथ शास्त्री अभ्यंकर’s Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar as follows -

 

* *

 

Notes टिप्पण्यः -

  1. Both the interpretations seem to be valid by above analysis.

  2. For the interpretation आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides, one can appreciate that

    1. Rigvedic thoughts will and do of course advocate open-mindedness to all noble thoughts from anywhere

    2. Internet can obtain to us thoughts from all over the world, from all times, whatever is on record on the internet.

  3. For the interpretation आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः May our noble thoughts spread across the universe, one can appreciate that

    1. Rigvedic thoughts promote universal good, benevolence for all.

    2. Internet affords to us the facility to upload and share good thoughts and knowledge, not only during the lifetime of the author, but for the benefit of future generations as well.

  4. I guess this study does bring forth a positive connection between “internet to be installed” and this quote आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (ऋग्वेदः १-८९-१)

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 112

Tue, 07/30/2013 - 12:20

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 112

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य द्वादशाधिकशततमः (११२) पाठः ।

There are many verses eulogizing गीता. They are often found in books of गीता as a compilation, popularly known as गीतामाहात्म्यम्. One verse, which has great poetic beauty is -

पाराशर्यवचः सरोजममलं गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् |

नानाख्यानककेसरं हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् |

लोके सज्जनषट्पदैरहरहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |

भूयाद्भारतपंकजं कलिमलप्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||

पदच्छेदान् कृत्वा -

पाराशर्य-वचः सरोजम् अमलं गीता-अर्थ-गन्ध-उत्कटम् |

नाना-आख्यानक-केसरं हरि-कथा-संबोधन-आबोधितम् |

लोके सज्जन-षट्-पदैः अहः-अहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |

भूयात् भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||

The split-up of संधि-s, both explicit and also those implicit in compound words are shown above. We can now study all the words, deciphering also the compound words.

  1. पाराशर्यवचः = पाराशर्यम् वचः (कर्मधारयः)

    1. पाराशर्यम् = पाराशरस्य इदम् इति पाराशर्यम् | नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

      1. पराशरस्य अयं इति पाराशरः = son of पराशर, hence पाराशर i.e. व्यासमुनिः

      2. पराशरस्य अयं इति पाराशरः (तद्धितं नाम) |

      3. पाराशरस्य इदम् इति पाराशर्यम् (तद्धितनाम्नः अन्यत्तद्धितम्) |

    2. वचः = वचस् इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    3. पाराशर्यवचः = (this) वचः speech of पाराशर i.e. of व्यासमुनिः

  2. सरोजम् = lotus

  3. अमलम् =

    1. न मलः यस्य (अथवा यस्मिन्) तत् – (नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः)

    2. मलः dirt, dust, blemish

    3. अमलम् = having no blemish

  4. गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् =

    1. गीतार्थः

      1. गीतायाः अर्थः → (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) अथवा

      2. गीतायां अर्थः अथवा

      3. गीता एव अर्थः → गीतार्थः (कर्मधारयः)

      4. गीतार्थः = meaningfulness contained in गीता or meaningfulness derived from गीता or meaningfulness by virtue of having been contained in गीता

    2. गीतार्थस्य गन्धः → गीतार्थगन्धः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

      1. गीतार्थगन्धः = fragrance of गीतार्थ

    3. गीतार्थगन्धेन उत्कटम् → गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः)

      1. उत्कटम् = overwhelming

    4. गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् = overwhelming due to the fragrance of गीतार्थ.

  5. नानाख्यानककेसरम् =

    1. आख्यानकं एव केसरं → आख्यानककेसरम् (कर्मधारयः)

    2. नाना आख्यानककेसराणि यस्य तत् (बहुव्रीहिः) → नानाख्यानककेसरम्

    3. आख्यानकम् = आ + ख्या इति धातुः | तस्मात् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “आख्यान” |

      1. तस्य प्रियं च लघुत्वम् च “आख्यानकम्” |

      2. आख्यानम् → आख्यानकम् (तद्धितम्)

      3. आख्यानकम् = short story, episode, story within a story

    4. केसरम् (पुष्पस्य) = filament of a flower

    5. नाना – विशेषणात्मकं बहुवचनात्मकं तथापि अव्ययम् | नाना = many, innumerable

    6. नानाख्यानककेसरम् = having many innumerable episodes, which are like the innumerable filaments in a (lotus) flower

  6. हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् =

    1. हरेः कथा इति हरिकथा | अथवा हरिणा कथा इति हरिकथा |

    2. हरिकथा च (तेन) संबोधनं च → हरिकथासंबोधनम् (समाहारद्वन्द्वः)

      1. हरिकथासंबोधनम् = story (biography) of हरि and also his advice

    3. हरिकथासंबोधनेन आबोधितम् = हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम्

      1. आबोधितम् = made vibrant, excited, exciting

    4. हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् = what has become vibrant, excited, exciting due to story (biography) of हरि and also by his advice

  7. लोके = जगति = in the world

  8. सज्जन-षट्-पदैः =

    1. षट् पदानि यस्य सः षट्पदः (बहुव्रीहिः) = भृङ्गः = honeybee

    2. सज्जनः एव षट्पदः सज्जनषट्पदः (कर्मधारयः)

    3. सज्जन-षट्-पदैः = by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees

  9. अहरहः अहनि अहनि इति अहरहः (अव्ययीभावः) | अहरहः = day after day

  10. पेपीयमानम् -

    1. “पा” इति धातुः – पा (पिबति to drink)|

    2. तस्मात् कर्मणिप्रयोगे “पीयते” (= is drunk) |

    3. तस्मात् यङि (frequentative) “पेपीयते” |

    4. तस्य शानच्-कृदन्तं “पेपीयमान” |

    5. पेपीयमानम् = being drunk repetitively

  11. मुदा =

    1. मुद् इति धातुः | धातुपाठसूच्याम् – मुद् | भ्वा० सेट् आ० | मुद हर्षे १. १६

    2. मुद् इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम अपि | मुदा = तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    3. मुदा = हर्षेण, सहर्षम् = with joy, joyously

  12. भूयात् -

    1. भू इति धातुः |

    2. धातुपाठसूच्याम् – भू | भ्वा० सेट् प० | भू सत्तायाम् १. १

    3. तस्य विध्यर्थे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

    4. भूयात् = may it be

  13. भारत-पंकजं

    1. भारतं एव पंकजम् → भारतपंकजम् (कर्मधारयः)

    2. पङ्के जायते इति पङ्कजम् (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) = born in mud, lotus

    3. भारतम् इति महाभारतम् |

    4. भारतपङ्कजम् = this महाभारतम्, which is a lotus itself

  14. कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि

    1. कलेः मलः इति कलिमलः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) = dirt of कलि

    2. कलिमलस्य प्रध्वंसि इति कलिमलप्रध्वंसि (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

    3. प्रध्वंसि – “प्र + ध्वंस्” इति धातुः |

      1. धातुपाठसूच्याम् – ध्वंस् | भ्वा० सेट् आ० | ध्वंसु- [अवस्रंसने]| ध्वंसु गतौ च १. ८५८

      2. तस्मात् विशेषणम् “प्रध्वंसिन्” | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

      3. प्रध्वंसि = remover

    4. कलिमलप्रध्वंसि = remover of dirt of कलि

  1. नः – “अस्मद्” सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च | नः = our

  2. श्रेयसे -

    1. “श्रि” इति धातुः | धातुपाठसूच्याम् – श्रि | भ्वा० सेट् उ० | श्रिञ् सेवायाम् १. १०४४

    2. तस्मात् विशेषणम् “श्रेयस्” | प्रायः नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम अपि श्रेयस् = |

    3. श्रेयसे – श्रेयस् → चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

My father always advised that deciphering the meaning should start by first analyzing the sentence(s), also the clauses and sub-clauses. The clauses and sub-clauses have either a verb क्रियापदम् or verbal derivative धातुसाधितम् .

Here there is one clear क्रियापदम् verb – भूयात्

The subject-word कर्तृपदम् can be deciphered by asking question to the verb

कः/का/किम् भूयात् ? भारत-पंकजं भूयात् |

भूयात् is an intransitive verb. So, we do not have to decipher the कर्मपदम् object-word.

Then we can ask questions – How कथम्, when कदा, why किमर्थम्, where कुत्र.

भारत-पंकजं कथं भूयात् ? – भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि भूयात् |

किमर्थं भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि भूयात् ? – नः श्रेयसे भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि भूयात् |

This covers and puts into syntax all the words in the last line.

Since we located a verb-word भूयात् in the fourth line, we did the syntax of the fourth line.

Now going upwards to the third line पेपीयमानम् (= being drunk repetitively) is

  • a verbal derivative and has passive voice inbuilt.

  • So the subject of this verbal derivative ought to be with “with” or “by”.

  • पेपीयमानम् = being drunk repetitively → by whom ? सज्जन-षट्-पदैः = by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees

  • Being drunk repetitively by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees, when ? पेपीयमानम् सज्जन-षट्-पदैः कदा ? अहरहः = day after day

  • Being drunk repetitively by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees, how ? पेपीयमानम् सज्जन-षट्-पदैः कथम् ? मुदा = joyously

  • Being drunk repetitively by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees, where ? पेपीयमानम् सज्जन-षट्-पदैः कुत्र ? लोके = in the world.

This brings the third line into syntax -

Being drunk day after day, repetitively and joyously by gentlemen in the world, who (are) like the honeybees लोके सज्जन-षट्-पदैः अहरहः मुदा पेपीयमानम्

This is an adjectival phrase. Which noun does it qualify ? सरोजम् lotus.

Which lotus ? पाराशर्यवचः the speech of पाराशर

The other words and phrases in the first two lines are also adjectival of the सरोजम् lotus.

  • अमलम् = blemishless

  • गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् = overwhelming due to the fragrance of गीतार्थ

  • नानाख्यानककेसरम् = having innumerable episodes or short stories, which are like the filaments of a (lotus-) flower

  • हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् = what has become vibrant, excited, exciting due to story (biography) of हरि and also by his advice

First three lines having so many adjectival words and phrases does not have an explicit verb. The most common implicit verb is “is अस्ति / भवति”

The syntax can then be -

पाराशर्यवचः

लोके सज्जन-षट्-पदैः अहरहः मुदा पेपीयमानम्

गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम्, नानाख्यानककेसरम्, हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम्, अमलम् सरोजम् अस्ति / भवति |

The speech of पाराशर is a blemishless lotus, (nectar of) which

is being drunk day after day, repetitively and joyously by gentlemen in the world, who (are) like the honeybees,

is overwhelming due to the fragrance of गीतार्थ,

is having innumerable episodes or short stories, which are like the filaments of a (lotus-) flower,

is, what has become vibrant, excited, exciting due to the story (biography) of हरि and also by his advice !

The poetic beauty of the verse is obvious, right ?

To analyse the meter -

पाराशर्यवचः सरोजममलं गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् | (१९ अक्षराणि)

(२-२-२)-(१-१-२) (१-२-१)-(१-१-२) (२-२-१)-(२-२-१)-२ इति मात्राः ।

म, स, ज, स, त, त, ग इति गणाः

नानाख्यानककेसरं हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् |

लोके सज्जनषट्पदैरहरहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |

भूयाद्भारतपंकजं कलिमलप्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||

अत्र शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् वृत्तम् |

अस्य लक्षणपदम् – सूर्याश्वैर्यदि मः सजौ सततगाः शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् |

Notes टिप्पण्यः -

  1. In अहरहः पेपीयमानम् there is both repetitiveness, day after day, and also frequent action. So the action “to drink” is not just day after day (once in a day), but frequent, even in a day !

  2. Mention is of ‘speech of  पाराशर’. पाराशर i.e. व्यासमुनिः composed it, narrated it, but got it written by श्रीगणेशः. As far as पाराशर i.e. व्यासमुनिः is concerned, his was वचः only.

  3. Although it was mentioned in the beginning that the verse is found in verses eulogizing गीता, it is not just about गीता. It speaks about the entire महाभारतम्, especially by virtue of mention of नानाख्यानककेसरम्.

-o-O-o-


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 111

Fri, 10/26/2012 - 11:55

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 111
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एकादशाधिकशततमः (११) पाठः ।

In the previous lesson, mention was made of another सुभाषितम् which is a conversation between शिव and पार्वती and starts with कस्त्वं. The सुभाषितम् is as follows -

कस्त्वं शूली मृगय भिषजं नीलकण्ठः प्रियेऽहं
केकामेकां वद, पशुपतिर्नैवदृश्ये विषाणे ।
मुग्धें स्थाणुः, स चरति कथं, जीवितेशः शिवाया
गच्छाटव्यामिति हतवचाः पातु वश्चन्द्रचूडः ।।

संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा –

कः त्वं शूली मृगय भिषजं नीलकण्ठः प्रिये अहं
केकाम् एकां वद, पशुपतिः न एव दृश्ये विषाणे ।
मुग्धें स्थाणुः, सः चरति कथं, जीवितेशः शिवायाः
गच्छ अटव्याम् इति हतवचाः पातु वः चन्द्रचूडः ।।

अन्वयेन -

  1. (पार्वती पृच्छति) कः त्वं ? (शिवः उत्तरति) (अहं) शूली (अस्मि) ।
    • पार्वती asks, “Who is that ?” Shiva replies, “I am शूली”.
      • This word शूली has two meanings -
        1. शूली = one who carries शूल, the trident
        2. शूली = one suffering from pain, typically headache
  2. (पार्वती सूचयति) मृगय भिषजं Taking the second meaning of शूली, Parvati suggests, “Go, find a doctor”.
    • मृगय – “मृग्” इति चुरादि (10) आत्मनेपदी धातुः । मृग अन्वेषणे (मृग् = to find, to hunt for)। तस्य लोट्-आज्ञार्थे मध्यमपुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
    • भिषजम् – “भिषज्” (= a physician, a doctor) इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  3. (शिवः स्मारयति) प्रिये अहं नीलकण्ठः (अस्मि) । – Shiva reminds, “Oh dear ! I am नीलकण्ठः
    • नीलकण्ठः grammatically means ‘one whose neck is blue’. This again lends two interpretations.
      1. Shiva is known as नीलकण्ठः, because his neck turned blue after consuming the poison, which came out during the churning of the ocean by Gods and demons.
      2. नीलकण्ठः becomes an apt adjective for a peacock
  4. (पार्वती सूचयति) एकां केकाम् वद – Taking the second meaning, Parvati suggests, “Can you please demonstrate one note of the peacock ?’ The note emitted by a peacock is called as केका.
  5. (शिवः स्मारयति) (अहं) पशुपतिः (अस्मि) । – Shiva then reminds, “I am पशुपति”
    • पशुपतिः also has two connotations
      1. Shiva is पशुपति, because he is considered to be the lord of all animal-world
      2. पशुपति also refers to the supreme among four-legged animals, especially as नंदी carrier of Shiva
  6. .(पार्वती आलोचनं करोति) विषाणे दृश्ये न एव । -
    • Considering the second meaning, Parvati observes, “How come I do not see horns (on you) ?”
    • Literally, विषाणे दृश्ये न एव = Horns are not in sight at all.
      • दृश्ये – “दृश्” इति भ्वादि (1) परस्मैपदी धातुः । दृशिर् प्रेक्षणे (दृश् = to see) । तस्मात् नपुम्सकलिङ्गि नाम दृश्य (= sight, what is in sight) । तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
  7. (शिवः स्मारयति) मुग्धें (अहं) स्थाणुः (अस्मि) । -
    • Shiva wonders, “Why is she so confused ?” and reminds saying, “I am स्थाणुः”. But स्थाणुः again has different meanings, two popular ones being
      1. स्थाणु is an epithet of Shiva
      2. स्थाणुः means something, which is rock-solid, a pillar
    • मुग्धें – “मुह्” इति दिवादि (4) तथा रधादि (7) परस्मैपदी धातुः । मुह वैचित्ये (मुह् = to be confused) । तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गी गि “मुग्धा” (= one, who is confused) । तस्य संबोधनप्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च
  8. (पार्वती आलोचनं करोति) सः चरति कथं ?
    • Taking the second meaning, Parvati asks, “How then are you moving about ?”
  9. (शिवः स्मारयति) (अहं) शिवायाः जीवितेशः (अस्मि) ।
    • Shiva almost gives out his own name, saying, “I am the very life of शिवा”. But शिवा still has different meanings -
      1. शिवा means Parvati, the spouse of शिव.
      2. शिवा also means a jackal in general, the Sami tree, yellow grass, etc.
  10. (पार्वती सूचयति) अटव्याम् गच्छ
    • Taking the meaning of शिवा as jackal, Parvati suggests, “Go to the jungle”.
  11. इति हतवचाः चन्द्रचूडः वः पातु । – May the Lord चन्द्रचूडः (= who wears the moon on his head), so defeated in the debate, (yet) protect us !!

Notes -

  1. Even when the poet is narrating how Shiva was defeated in the debate by Parvati, finally he prays for protection by Shiva, This seems to be in a vein that the poet as a devotee would consider himself to be a friend of the Godhood and would have the liberty to narrate a funny incident that happened with his friend. Friendship is considered to be one of nine ways of doing devotion to God. Even in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता अर्जुन pleads, सखेति मत्वा प्रसभं यदुक्तं हे कृष्ण हे यादव हे सखेति (See 11-41)
  2. The meter of this verse is मन्दाक्रान्ता
    • There are 17 syllables in each quarter
    • लक्षणपदम् –  मन्दाक्रान्तांबुधिरसनगैर्मो भनौ तौ गयुग्मम्. Hence गण-s are म, भ, न, त, त, ग, ग.
  3. The verse is beautiful specimen of poetry, focusing on alternate meanings of words.
    • In Shiva calling Parvati as मुग्धें, the poet has resorted to the figure of speech of irony विरोधाभास. It is not Parvati, who is confused. She is provoking Shiva to declare in unambiguous words, who He is.
  4. It is also a good example of a rule in effective communication, that communication should employ words which have clarity of meaning.
  5. By getting Shiva to state, who He is, in so many ways, the poet has also presented various facets of Shiva’s caricature.
  6. All in all, the verse is a good, highly enjoyable specimen of Sanskrit poetry.
  7. This verse also underscores a good precept that Goddesses are also as intelligent and smart as the Gods, if not smarter. Intelligence has no gender-bias. Rightly hence is the diktat in मनुस्मृति – यत्र नार्यस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवताः । Gods enjoy and bless the place, where women are respected.

शुभमस्तु ।

-o-O-o-


Categories: Learning Sanskrit

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 110

Thu, 10/25/2012 - 00:24

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 110
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य दशाधिकशततमः (११०) पाठः ।

We shall continue with verses सुभाषितानि 12 to 14 having हंसः the swan as the main theme and compiled in a chapter in the textbook for कोविद – examination of the सरल-संस्कृत-शिक्षा-series of भारतीय-विद्या-भवन. The three सुभाषितानि 12 to 14 are as follows -

कस्त्वं लोहितलोचनास्यचरणः हंसः कुतो मानसात् । किं तत्रास्ति सुवर्णपङ्कजवनान्यंभः सुधासन्निभम् ।

रत्नानां निचयाः प्रवालमणयो वैदूर्यरोहाः क्वचित् । शम्बूका अपि सन्ति नेति च बकैराकर्ण्य हीहीकृतम् ।।१२।।

काके कार्ष्ण्यमलौकिकं  धवलिमा हंसे निसर्गस्थिता । गाम्भीर्ये महदन्तरं वचसि यो भेदः स किं कथ्यते ।

एतावत्सु विशेषणेष्वपि सखे यत्रेदमालोक्यते । के काकाः खलु के च हंसशिशवो देशाय तस्मै नमः ।।१३।।

क्रुद्धोलूकनखप्रपातविगलत्पक्षा अपि स्वाश्रयम् । ये नोज्झन्ति पुरीषपुष्टवपुषस्ते केचिदन्ये द्विजाः ।

ये तु स्वर्गतरंगिणीबिसलतालेशेन संवर्धिता । गाङ्गं नीरमपि त्यजन्ति कलुषं ते राजहंसा वयम् ।।१४।।

Now, taking them one by one -

Verse (12)
कस्त्वं लोहितलोचनास्यचरणः हंसः कुतो मानसात् । किं तत्रास्ति सुवर्णपङ्कजवनान्यंभः सुधासन्निभम् ।

रत्नानां निचयाः प्रवालमणयो वैदूर्यरोहाः क्वचित् । शम्बूका अपि सन्ति नेति च बकैराकर्ण्य हीहीकृतम् ।।१२।।

संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा – कः त्वं लोहितलोचन असि अचरणः हंसः कुतः मानसात् । किं तत्र अस्ति सुवर्णपङ्कजवनानि अंभः सुधासन्निभम् ।
रत्नानां निचयाः प्रवालमणयः वैदूर्यरोहाः क्वचित् । शम्बूकाः अपि सन्ति न इति च बकैः आकर्ण्य हीहीकृतम् ।।१२।।
अन्वयेन -

  1. लोहितलोचन, अचरणः त्वं कः असि ? (अहं) हंसः (अस्मि) । = Eh, you red-eyed one, who are you, that has no legs ? I am a swan.
    • The question is asked by cranes, who want to demean the swan. That is why they address him as red-eyed one, one, who has no legs (so, a lame one)
    • Usually when a swan swims, its legs are not seen. In contrast cranes have long, stick-like legs.
  2. कुतः (आगतः असि) ? मानसात् (आगतः अस्मि) । = Where-from have you come ? From the Manasa.
  3. किं तत्र सुधासन्निभम् अंभः अस्ति = Is there water, which is clean (nourishing) like nectar ?
    • सुधा means nectar as also milk. सन्निभ means “having shine as of”. So सुधासन्निभ seems to more refer to the looks than quality.
    • (किं तत्र) सुवर्णपङ्कजवनानि (सन्ति) ? = Are there hordes of golden lotuses ?
    • (किं तत्र) रत्नानां निचयाः प्रवालमणयः क्वचित् वैदूर्यरोहाः (सन्ति) ? Are there treasures of jewels, coral beads, maybe, trees that grow in Vidura mountains ?
  4. (किं तत्र) शम्बूकाः अपि च सन्ति ? = Are there also conch-shells or snails ?
    • Conch-shells and snails are more to be found near a sea-shore and not at a lake.
  5. न इति आकर्ण्य = On getting ‘No’ as answer
  6. बकैः हीहीकृतम् । = cranes chided at the swan, “hey, hey hey, hey, sssss !

Notes -

  1. The cranes, usually more in number than swans, were bent upon making fun of the swan, out of their jealousy about the grace of a swan. So, they went on asking questions, until they got “No” as the answer. Having got such answer, they chided at the swan.
  2. हीहीकृतम् is an interesting word, right ? The verbal root is हीहीकृ derived by using हीही as prefix to the root कृ.
  3. The meter of this verse (as also of the next two) is शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् (लक्षणपदम् –  सूर्याश्वैर्यदि मः सजौ सततगाः शार्दूलविक्रीडितम्) – 19 syllables per quarter and having गण-s, म, स, ज, स, त, त, ग.
  4. The chiding by the cranes brings to mind another सुभाषितम् – गुणी गुणं वेत्ति न वेत्ति निर्गुणः People devoid of character cannot appreciate character. Only people of character can appreciate character of others.

Verse 13 -
काके कार्ष्ण्यमलौकिकं धवलिमा हंसे निसर्गस्थिता । गाम्भीर्ये महदन्तरं वचसि यो भेदः स किं कथ्यते ।

एतावत्सु विशेषणेष्वपि सखे यत्रेदमालोक्यते । के काकाः खलु के च हंसशिशवो देशाय तस्मै नमः ।।१३।।

संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा – काके कार्ष्ण्यम् अलौकिकं  धवलिमा हंसे निसर्गस्थिता । गाम्भीर्ये महत् अन्तरं वचसि यः भेदः सः किं कथ्यते ।
एतावत्सु विशेषणेषु अपि सखे यत्र इदम् आलोक्यते । के काकाः खलु के च हंसशिशवः देशाय तस्मै नमः ।।१३।।
अन्वयेन –

  1. काके अलौकिकं कार्ष्ण्यम् (अस्ति), हंसे धवलिमा निसर्गस्थिता (अस्ति) = Crows have unique darkness. Whiteness of swans is natural.
  2. (हंसस्य) गाम्भीर्ये (काकस्य) वचसि महत् अन्तरं (अस्ति) । = Serenity (of swans) and prattle (of crows) make a big difference.
  3. यः (एतद्विधः) भेदः सः किं कथ्यते ? = What to say of these differences ?
  4. सखे एतावत्सु विशेषणेषु (सत्सु) अपि यत्र “के काकाः खलु के च हंसशिशवः” इदम् आलोक्यते, तस्मै देशाय नमः । = Friend there being these differences, if there is a place, where people keep wondering, “which are crows and which are ducklings of swans ?”, I would only offer obeisances to such a place.

Notes -

  1. There is obvious pun in “.. I would only offer obeisances to such a place ..” People at such place certainly do not have even minimal intelligence. There is a सुभाषितम्, which details, places, where one should not linger even for a little while. I think, that सुभाषितम् will also make an interesting study.
  2. This verse is more about a place, where people do not have even minimal intelligence. Swans and crows are excuses to detail such place. There are different figures of speech here, such as उपरोध, अन्योक्ति, etc.
  3. The word कार्ष्ण्यम् (= darkness) is derived from कृष्ण, meaning black or dark.
    • The letter र्ष्ण्य has many consonants combined – र् ष् ण् य् the sound becoming complete with the vowel अ. How many maximum number of consonants can combine together to make one composite syllabic instant (pronunciation) ?
  4. When saying गाम्भीर्ये वचसि the poet has smartly left implicit words to be understood as (हंसस्य) गाम्भीर्ये (काकस्य) वचसि
  5. एतावत्सु विशेषणेषु (सत्सु) (= there being these differences or there being these distinct characteristics) is सति-सप्तमी, which is a specialty of संस्कृत-constructs.
  6. The poet has thought it fit to use passive voice both at सः किं कथ्यते and इदम् आलोक्यते.
    • There again, the verb आलोक्यते is from धातु “लोक्”, which is not found in common use. It has inflections both by भ्वादि (1 गण), चुरादि (10 गण). Meaning is identical – लोकृ दर्शने (लोक् = to see).
    • Meaning of लोक् is identical and sound is so close to that of English verb ‘to look’.
    • With prefix आ, आलोक्  means ‘to look askance’, i.e. ‘to be not sure of what one is looking at’. There is no such prefix for ‘look’ in English.

Verse 14 -
क्रुद्धोलूकनखप्रपातविगलत्पक्षा अपि स्वाश्रयम् । ये नोज्झन्ति पुरीषपुष्टवपुषस्ते केचिदन्ये द्विजाः ।
ये तु स्वर्गतरंगिणीबिसलतालेशेन संवर्धिता । गाङ्गं नीरमपि त्यजन्ति कलुषं ते राजहंसा वयम् ।।१४।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा –
क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्

पक्षाः अपि स्व-आश्रयम् । ये न उज्झन्ति पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुषः ते केचित् अन्ये द्विजाः ।
ये तु स्वर्ग-तरंगिणी-बिस-लता-लेशेन संवर्धिताः । गाङ्गं नीरम् अपि त्यजन्ति कलुषं ते राजहंसाः वयम् ।।१४।।

अन्वयाः शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि च -

  1. ये पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुषः क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्पक्षाः अपि स्व-आश्रयम् न उज्झन्ति, ते केचित् अन्ये द्विजाः (सन्ति) ।
    • पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुषः = पुरीषेण पुष्टा वपुः येषां ते (बहुव्रीहिः)
      • पुरीषेण – पुरीष (= dirt, filthy matter, fece, excretion) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
      • पुष्टा – “पुष्” इति दिवादि (4) तथा क्र्यादि (9) परस्मैपदी धातुः । पुष पुष्टौ (पुष् = to nourish) । तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तं विशेषणम् । अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गि “पुष्टा” (= fattened) ।
      • वपुः – “वपुस्” (= body) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
      • पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुषः – “पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुस्” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् । अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।
      • पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुषः = those whose bodies have fattened by eating filthy things.
    • क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्पक्षाः = क्रुद्धस्य उलूकस्य नखानां प्रपातैः विगलन्तौ पक्षौ येषां ते (बहुव्रीहिः)
      • क्रुद्धस्य – “क्रुध्” इति दिवादि (4) परस्मैपदी धातुः । क्रुध क्रोधे (कोपे) (क्रुध् = to get angry) । तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तं विशेषणम् “क्रुद्ध” (= angered) । अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
      • उलूकस्य – “उलूक” (= owl) इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
      • नखानां – “नख” (= nail) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
      • प्रपातैः – “प्र + पत्” इति भ्वादि (1) धातुः । पत्लृ गतौ (पत् = to fall) । तस्य प्रयोजकात् (= to hit) पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम “प्रपात” (= stroke) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।
      • विगलन्तौ – “वि + गल्” इति चुरादि (10) धातुः । गल स्रवणे (गल् = to bleed) । तस्मात् शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् “विगलत्” (= bleeding) । अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः द्विवचनं च ।
      • पक्षौ – “पक्ष” (= wing) इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः द्विवचनं च ।
      • क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्पक्षाः – “क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्पक्ष” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् । अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।
      • क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्पक्षाः = those, whose wings are bleeding from strokes by nails of angered owls.
  2. Overall meaning of – ये पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुषः क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्पक्षाः अपि स्व-आश्रयम् न उज्झन्ति, ते केचित् अन्ये द्विजाः (सन्ति) = Those would be some other birds, who, fattened by devouring filthy matter, would not leave their abode, even when bleeding due to strokes of nails of angered owls.
  3. ये तु स्वर्ग-तरंगिणी-बिस-लता-लेशेन संवर्धिताः, कलुषं गाङ्गं नीरम् अपि त्यजन्ति, ते वयम् राजहंसाः (स्मः) ।
    • स्वर्ग-तरंगिणी-बिस-लता-लेशेन = स्वर्गे (स्थितानां) तरंगिणीनाम् बिसानां लतायाः लेशेन
    • स्वर्गे = in the heavens
    • (स्थितानां) = obtained
    • तरंगिणीनाम् – तरंगिणी (= floating, floating causing gentle waves) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।
    • बिसानां – बिस (= stalk of a lotus) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।
    • लतायाः – लता (= creeper) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
    • लेशेन – लेश (= particle, small, tender portion) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
  4. Overall meaning of – ये तु स्वर्ग-तरंगिणी-बिस-लता-लेशेन संवर्धिताः, कलुषं गाङ्गं नीरम् अपि त्यजन्ति, ते वयम् राजहंसाः (स्मः) । We are such princely swans, who, nurtured by small tender portions of creeping stalks of lotuses, floating in heavenly waters, would forsake even water of (holy) Ganges, if it is dirty.

Notes -

  1. One reason for growing incidence of obesity is said to be junk food. In this verse also, reference is made to “fattening” due to eating filthy matter.
    • This brings to mind the verse in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता – यातयामं गतरसं पूतिपर्युषितं च यत् । उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम् ।। 17 -10 ।। It is a good, crisp specification of what should be considered as तामस diet.
  2. In the second line, taking the pretext of the princely swans, the poet seems to have announced a caution, that waters of Ganges should not be blindly respected as being holy and hence good for any purpose. The princely swans would forsake water of (holy) Ganges also, if it is dirty.

शुभमस्तु ।

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Categories: Learning Sanskrit

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