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पेच्छन्ताण समुद्दं चडुलो वि अउच्चविम्हअरसत्थिमिओ ।हणुमन्तम्मि णिवहिओ सगोरवं वाणराण लोअणणिवहो ॥ २-४३ ॥[ पश्यतां समुद्रं चटुलोऽप्यपूर्वविस्मयरसस्तिमितः । हनूमति निपतितः सगौरवं वानराणां लोचननिवहः ॥]The gaze of monkeys which although naturally unsteady had become steady on account of awe inspired by an unprecedented action (of Hanuman in jumping across the ocean) and was respectfully fixed on Hanuman.
उअहिं अलङ्घणिज्जं दट्ठूण गआगअं च मारुअतणअम् ।मोहन्धआरिएसु वि गूढो भ्रमति हृदयेष्वेषामुत्साहः ॥ २-४४ ॥[ उदधिमलङ्घनीयं दृष्ट्वा गतागतं च मारुततनयम् । मोहान्धकारितेष्वपि गूढो भ्रमति हृदयेष्वेषामुत्साहः ॥]Having observed Hanuman crossing and re-crossing the ocean, which could not be (so far) crossed, the monkeys had their enthusiasm wandering in their hearts (aimlessly) darkened by the illusion (that all of them could cross the ocean).
तो ताण हअच्छाअं णिच्चललोअणसिहं पउत्थपआवम् ।आलेक्खपईवाण व णिअअं पइइचडुलत्तणं पि विअलिअम् ॥ २-४५ ॥[ ततस्तेषां हतच्छायं निश्चललोचनशिखं प्रोषितप्रतापम् । आलेख्यप्रदीपानानिव निजकं प्रकृतिचटुलत्वमपि विगलितम् ॥]The natural unsteadiness of the monkeys disappeared having felt powerless and lusterless with steady eyes like that of a painted light which is devoid of heat and shadow and whose flame is steady.
कह वि टवेन्ति पवङ्गा समुद्ददंसणविसाअविमुहिज्जन्तम् ।गलिअगमणाणुराअं पडिबन्धणिअत्तलोअणं अप्पाणम् ॥ २-४६ ॥[ कथमपि स्थापयन्ति प्लवङ्गा समुद्रदर्शनविषादविमुह्यमानम् । गलितगमनानुरागं प्रतिपथनिवृत्तलोचनमात्मानम् ॥]The monkeys steadied themselves with difficulty (being afraid of punishment if they were to return) having become perplexed caused by the despair of looking at the (un-crossable) ocean and having lost interest in proceeding further with their eyes turned backwards.
॥ इअ सिरिपवरसेणविरइए दसमुहवहे महाकव्वे विइओ आसासओ समत्तो ॥[ इति श्रीप्रवरसेनविरचित दशमुखवधे महाकाव्ये द्वितीय आश्वासकः समाप्तः ]Thus ends the second chapter of the great epic, “The killing of the Ten-headed Demon” composed by Sri Pravarasena.- - - -
सेतुबन्धम्-१६पुण्णणइसोत्तसंणिहजलमज्झमुणिज्जमाणचलतिमिणिवहम् ।बलआमुहमूलसमीसरन्तमसिरासिकज्जलिअपाआलम् ॥ २-३६ ॥[ पुण्यनदीस्रोतःसन्निभजलमध्यज्ञायमानचलतिमिनिवहम् । वड्वामुखमूलसमवसरन्मषीराशिकज्जलितपातालम् ॥]Shoals of fish in the ocean could be surmised by the currents induced by their movement resembling the currents of the holy river Ganga. The netherworld had darkened due to the black soot emanating from the downward flames of Vadava fire.
तो जग्गाडिअमूलो पवअबलक्कन्तमहिअलुद्धुच्छलिओ ।दिट्ठीअ दिट्ठसारो णज्जइ तुलिओ त्ति राहवेण समुद्दो ॥ २-३७ ॥[ तत उद्घाटितमूलः प्लवगबलाक्रान्तमहीतलोर्ध्वोच्छलितः । दृष्ट्या दृष्टसारो ज्ञायते तुलित इति राघवेण समुद्रः ॥]Rama gauged the ocean by the fact that its bottom was visible due to its waters streaming up when the monkey brigade occupied the shores of the ocean.
Rama looks at the ocean:कालन्तरपरिहुत्तं दट्ठूण वि अप्पणो महीअहिसअणम् ।अणअसुआबद्धमणो रामो पलअवरिणिं ण संभरइ सिरिम् ॥ २-३८ ॥[ कालान्तरपरिभुक्तं दृष्ट्वाप्यात्मनो महोदधिशयनम् । जनकसुताबद्धमना रामः प्रलयगृहिणीं न स्मरति श्रियम् ॥]Rama with his heart bound to Sita, the daughter of Janaka, did not remember Lakshmi who was his consort at the time of the great deluge, even after seeing the ocean which he had enjoyed at another time when he slept on the ocean.
Lakshmana looks at the ocean:ईसिजलपेसिअच्छं विहसन्तविइण्णपवअवइसंलावम् ।अद्दिट्ठे व्व ण मुक्कं दिट्ठे उ अहिम्मि लक्खणेण वि धीरम् ॥ २-३९ ॥[ ईषज्जलप्रेक्षिताक्षं विहसद्वितीर्णप्लवगपतिसंलापम् । अदृष्ट इव न मुक्तं दृष्टे उदधौ लक्ष्मणेनापि धैर्यम् ॥]Although Lakshmana saw the ocean with a slender glance as he conversed with Sugriva, the chief of monkeys smilingly, his valour did not desert him as if he had not seen it. [ Lakshmana looked at the ocean with nonchalance.]
Sugriva looks at the ocean:हरिसणिराउण्णामिअपीणअरालोअपाअडोवरिभाअम् ।पवआहिओ वि पेक्खइ अद्धुप्पइअं व रुम्भि(न्धि)ऊण सरीरम् ॥ २-४० ॥[ हर्षनिरायतोन्नामितपीनतरालोकप्रकटोपरिभागम् । प्लवगाधिपोऽपि प्रेक्षते अर्धोत्पतितमिव रुद्ध्वा शरीरम् ॥]Sugriva, the chief of monkeys looks at the ocean as the upper part of his sinuous body, elongated and bent with joy appears as if it has half-heartedly jumped up controlling the (rest of) the body.
गरुडेण व जलणणिहं समुद्दलङ्घणमणेण वाणरवइणा ।अवहोवासपसरिअं पक्खविआणं व पुलइअं कइसेण्णम् ॥ २-४१ ॥[ गरुडेनेव ज्वलननिभं समुद्रलङ्घनमनसा वानरपतिना । उभयावकाशप्रसृतं पक्षवितानमिव प्रलोकितं कपिसैन्यम् ॥]Sugriva, the chief of monkeys who was thinking of crossing the ocean looked at the army of monkeys spread on both sides like Garuda would his wings before flying.
साअरदंसणहित्था अक्खित्तोसरिअवेवमाणसरीरा ।सहसा लिहिअव्व ठिआ णिप्पन्दणिराअलोअणा कइणिवहा ॥ २-४२ ॥[ सागरदर्शनत्रस्ता आक्षिप्तापसृतवेपमानशरीराः । सहसा लिखिता इव स्थिता निःस्पन्दनिरायतलोचनाः कपिनिवहाः ॥] The monkeys assembled there with their bodies shaking after jumping up and retracting frightened by the sight of the ocean looked as if in a painting with their eyes widespread and un-blinking.
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सेतुबन्धम्-१५सअरङ्गअं विद्दुमपल्लवप्पहाघोलिरसासअरङ्घअम् ।रविराइअं धरणिअलं व मन्दराअड्ढणदूरविराइअम् ॥ २-२९ ॥[ सतरङ्गकं विद्रुमपल्लवप्रभाघूर्णमानशाश्वतरङ्गकम् । रविराजितं धरणितलमिव मन्दराकर्षणदूरविराविकम् ॥]The waves of the ocean had revolving red tint due to the luster of the red color of the young shoots of coral resembling the earth colored by the rays of the sun; The roar of the ocean was heard as though it was the roar of the churning by Mandara mountain.
मुत्तालअं तिअसविण्णजीविअसुहामअजम्मुत्तालअम् ।वित्थिण्णअं पलउव्वेलसलिलहेलामलिउव्वित्थिण्णअम् ॥ २-३० ॥[ मुक्तालयं त्रिदशवितीर्णजीवितसुखामृतजन्मोत्तालकम् । विस्तीर्णकं प्रलयोद्वेलसलिलहेलामृदितोर्वीस्त्यानकम् ॥]The vast ocean was a source of gems; it produced the ambrosia which was the source of happiness of the Devas who conquered it; it compressed the mass of earth easily at the time of Pralaya as its waters crossed the shores.
चिरपरूढसेआलसिलाहरिअन्तअम्पवणभिण्णरवदारुणणीहरिअन्तअम् ।महुमहस्स णिहासमए वीसामअम्पलअडड्ढविज्झाअतुलव्वीसामअम् ॥ २-३१ ॥[ चिरप्ररूढशॆवालशिलाहरितायितं पवनभिन्नरवदारुणनिर्हृदत्कम् ।मधुमथनस्य निद्रासमये विश्रामदं प्रलयदग्धविध्माततलोर्वीश्यामकम् ॥]The boulders in the ocean had a green color due the moss that had grown over a long time; The waters of the ocean roared harshly broken by the speeding wind; It was the resting place for Vishnu, the slayer of Madhu , at the time of his sleep; the ocean had dark land (island ?) puffed up and burnt at the time of Pralaya.
असुरोवडणविहट्टिअजलविवरिट्ठिअरसाअलुम्हाणिवहम् ।महणवसभिण्णभामिअदीवन्तरलग्गमन्दरअडक्खण्डम् ॥ २-३२ ॥[ असुरावपतनविघटितजलविवरोत्थितरसातलोष्मनिवहम् । मथनवशभिन्नभ्रामितद्वीपान्तरलग्नमन्दरतटखण्डम् ॥]Steam was forthcoming from the netherworld through the fissures(islands) caused by the fall of demons (Hiranyaksha and others); the small islands looked as though they were pieces of Mandara stuck in a distant island at the time of churning (of the ocean).
एस अमअरससंभवो त्ति संभाविअंणहणिहतमॆण व चउद्दिसं भाविअम् ।गुणमहग्घसारं वसुहारक्खाणिअंणिअअजसणिहाणं मिव सअरक्खाणिअम् ॥ २-३३ ॥[ एषोऽमृतसंभव इति संभावितं नभोनिभतमसेव चतुर्दिशं भावितम् । गुणमहार्घसारं वसुधारक्षानीतं निजकयशोनिधानमिव सगरखानितम् ॥]This ocean is respected as the originator of ambrosia; it is dark like sky as if generated by darkness on all four directions; it is enriched by excellent qualities; it protects the earth (as it surrounds the earth); It was dug by Sagara as if he was searching for his fame (Sagara became famous because of his digging the ocean).
पवणुग्गाहिअजललवणिवहपहम्मन्तमुहलतीरलवणम् ।ससिसेलमऊहोज्झरपरिवड्डिअसलिलमलिअपवणुच्छङ्घम् ॥ २-३४ ॥[ पवनोद्ग्राहितजललवनिवहप्रहन्यमानमुखरतीरतलवनम् । शशिशैलमयूखनिर्झरपरिवर्धितसलिलमृदितपुलिनोत्सङ्गम् ॥]The forests on the shores were whining as the water particles carried by the wind pounded them. The sandy beaches were pounded by waters of the ocean, rising due to the stream- like rays of the mountain-like moon.
मन्दरमेहक्खोहिअससिकलहंसपरिमुक्कसलिलुच्छङ्गम् ।मरगअसेवालोवरि णिसण्णतुह्णिक्कमीणचक्कअजुअम् ॥ ३-३५ ॥[ मन्दरमेघक्षोभितशशिकलहंसपरिमुक्तसलिलोत्सङ्गम् । मरकतशेवालोपरि निषण्णतूष्णीकमीनचक्रवाकयुगम् ॥]
The swan-like moon rises out of the waters of the ocean due to the disturbance caused by the cloud-like Mandara mountain. The pair of fish-like chakravaka birds sits still on the emerald-like moss. [The poet with a touch of exaggeration attributes moon rising from the ocean to the disturbance caused by Mandara mountain.]- - - -
सेतुबन्धम्-१४मरगअमणिप्पहाहअहरिआऽअन्तजरढप्पवालकिसलअम् ।सुरगअगन्धुद्धाइअकरिमकरासण्णदिण्णमेहमुहवडम् ॥ २-२२ ॥[ मरकतमणिप्रभाहतहरितायमानजरठप्रवालकिसलयम् । सुरगजगन्धोद्धावितकरिमकरासन्नदत्तमेघमुखपटम् ॥]The old sprouts of corals were looking green because of the presence of emeralds and gems. The clouds looked like veils while the sea elephants were chased by the fragrance of the ichor of celestial elephants. [What the poet wants to convey is not clear.]
मणिवालअं तीरलआहरप्पहोहासिअरम्मणिवालअम् ।घणवारिअं वेलालिङ्गणेण चडुलं महिलङ्घणवारिअम् ॥ २-२३ ॥[ मणिपालयं तीरलतागृहप्रभावभासितरम्यनृपालयम् । घनवारिदं वेलालिङ्गनेन चटुलं महिलङ्घनवारितम् ॥]The ocean was an abode for serpents, which protect gems. The bowered enclosures on the shore looked more beautiful than palaces because of their glow. The ocean was the source of water (to all) through clouds. The fickle ocean embraced the shore which was obstructed by the earth. [ “ocean” is masculine, “shore” (वेला) is feminine and earth (मही) is feminine. There is a suggestion of a man embracing a mistress while being restrained by his wife]
ससिमऊहपडिपेल्लणपक्खुब्भन्तअंसंचरन्तधरणीहरपक्खुब्भन्तअम् ।धीरअं सइमुहलघणपअविज्जन्तअंअट्ठिअं च वलवाणलपअविज्जन्तअम् ॥ २-२४ ॥[ शशिमयूखपरिप्रेरणप्रक्षुभ्यत्कंसंचर्द्धरणीधरप्रक्षोभ्यमाणम् । धैर्यकं सदामुखरघनपीयमान-मस्थितं च वडवानलप्रताप्यमानम् ॥]The ocean was getting disturbed by the rays of the moon; it was in tumult due to the movements of the mountains; it was being drunk by the clouds which were continuously roaring; it was being burnt within due to the Vadava fire; (despite all this) the brave ocean just became unsteady.
णिअअविसाणलपअविअमुत्ताणिअरपरिघोलमाणविसहरम् ।मीणगइमग्गपाअडसेआलोमइलमणिसिलासंघाअम् ॥ २-२५ ॥[ निजकविषानलप्रतापितमुक्तानिकरपरिघूर्णमानविषधरम् । मीनगतिमार्गप्रकटशेवालावमलिनमणिशिलासंघातम् ॥]There were snakes which were twisting around the groups of pearls which had been affected by the poisonous exhalations of the snakes. There were groups of gem stones which had become soiled due to the moss which could be seen on the routes taken by the fishes.
A description of the back flow of rivers joining the ocean:सरिसंकुलं महुमहवल्लहाइ लच्छीअ सारसरिसं कुलम् ।महीलाइअं णिइमुहपत्थिओणिअत्तिअवेलामहिलाइअम् ॥ २-२६ ॥[ सरित्संकुलं मधुमथनवल्लभाया लक्ष्म्याः सारसदृशं कुलम् ।महीलालितं नदीमुखप्रस्थितापनिवृत्तवेलामहिलायितम् ॥]As the rivers poured onto the ocean which was a fit heritage for goddess Lakshmi, consort of Vishnu, the slayer of Madhu demon and which was being fondled by the earth, it looked as though like women the streams after having embraced the ocean returned swiftly.
णइसहस्सपडिउम्वणणाअरसन्तअंपलहमेहसमदूसहणाअरसन्तअम् ।पेलवेण पवणेण महुरसंचारिअंमउअमअखलन्तं व महुरसं चारिअम् ॥ २-२७ ॥[ नदीसहस्रपरिचुम्बनज्ञातरसान्तरं प्रलयमेघसमदुःसहनादरसन्तम् । पेलवेन पवनेन मधुरसंचारितंमृदुमदस्खलन्तमिव मधुरसं चारितम् ॥]The ocean having kissed thousands of rivers was aware of the pleasures of enjoying other women. It was making a sound that equaled the roar of the clouds at the time of pralaya. It was pleasantly unsteady as the soft winds blew. It looked like a drunken man with misplaced steps due to the liquor imbibed.
कसणमणिच्छाआरसेरज्जन्तोवरिपरिप्पवन्तप्फेणम् ।हरिणाहिपङ्कअक्खलिअसेणीसासअणिअविअडावत्तम् ॥ २-२८ ॥[ कृष्णमणिच्छायारसरज्यमानोपरिप्लवमानफेनम् । हरिनाभिपङ्कजस्खलितशेषनिःश्वासजनितविकटावर्तम् ॥]The floating foam above had the colors of dark gems (as the transparent foam took the colour of the gems below them.) The ocean had hideous whirl pools due to the movement of the lotus in the navel of Vishnu and due to the exhalations of the serpent Shesha.
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सेतुबन्धम्-१३ पाआलोअरगहिरे महिपइरिक्कविअडे णहणिरालम्बे ।तेल्लोक्के व्व महुमहं अप्पाण च्चिअं गआगआई करेन्तम् ॥ २.१५ ॥[ पातालोदरगभीरे महीप्रतिरिक्तविकटे नभोनिरालम्बे । त्रैलोक्य इव मधुमथनमात्मन्येव गतागतानि कुर्वन्तम् ]Extending deep into the bowels of the nether world and touching the sky with no support, the ocean resembled Vishnu who (during Trivikrama incarnation) traversed within himself. [ The ocean which extended to the netherworld due to its depth and which touched the sky through its waves extended to all the three worlds like Trivikrama and its movements were restricted to within itself as a consequence.]
The back waters of rivers as they join the ocean are described:अहिलीअ परमुहीहिं छिविओसरिएहिञ् अणुसअविलोलाहि ।अणुणिज्जमाणमग्गं वेवन्तणिअत्तपत्थिआहिञ् णईहि ॥ २.१६ ॥[ अभिलीय पराङ्मुखीभिः स्पृष्टापसृताभिरनुशयविलोलाभिः ।अनुगम्य(नीय)मार्गं वेपमाननिवृत्तप्रस्थिताभिर्नदीभिः ॥]The rivers (joining the ocean) followed the ocean as if hesitatingly with repentance, first touching the ocean and then going back trembling. [The poet suggests a parallel of ladies following their lover hesitatingly but finally going his way. ]
The munificence of ocean is described:जीअगरुईहि अज्ज वि इच्छापज्जत्तसुहरसाहि मएन्तम् ।धणरिद्धीअ सिरिअ अ सलिलुप्पण्णाइ वारुणीअ अ लोअम् ॥ २.१७ ॥[ जीवगुर्वीभिरद्यापीच्छापर्याप्तसुखरसाभिर्मदयन्तम् । धनऋद्ध्या श्रिया च सलिलोत्पन्नया वारुण्या च लोकम् ॥]The ocean was making the whole world intoxicated by ( its munificence) in the form of wealth (gems) and liquor (which came out of churning of the ocean) which are considered more precious than life itself and which fulfill ones desires.
चडुलं पि पिईअ थिरं तिअसिक्खित्तरअणं पि सारब्भहिअम् ।महिअं पि अणोलुग्गं असाउसलिलं पि अमअरसणीसन्दम् ॥ २.१८ ॥[ चटुलमपि स्थित्या स्थिरं त्रिदशोत्क्षिप्तरत्नमपि साराभ्यधिकम् । मथितमप्यनवरुग्णमस्वादुसलिलमप्यमृतरसनिःस्यन्दम् ॥]The ocean is steady and does not transgress its limits although continuously agitated; although its riches have been taken away by the divine beings it continues to be full of riches; although it was churned (at the time of churning of ocean) it remains unharmed; although its water is not sweet, it produces ambrosia.
पज्जत्तरअणगब्भे णहअरुपह्वत्थचन्दअरपारोहे ।उअरब्भन्तरसेले सुरवइडिम्बाणिहिए णिहि व्व वहन्तम् ॥ २.१९ ॥[ पर्याप्तरत्नगर्भान्नभस्तरुपर्यस्तचन्द्रकरप्ररोहान् । उदराभ्यन्तरशैलान्सुरपतिडिम्बनिहितान्निधीनिव वहन्तम् ॥]Ocean has, out of fear for Indra, hidden within it mountains full of gems with sky as the tree above whose roots are moon’s rays. [ The suggestion is that just as riches are hidden deep in the ground after covering it with a tree grown above for fear of the king, ocean has hidden mountains for fear of Indra, the sky itself being the tree above it. It also alludes to the story that Mainaka mountain hid itself in the ocean evading Indra.]
परिअब्भिअं उवगए बोलीणम्मिअ णिअत्तचडुलसहावम् ।णवजोव्वणे व्व कामं दइअसमागमसुहम्मि चन्दुज्जोए ॥ २.२० ॥[ परिजृम्भितमुपगते व्यतिक्रान्ते निवृत्तचटुलस्वभावम् ।नवयौवन इव कामं दयितसमागमसुखे चन्द्रोद्द्योते ॥](They saw) the ocean which swelled at the rise of the moon and which became tranquil at the setting of the moon like the desire of the youth at the joyful presence of the beloved.
दरफुडिअसिप्पिसंपुडपलोट्टसङ्घमुहभरिअमुत्ताणिअरम् ।मारुअदूरुच्छालिअजलभरिअद्धवहपडिणिअत्तजलहरम् ॥ २.२१ ॥[ दरस्फुटितशुक्तिसंपुटप्रलुठितशङ्खमुखभृतमुक्तानिकरम् । मारुतदूरोच्छालितजलभृतार्धपथप्रतिनिवृत्तजलधरम् ॥]
The pearls which were held at the mouth of the conch-shells rolled out from the oyster shells slightly prised open looked like clouds which returned half way filled with water and carried far by the winds. [What the poet wants to convey is not clear and the learned commentator seems to gloss over.]- - - -
धुअवणराइकरअलं मलअमहिन्दत्थणोरसोल्लणसुहिअम् ।वेलालिङ्गणमुक्कं छिविओसरिएहि वेलवन्तं व महिम् ॥ २.८ ॥[ धुतवनराजिकरतलां मलयमहेन्द्रस्तनोर आर्द्रीकरणसुखिताम् । वेलालिङ्गनमुक्तां स्पृष्टापसृतकैर्वेपयन्तमिव (पक्षे-व्याकुलन्तमिव) महीम् ॥]As the oceanic waves lap against the seashore embracing and moving away, the earth appears shaken as the palm-like mangroves tremble and the breast-like Mahendra and Malaya hills seem to be enjoying being wet by the waves. [ The poet compares the situation to that of a lady-love (earth) being embraced by her lover (ocean).]
ठाणे वि ठिइपहुत्तं पलए महिमण्डलम्मि वि अमाअन्तम् ।पणअन्तवामणतणुं कमन्तदेहभरभरिअलोअं व हरिम् ॥ २.९ ॥[ स्थानेऽपि स्थितिप्रभूतं प्रलये महीमण्डलेऽप्यमान्तम् । प्रणयद्वामनतनुं क्रममाणदेहभरभृतलोकमिव हरिम् ॥]While at normal times ocean stayed within its bounds it would flood the whole of earth boundless during Pralaya, like Vishnu who had a body of a dwarf while begging (Bali) but enveloped the whole of the universe as he expanded.
दीसन्तं अहिरामं सुव्वन्तं पि अविइह्णसोअव्वगुणम् ।सुकअस्स व परिणामं उअहुज्जन्तं पि सासअसुहप्फलअम् ॥ २.१०॥[ दृश्यमानमभिरामं श्रूअमाणमप्यवितृष्णश्रोतव्यगुणम् । सुकृतस्येव परिणाममुपभुज्यमानमपि स्वाश्रयशुभ(पक्षे-शाश्वतसुख)फलदम् ।।]Being delightful to behold and to hear, the ocean has qualities that can be heard without one getting satiated like good deeds that bring immediate pleasures and lead to further pleasant fruits.
Often Prakrut’s Chaya in Sanskrit is not unique. In this verse two alternatives are possible: उक्खअदुमं व सेलं हिमहअकमलाअरं व लच्छिविमुक्कम् ।पीअमइरं व चसअं बहुलपओसं व मुद्धचन्दविरहिअम् ॥ २.११ ॥[ उत्खातद्रुममिव शैलं हिमहतकमलाकरमिव लक्ष्मीविमुक्तम् । पीतमदिरमिव चषकं बहुलप्रदोषमिव मुग्धचन्द्रविरहितम् ॥]The ocean appeared like a mountain with trees uprooted (on account of Parijata tree having been removed from the ocean), devoid of luster like a lake with lotuses destroyed by snow (on account of Lakshmi born in ocean having been taken as consort by Vishnu), like an empty cup of wine after the wine has been drunk (on account of Varuni the liquor that was produced while churning of the ocean having been taken away by Suras), like the dark fortnight bereft of the bewitching face of the moon (on account of the moon rising out of the ocean). [Through श्लेष the poet wants to convey that despite so many priceless objects of desire having been removed from the ocean it continues to be a store house of grandeur. He creates an apparent contradiction through the similes.][ उत्खातद्रुमं वशेलं हिमहयकमलाकरं बलच्छिद्विमुक्तम् । पीतमदिरं वचाशयं बहुलप्रदोषं वमुग्धचन्द्रविरहितम् ॥][ From the ocean the Parijata tree was uprooted; it keeps the earth under its control (as it surrounds the earth); it is the source of sandal wood, Uccaisravas horse and Lakshmi ; it is devoid of poison in the form of Kalakuta; has within it several dangerous creatures; it is blessed by the association of Varuna. [It is needless to say that the first interpretation is better]
णिप्फण्णसुहालोअं विमलजलब्भन्तरट्ठिअं वहमाणम् ।दरकड्ढिअं व रइणा करावलम्बिअकरं रत्नसंघातम् ॥ २.१२ ॥[ निष्पन्नसुखालोकं विमलजलाभ्यन्तरस्थितं वहमानम् । दरकृष्टमिव रविणा करावलम्बितकरं रत्नसंघातम् ॥]The ocean carries under its clear waters heaps of gems which provide joy to (beholders) due to their radiance and which appear slightly nearer as if pulled up by the hands in the form of his rays by the sun. [ It looks like the poet refers to the fact of gems appearing nearer due to refraction.]
The Vadava fire under the ocean is described:महणासाअविमुक्कं उच्छित्तामअविसङ्खलाणलणिवहम् ।वासुइमुहणीसन्दं वडवामुहकुहरपुञ्जिअं वहमाणम् ॥ २.१३ ॥[ मथनायासविमुक्तमुत्क्षिप्तामृतविशृङ्खलानलनिवहम् । वासुकिमुखनिःस्पन्दं वडवामुखकुहरपुञ्जितं वहमानम् ॥]The flames of Vadava fire, disturbed by the rising ambrosia, appear to be the (poisonous) juices emanating from the mouth of serpent Vasuki (which was being used as the churning rope) as a result of the fatigue of churning. [ The poet with a stretch of exaggeration likens the Vadava fires to the poisonous juices coming out of Vasuki’s mouth.]
धीरं व जलसमूहं तिमिणिवहं मिव सपक्खपव्वअलोअम् ।णइसोत्ते व्व तरङ्गे रअणाइ व गरुअगुणसआइञ् वहन्तम् ॥ २.१४ ॥[ धैर्यमिव जलसमूहं तिमिनिवहमिव सपक्षपर्वतलोकम् । नदीस्रोतांसीव तरङ्गान् रत्नानीव गुरुकगुणशतानि वहन्तम् ]The ocean carries with it hundreds of finest qualities as if they are gems; it carries within it, mass of water as if it was composure personified; it carries within it winged mountains as if they are marine animals; it carries waves as if they are river streams.
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सेतुबन्धम्-११द्वितीय आश्वासकःअह पेच्छा रहुतणओ चडुलं दोससअदुक्खबोलेअव्वम् ।अमअरससारगरुअं कज्जारम्भस्स जोव्वणं व समुद्दम् ॥२.१॥[ अथ पश्यति रघुतनयश्चटुलं दोषशतदुःखव्यतिक्रमणीयम् । अमृतरससारगुरुकं कार्यारम्भस्य यौवनमिव समुद्रम् ॥]Rama, scion of Raghu looks at the unsteady ocean which needs to be crossed after undergoing hundreds of painful impediments and which is respected because of its holding (gems) which are so to say the essence of ambrosia and the ocean looked to him like the youthful phase of work (of defeating Ravana) that has been started.
गअणस्सअ पडिबिम्बं धरणीअ व णिग्गमं दिशाण व णिलअम् ।भुवणस्स व मणितडिमं पलअस्स व सावसेसजलविच्छड्डम् ॥ २.२ ॥[ गगनस्येव प्रतिबिम्बं धरण्या इव निर्गमं दिशामिव निलयम् । भुवनस्येव मणितडिमं प्रलयस्येव सावशेषजलविच्छर्दम् ॥]The ocean looked like the reflection of the sky, like the gateway of land, like the residence of directions, like a gem-studded partition wall (or pavement?) of the world, and like the remnant of the great Flood.
भमिरुब्भडकल्लोलं थोरकराहदिसामुहोत्थअसलिलम् ।सासअभएण बहुसो खोहिज्जन्तं दिसागएण व ससिणा ॥ २.३ ॥[ भ्रमणशीलोद्भटकल्लोलं स्थूलकराहतदिङ्मुखावस्तृतसलिलम् । स्वाश्रयमृगेण (पक्षे-शाश्वतमदेन) बहुशः क्षोभ्यमाणं दिग्गजेनेव शशिना ॥He sees the ocean being agitated by the moon with a deer in its care. The ocean was consequently swirling with exalted waves with waters spread in all directions struck by the rays of the moon as if agitated by an elephant having a permanent state of excitement. ( Reference to the deer is to the mark on the moon which looks like a deer.)
अप्फुण्णविद्दुमवणे गुप्पन्तपडित्थिरे सलिलकल्लोले ।मन्दरगूढप्पहरे अज्ज वि संखाअलोहिए व्व वहन्तम् ॥ २.४ ॥[ आक्रान्तविद्रुमवनान् व्याकुलपरिस्थिरान् सलिलकल्लोलान् । मन्दरगूढप्रहारानद्यापि संस्त्यानलोहितानिव वहन्तम् ॥]The ocean’s waves covered the red coral reefs with the surroundings agitated and it looked as though the ocean was still carrying the dense blood spots due to the deep hits made by the Mandara mountain while churning the ocean.
मुहलघणविप्पइण्णं जतणिवहं भरिअसअलणहमहिविवरम् ।णइमुहपह्लत्थन्तं अप्पाण विणिग्गअं जसं व पिअन्तम् ॥ २.५ ॥[ मुखरघनविप्रकीर्णं जलनिवहं भृतसकलनभो महीविवरम् । नदीमुखपर्यस्यन्तमात्मनो विनिर्गतं यश इव पिबन्तम् ॥]The ocean, like a king enjoying his fame emanating from himself, was drinking the mass of water, which was scattered all over by the roaring clouds and which had filled nooks and corners of sky and earth and which was unevenly rushing out from the mouths of rivers.[ Due to use of words with double meaning the qualifying clauses apply to fame also.]जोह्लाए व्व मिअङ्कं कित्तीअ व सुउरिसं पहाए व्व रविम् ।सेलं महाणई व सिरीअ चिरणिग्गआइ वि अमुच्चन्तम् ॥ २.६ ॥[ ज्योत्स्नयेव मृगाङ्कं कीर्त्येव सुपुरुषं प्रभयेव रविम् । शैलं महानद्येव श्रिया चिरनिर्गतयाप्यमुच्यमानम् ॥]The ocean continued to be associated with wealth (lustre) despite being continuously flowing out for long in the manner the moon is associated with moonlight, a virtuous person with fame, sun with sunlight, a mountain with the river (flowing from it). [ Ocean was a never exhaustible source of water despite losing through continuous evaporation.]
कालन्तरजीअहरं गओणिअत्तन्तपवणरअघट्टिज्जन्तम् ।सल्लं व देहलग्गं विअडं वडवामुहाणलं वहमाणम् ॥ २.७ ॥[ कालान्तरजीवहरं गतापनिवर्तमानपवनरयघट्यमानम् । शल्यमिव देहलग्नं विकटं वडवामुखानलं वहमानम् ॥ ]
The ocean was carrying within itself the sub-oceanic fire of the shape of horse’s head (Vadava fire) which would at a later date burn the flood waters of the great annihilation (pralaya) and which was being fanned by the winds moving hither and thither like a spear stuck in the body which also will bring about death at a later date and which gets affected by the exhalation and inhalation of the body. [ As per Hindu mythology the Vadava fire will decimate the flood waters of Pralaya.]- - - -
सेतुबन्धम्-१०जलहरणिद्दाअन्तं पाअवगहणेसु सिसिरणिदाअन्तम् ।सइ दुहिणसामलअं पत्ता भरगधुअचन्दणरसा मलअम् ॥ ५९ ॥[ जलधरनिर्दावान्तं पादपगहनेषु शिशिरनिद्रायन्तम् ।सदा दुर्दिनश्यामलतं प्राप्ता भग्नधुतचन्दनरसा मलयम् ॥]The monkeys covered by the juice of sandal wood trees broken and shaken (by them) reached Malaya mountain, which was free from forest fires due to (constant) clouds and which made things somnolent due to cold in the dense woods.
चन्दनपाअणलग्गे खुडिउव्वेलिअलआपरिमलच्छाए ।संदाणिअणिम्मोए पेच्छन्ति महाभुअङ्गवेढणमग्गे ॥ ६० ॥[ चन्दनपादपलग्नान्खण्डितोद्वेल्लितलतापरिमलच्छायान् । सन्दानितनिर्मोकान् पश्यन्ति महाभुजगवेष्टनमार्गान् ॥]They saw the sloughs of serpents stuck which indicated the manner of serpents’ coiling and which were adhering to the sandal wood trees and which looked like crushed creepers.
सेवन्ति तीरवड्ढिअणिअअभरोव्वत्तचन्दणलआलिद्धे ।रम्मत्तणदिप्पवहे वणगअदानकडुए गिरिणईप्पवहे ॥ ६१ ॥[ सेवन्ते तीरवर्धितनिजकभरापवृत्तचन्दनलतालीढान् । रम्यतृणदीप्रपथान् वनगजदानकटून् गिरिनदीप्रवाहान् ॥]The monkeys savour the waters of mountain streams into which the sandal wood creepers growing on the banks had dipped due to their own weight and which had become bitter due to the ichor of forest elephants and to which there led routes shining with beautiful grass.
तो तरुणसिप्पिसंपुडदरदाविअजलणिहित्तमुत्तावअरम् ।पत्ता पत्तलवउलं गअदाणसुअन्धिरअणवेलं वेलम् ॥ ६२ ॥[ ततस्तरुणशुक्तिसंपुटदर्शितजलनिहितमुक्ताप्रकराम् । प्राप्ता पत्त्रलवकुलां गजदानसुगन्धिरजोनवैलां वेलाम् ॥]Then they reached the shores (of the ocean) where could be seen under the water tender pearl oysters slightly opened, where were Bakula trees full of leaves and which had the fragrance of stamens of tender cardamom as fragrant as the ichor of elephants.
विअसिअतमालणीलं पुणो पुणो चलतरङ्गपरिमट्ठम् ।फुल्लेलावणसुरइ उअहिगइन्दस्स दाणलेहं व टिअम् ॥ ६३ ॥[ विकसिततमालनीलां पुनः पुनश्चलतरङ्गकरपरिमृष्टाम् । फुल्लैलावनसुरभिमुदधिगजेन्द्रस्य दानलेखामिव स्थिताम् ॥]The shores looked like the ichor flow of the elephant- like ocean, dark in colour due to the flowered Tamala trees, often scratched by the trunk- like waves, having the fragrance of cardamom plants with blossoms.
फेणविसमङ्गराअं विद्दुमदन्तव्वणणिअमुद्दच्छाअम् ।मलिअवणकेसकुसुमं परिहुत्तसमुद्दपरिमलं व वहन्तिम् ॥ ६४ ॥[ फेनविषमाङ्गरागां विद्रुमदन्तव्रणानीतमुखच्छायाम् । मृदितवनकेशकुसुमां परिभुक्तसमुद्रपरिमलमिव वहन्तीम् ॥]The shore looked like a lady carrying the scent of (her lover) in the form of ocean whose company she had enjoyed, wearing the cosmetics in the form of sea foam, whose face displayed tooth bites in the form of corals and with crumpled hair and flowers in the form of forests.
सिप्पिउडमउलिअच्छि लआहरब्भन्तरेसु परिवड्ढन्तम् ।अणुराअपरिट्ठविअं आअण्णन्तिं व किंणरुग्गीअरवम् ॥ ६५ ॥[ शुक्तिपुटमुकुलिताक्षीं लतागृहाभ्यन्तरेषु परिवर्धमानम् । अनुरागपरिस्थापितमाकर्णयन्तीमिव किन्नरोद्गीतरवम् ॥]The sea shore looked like a lady with her eyes half closed in the form of pearl oysters listening to the music sung by Kinnaras reverberating in the interiors of bowers of creepers in the pitch appropriate to the musical ragas.
इअ सिरिपवरसेणविरइए दशमुहवहे महाकव्वे पढुमो आसासओ समत्तो ॥[ इति श्रीप्रवरसेनविरचिते दशमुखवधे महाकाव्ये प्रथम आश्वासकः समाप्तः ॥] Thus comes to end the first canto in the great epic called, “The killing of the ten-headed” composed by Pravarasena.
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सेतुबन्धम्-९संखोहिअमहिवेढो तो सो कइसेण्णविलुलिअवणाहोओ ।खुहिअसमुद्दाहिमुहो महणारम्भम्मि मन्दरो विअ चलिओ ॥ ४९ ॥[ संक्षोभितमहीवेष्टस्ततः स कपिसैन्यविलुलितवनाभोगः । क्षुभितसमुद्राभिमुखो मथनारम्भे मन्दर इव चलितः ॥]The surrounding ground was disturbed; the expanses of the forest were trampled by the monkeys; Rama moved towards the disturbed ocean looking like Mandara mountain at the beginning of churning of the ocean.
चलिअं च वाणरवलं चलिए तम्मि चलकेसरसडुज्जोअम् ।गहिअदिसापरिणाहं मऊहजालं व दिणअरस्स फुरन्तम् ॥ ५० ॥[ चलितं च वानरबलं चलिते तस्मिंश्चलकेसरसटोद्द्योतम् । गृहीतदिक्परिणाहं मयूखजालमिव दिनकरस्य स्फुरत् ॥]When Rama started, the army of monkeys also started with their coppery manes shining like the sparkling rays of the sun expanding in all directions.
वेराअरणिपज्जलिओ तो सो रोसपवणाहउद्धअमुहलो ।वड्ढइ मग्गाणुगओ लङ्कावणराइवणदइओ कइलोओ ॥ ५१ ॥[ वैरारणिप्रज्वलितस्ततः स रोषपवनाहतोद्धतमुखरः । वर्धते मार्गानुगतो लङ्कावनराजिवनदवः कपिलोकः ॥]The entire monkey population followed the path of Rama. They looked like the forest fire produced by sacrificial pieces of wood called enmity (towards the demons) and becoming noisy blown by the wind of anger.
वच्चइ अ चडुलकेसरसटोज्ज्वलालोकवानरपरिक्षिप्तः ।सर्वदिगाऌष्टप्रलयप्रदीप्तगिरिसंकुल इव समुद्रः ॥ ५२ ॥[ व्रजति च चटुलकेसरसटोज्ज्वलालोकवानरपरिक्षिप्तः । सर्वदिगाकृष्टप्रलयप्रदीप्तगिरिसंकुल इव समुद्रः ॥]When Rama proceeded surrounded by monkeys whose brilliant coppery manes created an aura, he looked like an ocean which was experiencing violent agitation due to blazing mountains being dragged (into the ocean) at the time of universal annihilation.
घोलन्ति णिम्मलाओ फुरन्तदिअसअरपाअहिअरूआओ ।दाविअमग्गम्मि वि से हिअए सोअन्धआरिअम्मि दिसाओ ॥ ५३ ॥[ घूर्णन्ते निर्मलाः स्फुरद्दिवसकरप्रकटितरूपाः । दर्शितमार्ग इव यस्य हृदये शोकान्धकारिते दिशः ॥]The directions which (in reality) looked clear and where forms were clearly discernible in sun light, were whirling in the mind of Rama, which had become darkened due to grief.
आलोएइ अ विज्झं धनुसंठाणस्स साअरस्स भरसहम् ।सन्धिअणइसोत्तसरं अवहोवासघडिअं व जीआबन्धम् ॥ ५४ ॥[ आलोकते च विन्ध्यं धनुःसंस्थानस्य सागरस्य भरसहम् ।संहितनदीस्रोतःशरमुभयावकाशघटितमिव जीवाबन्धम् ॥]Rama looks at the Vindhya Mountain which was capable of withstanding the stress impressed by the ocean, the shore line of which was bent like a bow. The mountain stretching across looked like the string strung between the ends of the bow. A stream (which gushed forth into the ocean through the mountain range) looked like an arrow. [ Nature is viewed as promoting Rama’s valorous mood.]
मसिणिअसिहरुच्छङ्गो विहुअणिअम्बवणपाअडिअतुङ्गअडो ।विज्झेण भरिअकुहरो हेलावाओ वि वाणराणञ् ण सहिओ ॥ ५५ ॥[ मसृणितशिखरोत्सङ्गो विधुतनितम्बवनप्रकटिततुङ्गतटः । विन्ध्येन भृतकुहरो हेलापातोऽपि वानराणां न सोढः ॥ ]The peaks of the mountain were smoothened by the monkeys (by their playful activities); the high mountain slopes looked bare as the monkeys shook up the forests that had covered them; monkeys filled up each and every hollow on the mountain; the mountain was not able to bear such playful activities (of the monkeys).
पत्ता अ सीभराहअधाउसिलाअलणिसण्णराइअजलअम् ।सज्झं ओज्झरपहसिअदरिमुहणिक्कन्तवउलमइरामोअम् ॥ ५६ ॥[ प्राप्ताश्च शीकराहतधातुशिलातलनिषण्णराजितजलदम् । सह्यं निर्झरप्रहसितदरीमुखनिष्क्रान्तबकुलमदिरामोदम् ॥]They reached Sahya Mountain, where radiant clouds stayed on colourful metallic ores sprinkled by sprays (of clouds). The streams emanating from hollows of the mountains carried the heady fragrance of Bakula flowers and it looked as though the gurgling streams laughed emitting the fragrance of Bakula flowers.
बोलन्ति अ पेच्छन्ता पडिमासंकन्तधवलघणसंघाए ।फुडफडिहसिलासंकुलखलिओ वरिपत्थिए विअ णइप्पवहे ॥ ५८ ॥[ व्यतिक्रामन्ति च पश्यन्तः प्रतिमासंघातधवलघनसंघातान् । स्फुटस्फटिकशिलासंकुलस्खलितोपरिप्रस्थितानिव नदीप्रवाहान् ॥]
They crossed rivers seeing in them reflections of groups of white clouds which looked as if the rivers were flowing on white marble.- - - -
सेतुबन्धम्-८खणमूलाबद्धाए णिव्वण्णन्तमसिणं समारूढाए ।सज्जीवं मिव जाअं अणोणमन्तं पि रामदित्ठीअ धणुम् ॥ ४५ ॥[ क्षणमूलाबद्धया निर्वर्ण्यमानमसृणं समारूढया । सजीवमिव जातमनवतमपि रामदृष्ट्या धनुः ॥]The bow, which had not been bent looked as if it had been stringed by Rama’s stare as he looked at it intently traversing from its root to the smooth ends.
सुग्गीवस्स हिअअं राहवसुकअपडिमोअणासत्तण्हम् ।अगणिअदहमुहदप्पं णिव्वूढभरं व तक्खणं ऊससिअम् ॥ ४६ ॥[ सुग्रीवस्यापि हृदयं राघवसुकृतप्रतिमोचनासतृष्णम् । अगणितदशमुखदर्पं निर्व्यूढभरमिव तत्क्षणमुच्छ्वसितम् ॥]Even Sugriva (along with Rama) eager to repay the good deed done by Rama took a deep breath as if he was carrying the difficult burden of Ravana’s immeasurable prowess.
चिन्तिअलद्धत्तं मिव बुमआविक्खेवसूइआमरिसरसम् ।गमणं राहवहिअए रक्खसजीविअहरं विषमिव निहितम् ॥ ४७ ॥[ चिन्तितलब्धार्थमिव भ्रूविक्षेपसूचितामर्षरसम् । गमनं राघवहृदये राक्षसजीवितहरं विषमिवनिहितम्॥]Rama’s mind was intent on travel to Lanka. The (impending) travel was to him like wealth thought of and was obtained. His anger manifested itself only in the form of his brows pointing towards Lanka. The intention to travel residing deeply in Ramas’ mind was like poison which would kill the demons.
सोह व्व लक्खणमुहं वणमालव्व विअडं हरिवइस्स उरम् ।कित्ति व्व पवणतणअं आण व्व बलाइञ् से विलग्गइ दिट्ठी ॥ ४८ ॥[ शोभेवलक्ष्मणमुखं वनमालेव विकटं हरिपतेरुरः । कीर्तिरिव पवनतनयमाज्ञेव बलान्यस्य विलगति दृष्टिः ॥]Rama’s eyes fell on Lakshmana to Sugriva, Hanuman and then the army. The gaze on Lakshmana looked as if his face was being anointed with turmeric. His gaze on Sugriva looked like a garland of forest flowers, his gaze on Hanuman looked like bestowing on him (Hanuman) fame. His gaze on the army looked as if he was commanding them. [Reference to garland of forest flowers brings to mind that Sugriva was given a garland by Rama for identifying him while fighting with Vali.]
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सेतुबन्धम्-७पढमं विअ मारुइणा हरिसभरिज्जन्तलोअणेण मुहेण ।जणअतणआपउत्ती पच्छा वाआइ णिअरवसेसं सिट्टा ॥ ३७ ॥[ प्रथममेव मारुतिना हर्षभ्रियमाणलोचनेन मुखेन । जनकतनयाप्रवृत्तिः पश्चाद्वाचा निरवशेषं शिष्टा ॥]Right at the beginning Hanuman conveyed the well being of Sita only through his eyes which were brimming with happiness; later through words in its entirety.
दिट्ट त्ति ण सद्दहिअं झीण त्ति सबाहमन्थरं णीससिअम् ।सोअइ तुमं ति रुण्णं पहुणा जिअइ त्ति मारुई उवऊढो ॥ ३८ ॥[ दृष्टेति न श्रद्धितं क्षीणेति सबाष्पमन्थरं निःश्वसितम् ।शोचति त्वामिति रुदितं प्रभुणा जीवतीति मारुतिरुपगूढः ॥]When Hanuman said “ (Sita was) seen”, Rama did not believe. When he said, “(She was) weak”, Rama constrained by tears, sighed deeply and slowly. When he said, “She is anxious about you”, Rama wept. (Finally) knowing that she is alive, Rama embraced Hanuman. [ Sometimes the original in Prakrut can be interpreted in Sanskrit in more than one way. In this verse the commentator has given another version also. As it did not seem to have any particular merit, it has not been translated.]
चिन्ताहअप्पहं मिव तं च करे खेअणिसहं च णिसण्णम् ।वेणीबन्धणमइलं सोअकिलन्तं व से पणामेइ मणिम् ॥ ३९ ॥[ चिन्ताहतप्रभमिव तं च करे खेदनिःसहमिव निषण्णम् ।वेणीबन्धमलिनं शोकक्लाम्यन्तमिवास्य प्रणयति मणिम् ॥]Hanuman brings with him the crest-jewel of Sita, which looked soiled due to its being tied to Sita’s (unkempt) hair and it looked as if it had lost its radiance due to sadness and was sitting in his palm unable to bear the grief.
सो करअलञ्जलिगओ वाहत्थवापहओसिहन्तमऊहो ।णअणेहिञ् दासरहिणा दिट्ठो पीओ णु पुच्छिओ णु पउत्तिम् ॥ ४० ॥[ स करतलाञ्जलिगतो बाष्पस्तबकप्रहतावसीदन्मयूखः ।नयनाभ्यां दाशरथिना दृष्टः पीतो नु पृष्टो नु प्रवृत्तिम् ॥ ]When the eyes of Rama looked at the gem which was in the hollow of Hanuman’s hands with its glow destroyed by the tears (of Hanuman), it looked as if he was drinking it and enquiring it of (Sita’s well-being).
सो अइ अ णं रहुवई विरलङ्गुलिगलिअकिरणधारावअरम् ।वअणे विमलुज्जोअं दररोत्तूण सलिलञ्जलिं व णिमेन्तो ॥ ४१ ॥[ शोचति चैनं रघुपतिर्विरलाङ्गुलिगलितकिरणधाराप्रकरम् । वदने विमलोद्द्योतं दररुदित्वा सलिलाञ्जलिमिव नियोजयन् ॥]Taking the gem, whose rays were leaking away through his fingers, near his face Rama was feeling sorry for the gem and it looked as if he was taking a handful of water to clean his face after having wept for a while.
तं दहआहिण्णाणं जम्मि वि अङ्गम्मि राहवेण ण णिमिअम् ।सीआपरिमट्टेण व वूढो तेण वि णिरन्तरं रोमञ्चो ॥ ४२ ॥[ तद्दयिताभिज्ञानं यस्मिन्नप्यङ्गे राघवेण न नियोजितम् । सीतापरिमृष्टेनॆवव्यूढस्तेनापि निरन्तरं रोमाञ्चः ॥]Even those limbs of Rama which did not come into contact with the gem experienced horripilation as they would have, had Sita touched them.
बाहमइलं पि तो से दहमुहचिन्ताविजृम्भमाणामरिसम् ।जाअं दुक्खालोअं जरढाअन्तरविमण्डलं मिव वअणम् ॥ ४३ ॥[ बाष्पमलिनमपि ततोऽस्य दशमुखचिन्ताविजृम्भमाणामर्षम् ।जातं दुःखालोकं जरठायमानरविमण्डलमिव वदनम् ॥]His (Rama’s) face indicating the anger generated by the thought about Ravana could be seen with difficulty despite darkened by tears like the orb of the sun with the day progressing.
तो से चिरमज्झत्थे कुविअकअन्तभुमआलआपडिरूए ।दिट्ठी दिट्ठत्थामे कज्जधुरव्व णिअए धणुम्मि णिसण्णा ॥ ४४ ॥[ ततोऽस्य चिरमध्यस्थे कुपितकृतान्तभ्रूलताप्रतिरूपे ।दृष्टिर्दृष्टस्थाम्नि कार्यधुरेव निजके धनुषि निषण्णा ॥]His gaze fell with the weight of the impending duty (of killing Ravana) as it were, on his bow which had established its strength (earlier in Vali’s killing) and was resting for quite some time and which was bent like the brows of angry Yama, God of Death.
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सेतुबन्धम्-६पज्जत्तकमलगन्धो महुतण्णाओसरन्तणवकुमुअरओ ।भमिरभमरोअइव्वो संचरइ सदाणसीअरो वणवाओ ॥ ३१ ॥[ पर्याप्तकमलगन्धो मध्वार्द्रापसरन्नवकुमुदरजाः ।भ्रमद्भ्रमरोपजीव्यः सञ्चरति सदानशीकरो वनवातः ॥]The wind , replete with the fragrance of lotuses and fresh sweet and damp pollens emanating from the white water lilies, is full of the spray of rutting elephants and is providing succour to bumble bees.
कण्टइअणूमिअङ्गी धोअत्थोओसरन्तमुद्धसहावा ।रइअरचुम्बिज्झन्तं ण णिअत्तेइ णिलिणी मुहं विअ कमलम् ॥ ३२ ॥[ कण्टकितगोपिताङ्गी स्तोकस्तोकापसरन्मुग्धस्वभावा ।रविकरचुम्ब्यमानं न निवर्तयति नलिनी मुखमिव कमलम् ॥] The lotus-plant does not retract the lotus kissed by the rays of the sun, while it is hiding the thorns and slowly getting out of shyness like a lady who does not retract her face kissed by her lover while she is hiding the horripilation on her body.
परिघोलन्तक्खलिअं सत्तच्छअकुसुमधवलरेणुक्खइअम् ।उप्पुसइ दाणवङ्कं मुहुत्तगअकण्णचामरं भमरउलम् ॥ ३३ ॥[ परिघूर्णमानस्खलितं सप्तच्छदकुसुमधवलरेणूत्खचितम् ।उत्प्रोञ्छति दानपङ्कं मुहूर्तगजकर्णचामरं भ्रमरकुलम् ॥]Swarm of bees fanned by the ears of the elephant throws up the slushy ichor which has dropped off due to elephant’s turning of the head and which is embedded with the white pollens of saptacchada flowers.
इअ पहसिअकुमुअसरे भडिमुहपङ्कअविरुद्धचन्दालोए ।जाए फुरन्ततारे लच्छिसअंगाहणवपओसे सरए ॥ ३४ ॥[ इति प्रहसितकुमुदसरसि भटीमुखपङ्कजविरुद्धचन्द्रालोकायाम् ।जातायां स्फुरत्तारायां लक्ष्मीस्वयंग्राहनवप्रदोषे शरदि ॥]छिज्जइ झिण्णावि तणू अट्टिअवाहं पुणो परुण्णं व मुहम् ।रामस्स अईसन्ते आसाबन्धे व्व चिरगए हणुमन्ते ॥ ३५ ॥ (जुग्गअम्)[ क्षीयते क्षीणापि तनुरास्थितबाष्पं पुनः प्ररुदितमिव मुखम् ।रामस्यादृश्यमाने आशाबन्ध इव चिरगते हनूमति ॥] (युग्मकम्)Thus in the early autumnal evening when Goddess Lakshmi voluntarily chooses her abode, the lakes looked as if they were laughing with blooming white water lilies . There was moonlight inimical to the lotus faces of soldiers’ wives and stars twinkled. Rama’s withered body shrunk further. His face with constrained tears looked as if he had wept again. Hanuman who was away for long who was the only strand of hope for Rama could not be seen.
णवरि अ जहासत्थिअणिव्वत्तिअकज्जणिव्वलन्तच्छाअम् ।पेच्छइ मारुअतणअं मणोरहं चेअ चिन्तिअसुहोवणअम् ॥ ३६ ॥[ अनन्तरं च यथासमर्थितनिर्वर्तितकार्यनिर्वलच्छायम् ।प्रेक्षते मारुततनयं मनोरथमेव चिन्तितसुखोपनतम् ॥]
Then (suddenly) Rama sees Hanuman, son of Wind God, who was the embodiment as it were of his desire and cherished happiness and who was returning after accomplishing his work with a luster that distinguished him from other monkeys.- - - -
सेतुबन्धम्-५पीणपओहरलग्गं दिसाणञ् पवसन्तजलअसमअविइण्णम् ।सोहग्गपढमइण्हं पम्माअइ सरसणहवअं इन्दधणुम् ॥ २४ ॥[ पीनपयोधरलग्नं दिशां प्रवसज्जलदसमयवितीर्णम् । सौभाग्यप्रथमचिह्नं प्रम्लायति सरसनखपदमिन्द्रधनुः ॥]The rainbow attached to the heavy clouds formed while the rainy season departs appears like the first mark of great fortune and makes the nail mark made on the heavy breasts (of ladies) when the lovers depart look dull. [The poet brings out a metaphor between the rain bow and the nail mark on the heavy breasts of ladies made by departing lovers and it revolves around the use of पीनपयोधरलग्नम्, which applies to the cloud as well as to the nail mark through श्लेष. After the rainy season lovers who were in the company of their beloveds leave after making nail marks as sign of their being loved just as rainy season leaves the directions leaving a mark of the rainbow.]
पज्जत्तसलिलधोए दूरालोक्कन्तणिम्मले गअणअले ।अच्चासण्णं व ठिअं विमुक्कपरभाअपाअडं ससिबिम्बम् ॥ २५ ॥[ पर्याप्तसलिलधौते दूरालोक्यमाननिर्मले गगनतले] अत्यासन्नमिव स्थितं विमुक्तपरभागप्रकटं शशिबिम्बम् ॥]In the sky which had been thoroughly cleaned by the rain waters and which looked spotlessly clean as far as eyes could see the moon’s orb bereft of the (cover) of clouds appears to be nearby.
चिरआलपडिणिउत्तं दिसासु घोलन्तकुमुअरअवेल्लविअम् ।भमइ अलद्धासाअं कमलाअरदंसणूसुअं हंसौलम् ॥ २६ ॥[ चिरकालप्रतिनिवृत्तं दिक्षु घूर्णमानकुमुदरजोविलिप्तम् ।भ्रमत्यलब्धास्वादं कमलाकरदर्शनोत्सुकं हंसकुलम् ॥]Returning after a long time a bevy of swans is circling around smeared by the pollen of blue lotuses (which blossom during nights) eager to have a look at lakes where lotuses bloom. [Swans are supposed to visit manas lake during rainy season and return during autumn.]
चन्दाअवधवलाओ फुरन्तदिअसरअणन्तरिअसोहाओ ।सोम्मे सरअस्स उरे मुत्ताअलिविब्भमं वहन्ति णिसाओ ॥ २७ ॥[चन्द्रातपधवलाः स्पुरद्दिवसरत्नान्तरितशोभाः ।सौम्ये शरद उरसि मुक्तावलिविभ्रमं वहन्ति निशाः ॥]Autumnal nights which are white with moonlight and which become obscured by dazzling daylight look like a string of pearls on the breasts of (ladies). [ Just as a string of pearls gets obscured by the dazzling luster of gems on the breasts of a lady, the moonlit nights of autumn get obscured by the dazzling sun at daytime.]
भमररुअदिण्णसण्णं घणरोहविमुक्कदिणअरअरालिट्टम् ।फरिससुहाअन्तं विअ पडिबुज्झइ जलणिहित्तणालं णलिणम् ॥ २८ ॥[भ्रमररुतदत्तसंज्ञं घनरोधविमुक्तदिनकरकराश्लिष्टम् । स्पर्शसुखायमानमिव प्रतिबुध्यते जलनिहितनालं नलिनम् ॥]The lotus with its stalk hidden in water which has been signaled by the sounds of bumble bees looks like being woken up pleased by the touch of the embracing rays of the sun free from the cloud coverings. [The poet suggests a parallel scene of a person being woken up by the pleasing touch of a friend.]
मम्महधणुणिग्घोसो कमलवणक्खलिअलच्छिणेउरसद्दो ।सुव्वइ कलहंसरओ महुअरिवाहित्तणलिणिपडिसंलाओ ॥ २९ ॥[ मन्मथधनुनिर्घोषः कमलवनस्खलितलक्ष्मीनूपुरशब्दः । श्रूयते कलहंसरवो मधुकरीव्याहृतनलिनीप्रतिसंलापः ॥] The cackle of swans at night in the lakes appears like the twang of the bow of Love God Manmatha, like the sound of the anklets of Goddess Lakshmi who is leaving the lotuses which are closing shut and like the reply of the lake to the utterances of the bumble bees. [ The commentator takes pain to link up the various metaphors. But I have departed from his way as it looked less attractive and less natural.]
खुडिडप्पइअमुणालं दहूण पिअं व सिढिलवलअं णलिणिम् ।महुअरिमहुरुल्लावं महुमअतम्बं मुहं व घेप्पइ कमलम् ॥ ३० ॥[ खण्डितोत्पाटितमृणालां दृष्ट्वा प्रियामिव शिथिलवलयां नलिनीम् । मधुकरीमधुरोल्लापं मधुमयाताम्रं मुखमिव गृह्यते कमलम् ॥ ]
Lotus fibres have been cut and removed in the lake in the manner a lady is troubled by her lover. The borders of the lake have become loose. The red lotus in the lake which is plucked (by people) looks like the face of a lady which has become red on account of imbibing drinks and which has been held by a lover. The buzzing of bees look like the utterances of the lady. - - - -
सेतुबन्धम्-४तं तिअसवन्दिमोक्खं समत्थतेल्लोक्कहिअअसल्लुद्धरणम् ।सुणह अणुराअइण्हं सीआदुक्खअं दहमुहस्स वहम् ॥ १२ ॥[तं त्रिदशबन्दिमोक्षं समस्तत्रैलोक्यहृदयशल्योद्धरणम् ।शृणुतानुरागचिह्नं सीतादुःखक्षयं दशमुखस्य वधम् ]Listen now to the famous story of slaying of Ravana, which enabled releasing of the imprisoned divine beings, which removed the heart’s anguish of all the three worlds, which dissipated the grief of Sita and which was an emblem of love.
अह पडिवण्णविरोहे रहववम्महसरेण माणब्भहिये ।विद्धाइ वालिहिअए राअसिरीअ अहिसारिए सुग्गीवे ॥ १३ ॥ववसाअरैपओसो रोसगइन्ददिढसिङ्खलापडिबन्धो ।कह कह वि दासरहिणो जअकेसरिपञ्जरो गओ घणसमओ ॥ १४ ॥[अथ प्रतिपन्नविरोधे राघवमन्मथशरेण मानाभ्यधिके ।विद्धया वालिहृदये राजश्रियाभिसारिते सुग्रीवे ॥व्यवसायरविप्रदोषो रोषगजेन्द्रदृढशृङ्खलाप्रतिबन्धः ।कथंकथमपि दाशरथेर्जयकेसरिपञ्जरो गतो घनसमयः ॥]Having had an adversary (in Rama), when the Goddess of royal wealth residing in the exceedingly proud heart of Vali was hit by the arrow of Love God in the form of Rama, she departed to reside in Sugriva. Rama son of Dasaratha some how (with difficulty) spent the rainy days which happened to be night for the sun called Activity, which was a strong binding chain for the elephant called Anger of Rama and which was a cage for the Lion called Victory (of Rama). [ The poet imagines that the Rama’s arrow that hit Vali became an arrow of love that affected the Goddess of royal prosperity and made her fall in love with Sugriva. As no activity was possible in rainy days, they became night for the sun called Activity; Rama’s anger became like a chained elephant; Victory of Rama was like a caged lion.]
गमिआ कलम्बवाआ दिट्टं मेहन्धआरिअं गअणअलम् ।सहिओ गज्जिअसद्दो तह वि हु से णत्थि जीविए आसङ्घो ॥ १५ ॥[गमिताः कदम्बवाता दृष्टं मेघान्धकारितं गगनतलम् ।सोढो गर्जितशब्दस्तथापि खल्वस्य नास्ति जीवितेऽध्यवसायः ॥] Somehow the wind blowing through kadamba groves were tolerated; somehow the deep dark skies of rainy season passed; somehow the roaring thunders were heard; Rama is still not determined whether to live.
A description of Autumn faced by Rama follows:तो हरि वइजसवन्थो राहवजीवस्स पढमहत्थालम्बो ।सीआबाहविहाओ दहमुहवज्झदिअहो उवगओ सरओ ॥ १६ ॥[ ततो हरिपतियशःपथो राघवजीवस्य प्रथमहस्तालन्बः ।सीताबाष्पविघातो दशमुखवध्यदिवस उपगता शरत् ॥]Then came Autumn, which acted as a path to Sugriva’s fame, a first hand of support to the life of Rama, a cessation of Sita’s tears and the day of death for Ravana.
रइअरकेसरणिवहं धवलब्भदलसहस्सपरिगवम् ।महुमहदंसणजोग्गं पिआमहुप्पत्तिपङ्कअं व णहअलम् ॥ १७ ॥[रविकरकेसरनिवहं शोभते धवलाभ्रदलसहस्रपरिगतम् ।मधुमथनदर्शनयोग्यं पितामहोत्पत्तिपङ्कजमिव नभस्तलम् ॥]The sky looks resplendent like the lotus flower from which Brahma emanated and fit to be seen by Vishnu ( as he gets up from his sleep), the slayer of Madhu, with sun’s rays looking like stamens and thousands of white clouds looking like petals.
दिणमणिमोहप्फुरिअं गलिअं घणलच्छिरअणरसणादामम् ।उदुमअणबाणवत्तं णहमन्दारणवकेसरं इन्दधणुम् ॥ १८ ॥[दिनमणिमयूखस्फुरितं गलितं घनलक्ष्मीरसनादाम ।ऋतुमदनबाणवक्त्रं नभोमन्दारनवकेसरमिन्द्रधनुः ॥]The rainbow looks like the sparkling rays of day-gem (sun), a torn waist band of the lady called the cloud-lustre, the front of the bow of Love-god called Season and fresh stamens of the mandara flower called sky.
धुअमेहमहुअरावो घणसमाआअड्ढिओणअविमुक्काओ ।णहपाअवसाहाओ णिअअड्ढाणं व पडिगआओ दिसाओ ॥ १९ ॥[धुतमेघमधुकरा घनसमयाकृष्टावनतविमुक्ताः । नभःपादपशाखा निजकस्थानमिव प्रतिगता दिशः ॥] It looks like the directions have returned to their original places like branches of the tree called sky, with bees called clouds being scattered while the rainy season pulled, bent and then released them. ( During the rainy season the directions look overhanging. After the rainy season has ceased the directions have returned to their original places like branches of a tree pulled, bent and then released!)
अहिणवणिद्धालोआ उद्देसासारदीसमाणजललवा ।णिम्माअमज्जणसुहा दरवसुआअच्छविं वहन्ति व दिअहा ॥ २० ॥[अभिनवस्निग्धालोका उद्देशासारदृश्यमानजललवाः ।निर्मितमज्जनसुखा दरशुष्कच्छविं वहन्ति दिवसाः ॥]Days display a slightly dry luster; sights are new and friendly; there are water drops to be seen at elevated places; it is pleasant to take a dive in water bodies.
सुहसंमाणिअणिद्दो वरकालुङ्खिअसमुद्ददिण्णुकण्ठो ।असुवन्तो वि विबुद्धो प्रढमविबुद्धसिरिसेविओ महुमहणो ॥ २१ ॥[सुखसम्मानितनिद्रो विरहस्पृष्टसमुद्रदत्तोत्कण्ठः ।अस्वपन्नपि विबुद्धः प्रथमविबुद्धश्रीसेवितो मधुमथनः ॥]Vishnu, the slayer of Madhu, got up after having been served by Lakshmi who had got up earlier and having enjoyed a pleasant rest although he did not sleep at all. The ocean is weary of his impending absence (as he has got up). [ The reference is to the legend that Vishnu who is lying down on the milky ocean gets up during autumn (on utthaanadvaadasi). Lakshmi is supposed to have got up earlier. The words used suggest that Rama has become ready to fight Ravana after having been saddened by the sight of Sita’s ring brought by Hanuman.]
सोहइ विसुद्धकिरणो गअणसमुद्दम्मि रअणिवेलालग्गो ।तारामुत्तावअरो फुडविहडिअमेहसिप्पिसंपुडमुक्को ॥ २२ ॥[शोभते विशुद्धकिरणो गगनसमुद्रे रजनिवेलालग्नः ।तारामुक्तप्रकरः स्फुटविघटितमेघशुक्तिसंपुटमुक्तः ॥]The sky is like an ocean where darkness of night acts as the seashore, the stars look like heaps of pearls and the clear separated patches of autumnal clouds look like pearl oysters scattered all over.
सत्तच्छाणञ् गन्धो लग्गइ हिअए खलइ कलम्बामोओ ।कलहंसाणञ् कलरओ ठाइ ण संठाइ परिणअं सिहिव्रुअम् ॥ २३ ॥[सप्तच्छदानां गन्धो लगति हृदये स्खलति कदम्बामोदः ।कलहंसानां कलरवस्तिष्ठति न संतिष्ठते परिणतं शिखिविरुतम् ॥]
The fragrance of saptaparna trees is pleasant (being seasonal); the smell of kadamba flowers does not appeal, (being non-seasonal); The cackling of swans is pleasant, while the sound of peacocks is not so, being non-seasonal. - - - -
सेतुबन्धम्-३Poet pays his obeisance to Shiva:णमह अ जस्स फुडरवं कण्ठच्छाआघडन्तणाणग्गिसिहम् ।फुरइ फुरिअट्टहासं उद्धपडित्ततिमिरं विअ दिसाअक्कम् ॥ ५ ॥[नमत च यस्य स्फुटरवं कण्ठच्छायाघटमाननयनाग्निशिखम् ।स्फुरति स्फुरिताट्टहासमूर्धप्रदीप्ततिमिरमिव दिक्चक्रम् ॥]Bow to (Shiva) whose burning eyes associated with the dark luster of the neck appear accompanied by the sound of gyration ( in his gyrations of tandava dance) like the horizon in a dark night brightened due to lightning accompanied by thunder. [ When Shiva gyrates during Tandava dance, gyration creates whirling sound like that of thunder and the lustrous eyes look like the horizon lit by lightning and accompanied by thunder in a dark night. The darkness of Shiva’s neck is compared with The darkness of night.]
Now is a reference to Shiva as ardhanarisvara:वेवइ जस्स सविडिअं बलिउं महइ पुलाआइअत्थणअलसम् ।पेम्मसहावविमुहिअं वीआवासगमणूसुअं वामद्धम् ॥ ६ ॥[वेपते यस्य सव्रीडं वलितुं महति पुलकाचितस्तनकलशम् ।प्रेमस्वभावविमुषितं द्वितीयावकाशगमनोत्सुकं वामार्धम् ॥](Bow to Shiva), whose left half (Parvati), whose breast is covered by horripilation due to shyness and fear, feels deceived of expressing her love (to him) as she tries to reach towards the right side(Shiva) during Shiva’s gyrations. [ As ardha narisvara, left half of Shiva is Parvati herself. When he gyrates the left half leans towards the right half with fear and shyness and feels deceived of expressing her love due to shyness and fear of being seen by others. As a consequence her breast is covered by horripilation. An involved imagery indeed!]
Describes the boisterous laughter of Shiva:अस्स विलग्गन्ति णहं फुडपडिसद्दा दिसाअलपडिक्खलिआ ।जोण्हाकल्लोला विअ ससिधवलासु रअणीसु हसिअच्छेआ ॥ ७ ॥[यस्य विलगन्ति नभः स्फुटप्रतिशब्दा दिक्तलप्रतिस्खलिताः ।ज्योत्स्नाकल्लोला इव शशिधवलासु रजनीषु हसितच्छेदाः ॥](Bow to Shiva) whose punctuated boisterous laughter spreads towards the sky as it gets reflected from the horizon like the waves of moonlight on a bright night lit by the moon.
णट्टारम्भक्खुहिआ जस्स भडब्भन्तमच्छपहअजलरआ ।होन्ति सलिलुद्धुमाइअधूमाअन्तवडवामुहा मअरहरा ॥ ८ ॥ (आइकुलअम्)[नृत्यारम्भक्षुभिता यस्य भयोद्भ्रान्तमत्स्यप्रहतजलरयाः । भवन्ति सलिलोद्ध्मापितधूमायमानवडवामुखा मकरगृहाः ॥](Bow to Shiva), at the start of whose dance oceans get disturbed by the terrified fishes while the fuming submarine fire looks like being excited by blowing.
Speaks of the difficulty of work undertaken:अहिणवराआरद्धा चुक्कक्खलिएषु जिहडिअपरिट्ठविआ ।मेत्ति व्व पमुहरसिआ णिव्वोड्ढुं होइ दुक्करं कव्वकहा ॥ ९ ॥[अभिनवराजारब्धा च्युतस्खलितेषु विघटितपरिस्थापिता ।मैत्रीव प्रमुखरसिका निर्वोढुं भवति दुष्करं काव्यकथा ॥]This story started by the young king (Pravarasena) with its slips and errors appropriately re-connected and corrected and centred on sentiments (rasa) is difficult to be carried on like friendship, associated with the discerning. [ Just as to maintain friendship with a discerning person requires course corrections and is not easy, creating this work needs vigilance to make appropriate corrections. The poet uses subtle श्लेष to reinforce the simile.]
Talks of benefits of good literary work:परिवड्ढइ विण्णाणं संभाविज्जइ जसो विढप्पन्ति गुणा ।सुव्वइ सुउरिसचरिअं किं तं जेण ण हरन्ति कव्वालावा ॥ १० ॥[परिवर्धते विज्ञानं संभाव्यते यशोऽर्ज्यन्ते गुणाः ।श्रूयते सुपुरुषचरितं किं तद्येन न हरन्ति काव्यालापाः ॥]Is there any manner with which narration of a poetical work does not become attractive? It enhances knowledge, it brings fame, it enables acquiring noble qualities and it enables listening to the stories of noble persons.
इच्छाइ व धणरिद्धी जोव्वणलद्ध इव आहिआइअ सिरी ।दुःखं संभाविज्जै बन्धच्छाआइ अहिणवा अत्थगयी ॥ ११ ॥[इच्छयेव धनऋद्धिः यौवनलब्धेवाभिजात्या श्रीः ।दुःखं संभाव्यते बन्धच्छाययाभिनवार्थगतिः ॥ ]
It is with difficulty that well crafted verses get associated with lofty meaning just as gain in wealth get associated with desire for wealth and good heritage with the luster arising out of youth. [ Combination of well crafted verses with lofty meaning is as rare as getting wealth to meet ones desires or having the combination of youth and good heritage.]- - - -
सेतुबन्धम्-२This verse refers to Krishna bringing Parijata tree to please his consort Satyabhama:ओआहिअमहिवेढो जेण परूढगुणमूलतद्धत्थामो ।उम्मूलन्तेण दुमं पारोहो व्व खुडिऒ महेन्दस्स जसो ॥ ४ ॥(अवगाहितमहीवेष्टं येन प्ररूढगुणमूललब्धस्थाम ।उन्मूलयता द्रुमं प्ररोह इव खण्डितं महेन्द्रस्य यशः ॥)(You all bow to) Krishna, by whose action of up rooting the (Parijata) tree (for pleasing Satyabhama), the fame of Indra, which had surrounded the earth and whose stability was obtained by his practicing good qualities, was also torn asunder in the manner the roots of the tree were torn asunder.
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श्रीप्रवरसेनविरचितम्सेतुबन्धम्Setubandham is an epic composed in Maharashtri, one of many Prakrit languages, by King Pravarasena. This epic whose subject matter is the story of Ramayana up to the construction of the bridge to Lanka across the ocean finds a mention in Kavyadarsa of Dandin, in Harshacharita of Bana and in Auchityavicharacharcha of Kshemendra, making it evident that Pravarasena lived earlier to these three renowned authors. There appear to be four kings by the name Pravarasena, the earliest of whom lived in the first century AD and the second one lived in the second century AD. Two of the four find a mention in Rajatarangini of Kalhana. It is not clear who among the four was the author of this epic. Ramadasa Bhupati has written a commentary “Ramasetupradipa” in Sanskrit on this epic. Based on this commentary, which has been published by Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan, Varanasi, I propose to give a prose rendering in English along with Prakrit original and its shadow in Sanskrit as a serial blog. My rendering in English is circumscribed by the Sanskrit commentary as I do not have any knowledge of Maharashtri.
णमह अवड्ढिअतुङ्गं अवसारिअवित्थअं अणोणागहिरम् ।अप्पलहुअपरिसह्णं अणाअपरमत्थपाअडं महुमहणम् ॥ १ ॥[ नमतावर्धिततुङ्गम् अप्रसारितविस्तृतम् अनवनतगभीरम् ।अप्रलघुकपरिश्लक्ष्णम् अज्ञातपरमार्थप्रकटम् मधुमथनम् ॥] All of you bow to Vishnu, who destroyed the demon Madhu, who is tall yet never nurtured, who is broad yet never expanded, who is deep yet was never bent, who is subtle yet large and who is open yet whose real meaning is unknown.
Note: The poet juxtaposes apparently contradictory qualities of Vishnu, whom the poet considers as Brahman. - - - -
भामिनीविलासः-४९विद्वांसो वसुधातले परवचः श्लाघासु वाचंयमाःभूपालाः कमलाविलासमदिरोन्मीलन्मदाघूर्णिताः ।आस्ये धास्यति कस्य लास्यमधुना धन्यस्य कामालस-स्वर्वामाधरमाधुरीमधरयन् वाचां विपाको मम ॥ ४३ ॥अन्वयः : वसुधातले विद्वांसः पर-वचः-श्लाघासु वाचंयमाः; भूपलाः कमला-विलास-मदिरा-उन्मीलत्-मद-आघूर्णिताः; अधुना मम वाचां विपाकः काम-अलस-स्वर्-वामा-अधर-माधुरीम् अधरयन् कस्य धन्यस्य आस्ये लास्यं धास्यति?In this world scholars are tongue-tied when it comes to appreciating others’ literary works. Rulers are tipsy by the intoxicating drink called wealth. Now, in whose mouths will my mature words dance while downgrading the sweetness of the lips of celestial nymphs languid with desire?
धुर्यैरपि माधुर्यैः द्राक्षाक्षीरेक्षुमाक्षिकादीनाम् ।वन्द्यैव माधुरीयं पण्डितराजस्य कवितायाः ॥ ४४ ॥अन्वयः : पण्डितराजस्य कवितायाः इयं माधुरी धुर्यैः द्राक्षा-क्षीर-इक्षु-माक्षिक-आदीनां माधुर्यैः अपि वन्द्या एव ।Even leaders have to pay obeisance to the sweetness of the poetry of the king of scholars (Jagannatha Pandita) which excels the sweetness of grapes, milk, sugarcane, honey etc.
शास्त्राण्याकलितानि नित्यविधयः सर्वेऽपि सम्भावितादिल्लीवल्लभपाणिपल्लवतले नीतं नवीनं वयः ।सम्प्रत्युज्झितवासनं मधुपुरीमध्ये हरिः सेव्यतेसर्वं पण्डितराजराजितिलकेनाकारि लोकाधिकम् ॥ ४५ ॥अन्वयः : शास्त्राणि आकलितानि; सर्वे नित्यविधयः अपि सम्भाविताः; नवं वयः दिल्ली-वल्लभ-पाणि-पल्लव-तले नीतम्; सम्प्रति पण्डितराजतिलकेन मधुपुरीमध्ये हरिः उज्झितवासनं सेव्यते, सर्वं लोकाधिकम् अकारि ।All branches of study were enquired into; all daily duties were properly performed; youth was spent on the sprout-like palms of king of Delhi; now having relinquished worldly pleasures he serves Krishna in Mathura; whatever he did was all extraordinary.
दुर्वृत्ता जारजन्मानो हरिष्यन्तीति शङ्कया ।मदीयपद्यरत्नानां मञ्जूषैषा मया कृता ॥ ४६ ॥अन्वयः : दुर्वृत्ता जारजन्मानः हरिष्यन्ति इति शङ्कया एषा मदीयपद्यरत्नानां मञ्जूषा मया कृता ।Lest bad persons of poor descent steal my poems, I have hereby made a jewel-box of gems of my verses.
इति श्रीमत्पण्डितराजजगन्नाथविरचिते भामिनीविलासे शान्तो नाम चतुर्थो विलासः ॥
समाप्तोऽयं ग्रन्थः Thus ends the fourth section called “peace” in Bhaminivilasa composed by the scholar Jagannatha. THE END. - - - -
भामिनीविलासः-४८भूतिर्नीचगृहेषु विप्रसदने दारिद्र्यकोलाहलःनाशो हन्त सतामसत्पथजुषामायुः समानां शतम् ।दुर्नीतं तव वीक्ष्य कोपदहनज्वालाजटालोऽपि सन्किं कुर्वे जगदीश यत्पुनरहं दीनो भवानी पतिः ॥ ३७ ॥अन्वयः : जगदीश! नीचगृहेषु भूतिः, विप्रसदने दारिद्र्यकोलाहलः, सतां नाशः, असत्पथजुषाम् आयुः समानां शतम्; तव दुर्नीतं वीक्ष्य कोषदहनज्वालाजटालः अपि सन् किम् अहं कुर्वे? यत् पुनः भवानीपतिः दीनः, हन्त ।Lord of the world! There is wealth among lowly born people, poverty pervades the houses of Brahmins, the good people are getting destroyed and those that tread the path of evil live for one hundred years. Looking at your injustice my anger is such that its flames are swirling around me. Even then, what shall I do? Because, after all even Shiva is poor. [That Shiva is poor shows the height of injustice. What can I, a poor poet, do?]
आमूलाद्रत्नसानोः मलयवलयितादा च कूलात् पयोधेःयावन्तः सन्ति काव्यप्रणयनपटवस्ते विशङ्कं वदन्तु ।मृद्वीकामध्यनिर्यन्मसृणरसझरीमाधुरीभाग्यभाजाम्वाचामाचार्यतायाः पदमनुभवितुं कोऽस्ति धन्यो मदन्यः ॥ ३८ ॥अन्वयः : मलयवलयितात् रत्नसानोः आमूलात्, आ पयोधेः कूलात् च यावन्तः काव्य-प्रणयन-पटवः सन्ति ते विशङ्कं वदन्तु । मृद्वीका-मध्य-निर्यत्-मसृण-रस-झरी-माधुरी-भाग्य-भाजां वाचाम् आचार्यतायाः पदम् अनुभवितुं मदन्यः कः धन्यः अस्ति?All those poets competent to compose poetry who live right from the origin of Ratnagiri ranges enveloped by Malaya mountains up to the shores of the ocean speak fearlessly. Who else is the blessed person other than me who can enjoy the position of being the preceptor of composition which exudes the sweetness of the stream of juice dripping from a bunch of grapes? [ While concluding this work the poet displays in a few verses his justified pride in his unquestioned ability to create juicy poetry.]
गिरां देवी वीणागुणरणनहीनादरकरायदीयानां वाचाममृतमयमाचामति रसम् ।वचस्तस्याकर्ण्य श्रवणसुभगं पण्डितपतेःअधुन्वन् मूर्धानं नृपशुरथवायं पशुपतिः ॥ ३९ ॥अन्वयः : गिरां देवी यदीयानां वाचाम् अमृतमयं रसं वीणा-गुण-रणन-हीन-आदर-करा आचामति, तस्य पण्डितपतेः श्रवणसुभगं वचः आकर्ण्य मूर्धानम् अधुन्वन् अयं नृपशुः अथवा पशुपतिः ।He is either an animal in the garb of a human or Shiva himself who does not shake his head (in appreciation) after listening to the mellifluous words of Pandita Jagannatha, whose words the Goddess of learning herself enjoys while her hand stops to pluck the string of the Veena. [ Perhaps Shiva as an ascetic has no taste for music!]
मधु द्राक्षा साक्षादमृतमथ वामाधरसुधाकदाचित् केषांचिन्न खलु विदधीरन्नपि मुदम् ।ध्रुवं ते जीवन्तो ऽप्यहह मृतका मन्दमतयोन येषामानन्दं जनयति जगन्नाथभणितिः ॥ ४० ॥अन्वयः : मधु, द्राक्षा, साक्षात् अमृतम् अथ वामा-अधर-सुधा केषाञ्चित् कदाचित् मुदं न विदधीरन् अपि, येषाम् आनन्दं जगन्नाथभणितिः न जनयति ते मन्दमतयः जीवन्तः अपि मृतका खलु, अहह ।Sometimes for some persons honey, grapes and even ambrosia or the ambrosia of a lady’s lips may not bring joy. But those dull-headed persons are as good as dead for whom Jagannatha’s words do not bring joy.
निर्माणे यदि मार्मिकोऽसि नितरामत्यन्तपाकद्रवन्-मृद्वीकामधुमाधुरीमदपरीहारोद्घुराणां गिराम् ।काव्यं तर्हि सखे सुखेन कथय त्वं संमुखे मादृशाम्नो चेद्दुष्कृतमात्मना कृतमिव स्वान्ताद्बहिर्मा कृथाः ॥ ४१ ॥अन्वयः : सखे! यदि अत्यन्त-पाक-द्रवत्-मृद्वीका-मधु-माधुरी-मद-परीहार-उद्घुराणां गिरां निर्माणे नितरां मार्मिकः असि, तर्हि सुखेन मादृशां सम्मुखे कथय, नो चेत् आत्मना कृतं दुष्कृतम् इव स्वान्तात् बहिः मा कृथाः ।Dear friend! If you are very competent in composing works which have the strength to repel the intoxicating sweetness of ripe grape juice then recite them with ease in presence of persons like me or else, as if you had committed a bad deed, do not expose yourself.
मद्वाणि मा कुरु विषादमनादरेणमात्सर्यमग्नमनसां सहसा खलानाम् ।काव्यारविन्दमकरन्दमधुव्रतानाम्आस्येषु धास्यतितमां कियतो विलासान् ॥ ४२ ॥अन्वयः : मद्वाणि! मात्सर्य-मग्न-मनसां खलानाम् अनादरेण सहसा विषादं मा कुरु ।(भवती) काव्य-अरविन्द-मकरन्द-मधुव्रतानाम् आस्येषु कियतः विलासान् धास्यतितमाम् ।O my speech! Do not grieve suddenly at the disinterestedness of bad persons whose mind is immersed in jealousy. You will provide for many types of appreciation from the mouths of those who act as bees to enjoy the nectar of lotus of literature.
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किं निःशङ्कं शेषे शेषे वयसः समागतो मृत्युः ।अथवा सुखं शयीथा निकटे जागर्ति जाह्नवी जननी ॥ ३१ ॥अन्वयः : किं निश्शङ्कं शेषे? वयसः शेषे मृत्युः समागतः । अथवा सुखं शयीथा । जननी जाह्नवी निकटे जागर्ति ।How is it you are sleeping carefree? Death is nearing at the remaining period of life. Or, you sleep comfortably. Nearby river Ganga is awake. [There is an apocryphal story about this verse. When Jagannatha Pandita was sleeping on the banks of Ganga in his oldage, Appayya Dikshita, an equally well known scholar and poet, but a literary adversary of JagnnathapaNdita happened to see him and uttered this verse. Basically the verse is a tribute to river Ganga who takes care of those who go to her seeking her protection.]
सन्तापयामि किमहं धावंधावं धरातले हृदयम् ।अस्ति मम शिरसि सततं नन्दकुमारः प्रभुः परमः ॥ ३२ ॥अन्वयः : अहं धरातले धावं धावं हृदयं किं सन्तापयामि । परमः प्रभुः नन्दकुमारः मम शिरसि सततम् अस्ति । Why do I trouble my mind wandering all over the world? The ultimate Lord, Krishna, the son of Nanda is present all the time in my mind.
रे रे मनो मनोभवशासनस्य पादाम्बुजद्वयमनारतमानमन्तम् ।किं मां निपातयसि संसृतिगर्तमध्ये नैतावता तव गमिष्यति पुत्रशोकः ॥ ३३ ॥अन्वयः : रे रे मनः! मनोभव-शासनस्य पादाम्बुजद्वयम् अनारतम् आनमन्तं मां संसृति-गर्त-मध्ये किं निपातयसि? एतावता तव पुत्रशोकः न गमिष्यति ।O mind! Why do you make me fall into the vortex of worldly life, when I am continuously bowing to the lotus-like feet of Shiva, who conquered Manmatha, who in turn was the son of Mind. Just by this act, your grief on account of the loss of your son will not go away.[ Manmatha, God of love is considered to have his origin in Mind, which is equivalent to saying that falling in love is essentially a mental act. Shiva burnt Manmatha and thus caused Mind to lose his son! In revenge as it were Mind is pestering the poet who is a devotee of Shiva!]
मरकतमणिमेदिनीधरो वा तरुणतरस्तरुरेष वा तमालः ।रघुपतिमवलोक्य तत्र दूरादृषिनिकरैरिति संशयः प्रपेदे ॥ ३४ ॥अन्वयः : ऋषिनिकरैः रघुपतिम् दूरात् अवलोक्य “एषः मरकत-मणि-मेदिनीधरः वा तरुणतरः तमालः तरुः वा” इति संशयः प्रपेदे ।When the group of sages (in Dandakaranya) saw Rama from a distance, they got a doubt if what they were seeing was a mountain made of emerald or a young Tamala tree. [ Rama is described as dark blue in colour and therefore looks like a mountain of blue emerald or a dark Tamala tree.]
तरणितनया किं स्यादेषा न तोयमयी हि सामरकतमणिज्योत्स्ना वा स्यान्न सा मधुरा कुतः ।इति रघुपतेः कायच्छायाविलोकनतत्परैःउदितकुतुकैः कैः कैरादौ न सन्दिदिहे जनैः ॥ ३५ ॥अन्वयः : “एषा तरणितनया किं स्यात्? न, सा हि तोयमयी; मरकत-मणि-ज्योत्स्ना स्यात् वा? सा न; कुतः? (एषा) मधुरा ;” इति उदितकुतुकैः रघुपतेः काय-छाया-विलोकन-तत्परैः कैः कैः जनैः आदौ न सन्दिदिहे?“Is it Yamuna, the daughter of Sun? No, Yamuna is full of water. Is it the radiance of emerald stone? No, that radiance is not sweet” Who are those persons, who were curiously looking at the radiance of Rama’s form, in whose mind doubts in this manner did not occur? [There are none. In a typically poetic way the poet says that the luster of Yamuna or of emerald fell short of being compared to Rama’s radiance.]
चपला जलदच्युता लता वा तरुमुख्यादिति संशये निमग्नः ।गुरुनिःश्वसितैः कपिर्मनीषी निरणैषीदथ तां वियोगिनीति ॥ ३६ ॥ अन्वयः : “जलदच्युता चपला स्यात्, वा तरुमुख्यात् (च्युता) लता वा” इति संशये निमग्नः कपिः मनीषी (तस्याः) गुरुनिःश्वसितैः तां (सीतां) वियोगिनी इति निरणैषीत् । After doubting if she could be a streak of lightening that has been separated from the cloud or a creeper which has separated from a major tree the monkey (Hanuman), intelligent that he was, concluded based on her heavy breathings that she is indeed the love-lorn Sita .
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